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Full text of "History of Utah, comprising preliminary chapters on the previous history of her founders accounts of early Spanish and American explorations in the Rocky Mountain region, the advent of the Mormon pioneers, the establishment and dissolution of the provisional government of the state of Deseret, and the subsequent creation and development of the territory"

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BANCROFT LffiRARf 



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ISTORY r (JTAR 



IN 



By ORSON F. WHITNEY. 



Volume IV. Biographical. 

.l 



History is philosophy teaching by examples. Herodotus. 



SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH: 

GEORGE Q. CANNON & SONS CO., PUBLISHERS. 

OCTOBER, 1904. 






COPYRIGHT APPLIED FOR 



PREFACE. 

' T the expiration of fourteen years since the inception of the enterprise known as 
WHITNEY'S HISTORY or UTAH, the fourth and final volume now appears. The 
inner history of this period would tell for author and publishers a tale of protracted 
toil, with many interruptions and suspensions, and a final triumph over obstacles and 
discouragements innumerable. But nothing more is desired by them in a prefatory way 
than is contained in the following announcement of the pending issuance of the book, 
taken from the "Deseret News' 1 of February 6, 1904. Said that paper: 

"This volume is in the nature of a gift to paid-up subscribers for the original set of 
three volumes, heretofore issued by the present proprietors and publishers, the George 
Q. Cannon & Sons Company of this city. 

''The announcement of the completion of the great work, begun by Bishop 0. F. 
Whitney, as author, nearly fourteen years ago, will be received with great satisfaction by 
his many friends, the subscribers and the public generally. 

"It was in the Spring of 1890 that the Bishop was engaged to write this History by a 
company organized for the purpose of publishing it, and which employed him at a stated 
monthly salary for the literary part of the work. The undertaking was gigantic. To 
carry it to success required years of hard labor on the part of the author, as well as the 
business heads of the concern; fighting against adverse conditions which were at times 
almost overwhelming; so that it may be imagined with what a sense of relief the Bishop 
lays aside his pen, and the publishers and proprietors also end their labors. 

"Since the inception of the enterprise by Dr. John 0. Williams of Colorado, the 
original owner and manager, the business has changed hands. It was purchased by the 
present proprietors at a time when the whole project was imperiled, and their purchase 
was virtually a rescue of the enterprise. They are now about to make good their pledge 
to the public by the issuance of this gift volume, even though it entails upon them a 
heavy financial sacrifice. 

"The fourth is exclusively a biographical volume, the general narrative embodied in 
the complete work having ended with the third. These biographies, between three hun- 
dred and four hundred in number, life sketches of prominent citizens of all creeds and 
classes, constitute the largest and most valuable collection of the kind ever published in 
this region. They are arranged in such a manner as to afford, so far as possible, a con- 
tinuation of the historical narrative previously published, and which ended with the year 
the writing of the history began 1890. By a convenient division into groups, such as 
pioneers, congressmen, journalists, lawyers, mining men, farmers, artisans, etc., the 
general history, along certain lines, is virtually brought up to date. 

"The major portion of this volume was written several years ago, and was ready for 
the printer, but financial disappointments, encountered by the management, prevented 



PREFACE. 

the publication, and Bishop Whitney, in the interval caused by the unavoidable delay, has 
re-written the whole book and brought it down to the present, thus making it a more 
valuable work than it would otherwise have been. 

"The proprietors as well as the author are to be congratulated upon the successful 
completion of their great and commendable enterprise." 

In conclusion the author desires to express his appreciation of the pleasant relations 
that have always existed between him and the publishers, and to give a word of due 
praise to Mr. Brigham T. Cannon, the present manager, through whose energetic labors, 
loyally backed by his company, the publication has been brought to a successful issue. 
Nothing further need be said, except that the author and the publishers are perfectly 
satisfied with the reception accorded their work. Wherever the History has gone and 
it will be found in the leading libraries of the land it has called forth the highest com- 
mendation and approval. 

"My task is done my song hath ceased my theme 
Has died into an echo; it is fit 
The spell should break of this protracted dream. 
The torch shall be extinguished which hath lit 
My midnight lamp and what is writ, is writ 
Would it were worthier!" 

ORSON FERGUSON WHITNEY. 
Salt Lake City, October, 1904. 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



PIONEER LEADERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATES. 



NAME PAGE 

Brigham Ynung 11 

Heber Chase Kimball 16 

Willard Richards 21 

Orson Pratt 25 

Wilt'ord Woodruff 30 

George Albert Smith 35 

Amasa Mason Lyman 39 

Ezra Taft Benson 42 

Erastus Snow 44 

John Brown 48 

John Pack 50 



NAME PAGE 

Lorenzo Dow Young 53 

Millen Atwood 55 

Jacob Weiler 57 

William Clayton 58 

Aaron Freeman Farr 59 

Truman Osborn Angell 60 

Horace Kimball Whitney 61 

George Woodward 62 

The Three Pioneer Women "> 

Harriet Page Wheeler Young c fiQ 

Clara Decker Young 

Ellen Sanders Kimball 



FIRST IMMIGRANTS. 



Parley Parker Pratt '.... 73 

John Taylor 80 

Charles Coulson Rich 85 

Daniel Spencer 87 

Edward Hunter 91 

Jedediah Morgan Grant 94 

Abraham Owen Smoot 98 

Perrigrine Sessions 102 

Joseph Home : 103 

John Neff 105 

Lorin Farr 106 

Jacob Houtz 108 

Elijah F. Sheets 109 

John Nebeker Ill 



Charles Crismon 112 

Joseph Corrodon Kingsbury 114 

Edward Stevenson 115 

William C. Staines 116 

Nathan Tanner Porter 119 

Simpson Montgomery Molen 121 

David and Susan Fairbanks 124 

John Wesley Turner 125 

Andrew Love 127 

The Woodburys 128 

Orson B. and Susaiin S. Adams 130 

Horace Drake 131 

John Gabbott 131 

William Harker 132 



LEADING COLONIZERS. 



Orson Hyde ^. 137 

Peter Maughan 140 

Anson Call..... 142 

William Wallace Clufi 145 

William Budge 149 



Francis Asbury Hammond 151 

William Miller 153 

Thomas Edwin Ricks 156 

Joseph Parry 157 

William Nicol Fife 162 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



NAME PAGE 

Abram Hatch 165 

Edwin D. Woolley, Jr 168 



NAME PAGE 

George Washington Briinhall 169 

John Crook 170 



EARLY MILITARY MEN. 



Daniel Hanmer Wells 175 

James Ferguson 180 

Robert Taylor Burton 184 

James Brown 187 

Warren Stone Snow 188 

John Riggs Murdock 189 

William Holmes Walker 192 

John I). T. McAllister 197 

Theodore McKean 199 

Hiram Bradley Clawson 201 

William L. N. Allen.. 203 



Myron Tanner 206 

Washington Franklin Anderson 207 

Marcus LaFayette Shepherd 208 

Dimick Baker Huntington 209 

Ira Nathaniel Hinckley 211 

Thomas Barthelemy Cardon 212 

Zacheus Cheney 213 

Luther Terry Tuttle 215 

Robert Pixton 216 

Henry Phinehas Richards 217 

Daniel Henrie 218 



MEN OF AFFAIRS. 



Lorenzo Snow 223 

Joseph Fielding Smith 227 

Newel Kimball Whitney 233 

William Bowker Preston 237 

John Rex Winder 240 

William Jennings 242 

Horace Sunderlin Eldredge 246 

Feramorz Little 250 

Henry Dinwoodey 252 

Nicholas Groesbeck 256 

Thomas George Webber 258 

Francis Marion Lyman 260 

Moses Thatcher 264 

Francis Armstrong 269 

David Harold Peery 270 

George Teasdale 272 

Amos Milton Musser 274 

Alonzo Hazelton Raleigh 277 



Leonard Wilford Hardy 279 

Francis Billiard Dyer .' 281 

Edwin Dilworth Woolley 282 

Andrew Cunningham 285 

Lester James Herrick 286 

Oliver Goddard Snow 288 

Charles Woodmansee 292 

Sidney Stevens 294 

Samuel Stephen Jones 296 

John William Guthrie 298 

William Driver 300 

Samuel Pierce Hoy t.... 303 

Edwin Stratford 304 

Fred Simon 305 

George Dixon Snell 307 

Bernard Herman Schettler 308 

August Wilhelm Carlson 310 

George Montgomery Scott 311 



EDITORS AND EDUCATORS. 



Franklin Dewey Richards 315 

Anthon Henrik Lund. 319 

Orson Spencer 320 

Samuel Whitney Richards 323 

Julian Moses 325 

Mary Jane Dilworth Hammond.. 326 

Karl Gottfried Maeser 327 

John Rocky Park 329 

Charles William Penrose 333 



John Nicholson 336 

Charles Carroll Goodwin 341 

Byron Groo 342 

Joseph Bull 344 

Jesse Williams Fox 347 

David John 348 

Charles John Thomas ' 349 

George Careless 9 351 

John Silvanus Davis 352 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



SAME 



; - ; . 



Thomas Colt Griggs 3o3 

Joseph Marion Tanner .'>o4 

Joseph Thomas Kingbnr\ 355 

James Edward Talmage 357 

Joshua Hughes Paul 360 



- 



.-. II 



Beojamin Clnff, Jr 362 

William Jasper Kerr 364 

Evan Stephens 365 

John Jasper McCJeJian 367 

John David Peters... 368 



FARMERS AND STOCKRAISERS. 



Angus Munn Cannon 373 

Canute Peterson 

John and Amy Bigler 378 

Joseph Smith Tanner 379 

Elmer Taylor 380 

John Stoker 382 

Jacob Peart 383 

Edward Phillips 

William D. Roberta 386 

John Ford 388 

David Henry Caldwell 

George Patten 390 

Charles L. Anderson 392 

Charles Crane -'(93 

John and Mary Spiers 396 

Cnristopher Jones Arthur 398 

John Ellison 398 

George Spilsbury 399 

John Sivel Smith 400 

John Daniel Holladay 401 

John Thornier 402 

Robert McQuarrie 402 

Francis Webster 403 

John Alexander Egbert 404 

Elis Asper 404 

George Perry 405 

William Ward le Taylor 406 

William Huff Carson 407 

Anthony Wayne Bessey 408 

John Enniss 409 

Joseph Henry Joseph 410 



Ralph H. Hunt 410 

James Godfrey 411 

Barnard Hartley Greenwood 413 

John Morrill 414 

Thomas Steed 415 

John Cole 416 

Elias Crane 417 

Peter Grtenhalgh 418 

Christian Anderson 420 

Willson Gates Nowers 421 

Alexander Robertson 4i 

Albert Baley Griffin 

William Whitehead Taylor 424 

Thomas Spackman 42G 

Xewton Tuttle 427 

James Erwen Bromley 428 

John Croft 429 

Cyrus Sanford 430 

John Tickers 431 

William Spicer 431 

James Armstrong 432 

Robert Aldous 433 

Thomas Henry Wilson 433 

Thomas Wheeler 434 

William Bartlett 435 

Rnfus Albern Allen 436 

William Hyrum Griffin 437 

James Fisher 438 

Thomas F. H. Morton 438 

Orin Alonzo Perry 439 

Joseph P. Newman 440 



TRADES AND PROFESSIONS. 



Joseph Young 443 

Levi Richards 445 

Joseph Edward Taylor 448 

Christian Daniel Fjeldsted 450 

JohnMoburn Kay 452 



John Needham 453 

Harvey Harris Cluff 455 

James Moyle 457 

Peter Gillespie 459 

Edward Llojd Parry 459 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



NAME 



PAGE 



NAME 



PAGE 



John Druee 401 

Thomas Fenton 462 

John Paternoster Squires 403 

Daniel and Agnes Stuart '.. 466 

William and Agnes Douglass 468 

Andrew Watson 469 

George Stringfellow 470 

William Jefferies 471 

David Jenkins 472 

John Hughes 473 

Thomas Wilkins Jones 474 

Alexander, Margaret and FannySteele 475 



Thomas Cooper 476 

AbelParker 477 

John P. Wood 477 

John Whitmer Hoover . ( 478 

Isaac K. Wright ' 478 

Joseph William Taylor 479 

Neils Morten Peterson. 480 

Joseph Marriott 4SO 

George Curtis 482 

Amos D. Holdaway 482 

George M. Kerr 483 



MANUFACTURERS AND MINING MEN. 



Elias Morris 487 

Enoch Bartlett Tripp 488 

Philip Pugsley 492 

James F. Woodman 493 

William Wallace Chisholm 494 

Allen G. Campbell 495 

John Beck 496 

Christian August Madsen 498 

David Elias Browning 499 

David Keith 500 

Henry Wallace 502 

Alfred Solomon 503 

Alfred William McCune 505 



John J. Daly 509 

John Judge 510 

Jesse Knight 51 L 

Theodore Bruback 515 

Nephi Willard Clayton 516 

Charles Edwin Loose 518 

Nephi Packard 518 

Thomas Robiuson Cutler 51!) 

Richard D. Millett 520 

John LawBlythe 523 

George Richards Jones 524 

John X. Smith 5'.'.") 

Thomas Howard .. 526 



LAWYERS AND LEGISLATORS. 



Jabez Gridli-y Sutherland 529 

Franklin Snyder Richards 532 

Orlando Wood worth Powers 537 

William Howard Dickson 541 

Charles Stetson Variau 542 

Francis Almond Brown 543 

Hugh Sidley Gowans 546 

Nathaniel Henry Felt...!.. 548 

Lewis Warren Shurtliff 550 



Edwin Gordon Woolley 552 

Adam Spiers ,555 

Charles Comstock Richards 557 

Richard Whitehead Young 560 

James Henry Moyle 5(14 

Clesson Selwyne Kiuney 565 

S. A. Kenner 507 

William Critchlow ,. 568 



WOMEN OF NOTE. 



Eliza Roxy Snow Smith 573 

Zina Huntington Young 576 

Bathsheba Bigler Smith 578 

Jane Snyder Richards 580 

Mary Isabella Home 5S4 

Emmeline B. Woodward Wells 586 



Ruth Mosher Pack 599 

Charilla Abbott Browning 591 

Emily Hill Woodmansee 593 

Hannah Cornaby 595 

Louisa Lula Greene Richards 598 

Romania Bunnell Pratt 600 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



NAME 



PAGE 



NAME 



PAGE 



Ellen Brooke Ferguson C02 

Emily S. Richards 604 

Elizabeth Ann Claridge MeCune 606 



Inez Knight Allen 610 

Lucy Jane Krimhall Knight 613 



OTHER NOTABLES. 



Heber Manning Wells 61!) 

Charles Washington Bennett .. 620 

Alexander Cruickshank Pyper 621 

Edwai'd Lennox Sloan 622 

William Sylvester McCornick 624 

Matthew Henry Walker 626 

Bolivar Roberts 628 

Friedrich Johann Kiesel 62!) 

Thomas Corwin Iliff 633 

Nathan Tanner 635 

Henry Eliot Gibson 638 

John Scowcroft 631) 

Alexander Hamilton Tarbet 640 



Samuel Newhouse (i42 

Frank Knox 643 

Perry S. Heath 644 

Arthur Benjamin Lewis 645 

Henry Gordon Williams 646 

Jeremiah Langford 648 

Frank A. Grant 649 

Ezra Thompson 651 

William Hatfield 652 

Henry L. A. Culmer 652 

George Dunford Alder 654 

L. M. Olson... ,. 655 



UTAH IN CONGRESS. 



George Quayle Cannon ('>.">!) 

John Milton Bernhisel 663 

William Henry Hooper 666 

John Fitch Kinney 668 

John T. Caine 671 

Joseph LaFayette Rawlins 678 



Frank Jenne Cannon 682 

Clarence E. Allen 687 

Brigham Henry Roberts 688 

George Sutherland 694 

Thomas Kearns 695 

Reed Smoot... .. 698 



HISTORIAN AND HISTORY. 
The Author and his Work, by John Nicholson 703 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



NAME PAGE 

Scenes on the San Pedro, Los Angeles, 

and Salt Lake Railroad Frontispiece 

Millen Atwood 54 

Joseph Corrodon Kingsbury 72 

Edward Stevenson 114 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas H. Woodbury. 129 

Mr. and Mrs. Orson B. 'Adams 131 

Horace Drake 133 

William Harker 135 

Francis Asbury Hammond 136 

William D. Hendricks 141 

William Holmes Walker 174 

Warren Stone Snow 189 

Luther Terry Tuttle 214 

Daniel Henrie 219 

Sidney Stevens 222 

C. C. Skorup 269 

H. W. Maw 277 

William Newton 299 

James Smith 305 

James Edward Talmage 314 

Charles John Thomas 348 

John Silvanus Davis 353 

Angus Munn Cannon 372 

Daniel Wood 375 

Jacob and Amy Bigler 379 

Elmer Taylor 381 

Jacob Peart 382 

Edward Phillips 384 

William D.Roberts 387 

George Patten 391 

Christopher Jones Arthur 393 

John SivelSmith 397 

John Daniel Holladay 399 

John Thornley 401 

Francis Webster 402 

John Alexander Egbert 405 

Elias Asper.... 406 

George Perry 407 

William Wardle Taylor... 409 



NAME PAGE 

William Huff Carson 411 

Barnard Hartley Greenwood 412 

John Morrill 415 

Thomas Steed 417 

John Cole 419 

Peter Greenhalgh 421 

Christian Anderson 421 

Albert Baley Griffin 422 

William Whitehead Taylor ' 425 

Thomas Spackman 425 

James Erwen Bromley 427 

John Croft 428 

John Vickers 429 

James Armstrong 431 

Robert Aldous 432 

Thomas Henry Wilson 433 

Thomas Wheeler 435 

Rufus Albern Allen 435 

William Hyrum Griffin 436 

James Fisher 437 

Orin Alonzo Perry 438 

Joseph P. Newman 441 

Christian Daniel Fjeldsted 442 

Isaac Hunter 447 

Edward Lloyd Parry 458 

Andrew Watsou 468 

David Jenkins 471 

Thomas Wilkins Jones 473 

Alexander, Margaret and Fanny Steel. 475 

Thomas Cooper 476 

Abel Parker 477 

John P. Wood 478 

Joseph William Taylor 479 

Joseph Marriott 481 

George Curtis 483 

George M. Kerr 485 

Mr. and Mrs. David Keith 486 

John Beck 497 

Christian August Madsen 499 

Alfred William McCune... . 504 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



NAME PAGE 

John Judge 511 

Theodore Bruback 514 

Charles Edwin Loose 517 

Nephi Packard 519 

Richard D. Millet 521 

William Jex 525 

Charles Washington Bennett 528 

James Henry Moyle 565 

Clesson Selwyne Kinney 567 

William Critchlow 569 

Priscilla Paul Jennings 572 

Ruth Mosher Pack 591 

Emily Hill Woodmansee 595 

Hannah Cornaby 597 

Elizabeth Claridge McCune 607 

Inez Knight Allen 611 

Lucy Jane Brimhall Knight 612 

William Sylvester McCornick 618 

Matthew Henry Walker 627 

Bolivar Roberts 628 

Friedrich Johann Kiesel.... .. 629 



NAME PAGE 

Nathan Tanner 631 

Henry Eliot Gibson 633 

John Scowcroft 635 

Business house of John Scowcroft & 

Sons Company 637 

Alexander Hamilton Tarbet 039 

Samuel Newhouse 641 

Frank Knox 643 

Perry S. Heath 644 

Arthur Benjamin Lewis 645 

Mines of the Utah Fuel Company 647 

Jeremiah Langford 649 

Ezra Thompson 650 

William Hatfleld 653 

George Dunford Alder 655 

L. M. Olson 657 

JohnT. Caine 658 

William H. King. 665 

George Sutherland 693 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Kearns 694 

Reed Smoot... ,. 699 




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PIONEER LEADERS 

AND THEIR ASSOCIATES. 



BRIGHAM YOUNG. 

^lETUALLY the history of Brigham Youngihas been told in the preceding volumes; 
his great life forming the back-bone of the general narrative therein contained. 
The founder of Utah, he "was for a period of thirty years the most conspicuous and 
most consequential personage within her borders and throughout the vast region 
lying between the Missouri river and the Pacific coast. Preeminently America's pioneer 
and colonizer, a statesman, a financier, an organizer of industry and a born leader of men, 
he was undoubtedly one of the greatest that any age or country has produced. 

Brigham Young was a native American, a descendant of the pilgrims and patriots, 
and first saw light in the little town of Whitingham, Windham county, Vermont, June 
1st, 1801. His grandfather, Joseph Young, was a surgeon in the Anglo-American army 
during the French and Indian war, and his father, John Young, a Revolutionary soldier, 
serving under the immediate command of Washington. His mother's maiden name was 
Nabbie Howe. He was one of ten children, and the youngest but one of five brothers, 
named in their order as follows: John, Joseph, Phineas, Brigham and Lorenzo. His 
sisters were Nancy, Fanny, Rhoda, Susan and Nabbie. The first four married and became 
respectively Mrs. Kent, Mrs. Murray, Mrs. John P. Greene, and Mrs. James Little. 
Nabbie died in her girlhood. In religion, the family were Methodists. Brigham's early 
avocations were those of carpenter and joiner, painter and glazier. 

At Aurelius, Cayuga county, New York, on the 8th of October, 1824, he married 
Miriam Works, who bore to him two children, both daughters, who became Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Ellsworth and Mrs. Vilate Decker. He lived at Aurelius for about twelve years, 
and then moved to Mendon, Monroe county, New York, where his father dwelt. 

It was at this time that he first saw the Book of Mormon, a copy of which had been 
left at the house of his brother Phineas, in the neighboring town of Victor, by Samuel 
H. Smith, a brother to Joseph Smith, the Prophet. Deeply impressed with the prin- 
ciples of Mormonism, he, in company with Phineas and his friend Heber C. Kimball, 
visited a branch of the Church at Columbia, Bradford county, Pennsylvania, from which* 
State had previously come several Mormon Elders, preaching the doctrines of their faith 
in and around Mendon. Subsequently proceeding to Canada, where his brother Joseph 
was laboring in the Methodist ministry, Brigham presented to him the claims of Mor- 
monism. He then returned with him to Mendon, where they both joined the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

Brigham Young was baptized on the 14th of April, 1832, by Elder Eleazer Miller, 
who confirmed him at the water's edge and ordained him an Elder the same evening. 
About three weeks later his wife Miriam was baptized. She died in the following Sep- 
tember, and he, with his two little daughters, then made his home at Heber C. Kim- 
ball's. 

His first meeting with the founder of Mormonism was in the fall of the same year, 
when he visited Kirtland, Ohio, the headquarters of the Latter-day Saints. Joseph 
Smith, it is said, prophesied on that occasion that Brigham Young would yet preside 
over the Church. A year later he removed to Kirtland, where, in February, 1834, he 
married Mary Ann Angell, who became the mother of six children, three of whom 
survive. 

Brigham Young was chosen one of the Twelve Apostles the council or quorum 
second in authority in the Mormon Church February 14, 1835, and forthwith he entered 
upon his eventful and wonderfully successful career. With his quorum he traversed the 
Eastern States and Canada, making proselytes to the faith and gathering funds for the 
completion of the Kirtland Temple and the purchase of lands in Missouri, where Mormon 
colonies from Ohio and the East were settling. When disaffection arose and persecution 
threatened the existence of the Church and the lives of its leaders, he stood staunchly 
by the Prophet, defending him at his own imminent peril. Finally the opposition became 
so fierce, that he as well as the Prophet was compelled to flee from Kirtland. 



12 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

He next appears at Far West, Missouri, the new gathering place of the Safnts, 
where, after the apostasy of Thomas B. Marsh and the death of David W. Patten, (his 
seniors among the Apostles,) he succeeded to the Presidency of the Twelve. This was 
in the very midst of the mob troubles that culminated in the expulsion of the Mormon 
community from that State. In the absence of the First Presidency, composed of the 
Prophet, his brother Hyrum Smith, and Sidney Bigdon, who had been thrown into 
prison, President Young, though not then in Missouri, directed the winter exodus of his 
people, and the homeless and plundered refugees twelve to fifteen thousand in number 
fleeing through frost and snow by the light of their burning dwellings, were safely 
landed upon the hospitable shores of Illinois. 

His next notable achievement was in connection with the spread of Mormonism in 
foreign lands. As early as July, 1838, he and his fallow Apostles had been directed by 
the Prophet to take a mission to Europe, and "the word of the Lord" was pledged that 
they should depart on a certain day from the Temple lot in Far West. This was before 
the mob troubles arose, before the Mormons had been driven, and before there was any 
prospect that they would be. But all was now changed, the expulsion was an accom- 
plished fact, and it was almost as much as a Mormon's life was worth to be seen in 
Missouri. The day set for the departure of the Apostles from Far West (April 26, 1839) 
was approaching, but they were far away, and apostates and mobocrats were boasting 
that the revelation pertaining to that departure would fail. Before daybreak, however, 
on the morning of the day appointed, Brigham Young and others of the Twelve rode 
into the town, held a meeting on the Temple lot, and started thence upon their mission, 
their enemies meanwhile wrapped in slumber, oblivious of what was taking place. 
Delayed by the founding of their new city, Nauvoo, in Hancock county, Illinois, and 
by an epidemic of fever and ague that swept over that newly settled section, they did not 
cross the Atlantic until about a year later, and even then this indomitable man and his 
no less indomitable associates arose from sick beds, leaving their families ailing and 
almost destitute, to begin their journey. 

Landing at Liverpool penniless and among strangers, April 6, 1840 Mormonism's 
tenth anniversary they remained in Great Britain a little over a year, during which 
time they baptized between seven and eight thousand souls and raised up branches of 
the Church in almost every noted city and town throughout the United Kingdom. 
They established the periodical known as "The Millennial Star," published five thousand 
copies of the Book of Mormon, three thousand hymn books and fifty thousand tracts, 
emigrated a thousand souls to Nauvoo, and founded a permanent shipping agency 
for the use of future emigration. The British Mission had previously been opened, but 
its foundations were now laid broad and deep. The first foreign mission of the Mormon 
Church, it still remains the most important proselyting field for the energetic Elders of 
this organization. 

Brigham Young, soon after his return from abroad, was taught by the Prophet the 
principle of celestial or plural marriage, which he practiced as did others while at Nauvoo. 
He married among other women, several of the Prophet's widows. It was not until after 
the settlement of Utah, however, that "polygamy'' was proclaimed. 

Brigham Young was in the Eastern States, when Joseph and Hyrum Smith were 
murdereU in Carthage jail, June 27, 1844. The business which had taken him and most 
of the Apostles from home was an electioneering mission in the interests of the Prophet, 
who was a candidate for the Presidency of the United States. As soon as they heard the 
awful tidings of the assassination, they hurried back to Nauvoo. 

Their return was timely. The Saints, grief-stricken at the loss of their leaders, 
needed the presence of the Apostles, but not merely as a means of consolation. Factions 
were forming and a schism threatened the Church. Sidney Rigdon, who had been the 
Prophet's first counselor in the First Presidency, was urging with all his eloquence for 
he was an eloquent and a learned man his claim to the leadership, contending that he 
was Joseph's rightful successor; notwithstanding that for some time he had absented 
himself from Nauvoo and the society of the Saints, manifesting a disposition to 
shirk the trials patiently borne by his much suffering associates. Brigham Young, with 
little learning and less eloquence, but speaking straight to the point, maintained the right 
of the Twelve Apostles to lead the Church in the absence of the First Presidency, basing 
his claim upon the teachings of the martyred Seer, who had declared: "Where lam 
not, there is no First Presidency over the Twelve." He had also repeatedly affirmed that 
he had rolled the burden of "the kingdom" from his own shoulders upon those 
of the Twelve. 

The great majority of the people sustained PresidentiYoung, and followed him in the 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 13 

exodus from Illinois, leaving Elder Rigdon and other claimants at the head of various 
small factions which have made no special mark in history- Brigham, by virtue of his 
position in the Quorum of the Twelve, was now virtually President of the Church, 
though he did not take that title until nearly two years later, when the First Presidency 
was again organized. The exodus began in February 1846. 

Expelled from Nauvoo across the frozen Mississippi, armed mobs behind them, and 
a savage wilderness before, the homeless pilgrims, with their ox-teams and heavily 
loaded wagons, halted in their westward flight upon the Missouri river, where, in the 
summer of the same year they filled a government requisition for five hundred men to serve 
the United States in its war against Mexico. Thus originated the famous Mormon Bat- 
talion, whose story is told m another place. 

President Young and his associates, after raising the Battalion and witnessing its 
departure for the West, set about preparing for the journey of the Pioneers to the Rocky 
Mountains. This company, including himself, numbered one hundred and forty-three 
men, three women and two children, meagerly supplied with wagons, provisions, fire- 
arms, plows, seed-grain and the usual camp equipment. Leaving the main body of their 
people upon the Missouri, with instructions to follow later, the Pioneers started from 
Winter Quarters (now Florence, Nebraska), early in April, 1847. Traversing the track- 
less plains and snow-capped mountains, they penetrated to the very heart of the "Great 
American Desert," where they founded Salt Lake City, the parent of hundreds of 
cities, towns and villages that have since sprung into existence as Brigham Young's 
and Mormonism's gift to civilization. The date of their arrival in Salt Lake Valley was 
July 24th, a day thenceforth "set among the high tides of the calendar." 

Flinging to the breeze the stars and stripes, these Mormon colonizers took possession 
of the country, which then belonged to Mexico, as in the name of the United States, and 
after the treaty of Q-uadalupe Hidalgo, by which, in February, 1848, the land was ceded 
to this nation, they organized, pending the action of Congress upon their petition for a 
State government, the Provisional State of Deseret, of which Brigham Young was electee! 
Governor, March 12, 1849. They thoroughly explored the surrounding region, placated or 
subdued the savage tribes (President Young's policy was to feed the Indians rather than 
fight them) battled with crickets, grasshoppers and drouth, instituted irrigation, redeemed 
arid lands, built cities, established newspapers, founded schools and factories, and made 
the whole land hum with the whirring wheels of industry. They were emphatically what 
they styled themselves, "the busy bees of the hive of Deseret." 

There was but one branch of industry that they did not encourage. It was mining. 
In the midst of one of the richest metal-bearing regions in the world, their leader dis- 
countenanced mining, advising his people to devote themselves primarily to agriculture. 
"We cannot eat gold and silver," said Brigham Young, "We need bread and clothing 
first. Neither do we want to bring in here a roving, reckless frontier population to drive 
us again from our hard-earned homes. Let mining go for the present, until we are 
strong enough to take care of ourselves, and meantime let us devote our energies to 
farming, stock-raising, manufacturing, etc., those health-giving pursuits that lie at 
the basis of every State's prosperity." Such, if not his precise language, was the sub- 
stance of his teachings upon this point. It was the premature opening of the mines, 
not mining itself, that he opposed. 

Congress denied Deseret's prayer for Statehood, but on the 9th of September, 1850, 
organized the Territory of Utah, of which Brigham Young became Governor, by appoint- 
ment of President Millard Fillmore, after whom the grateful Mormons named the County 
of Millard and City of Fillmore, originally the capital of the Territory. Governor Young 
served two terms, and was succeeded in 1858 by Governor Alfred Gumming, a native of 
Georgia, Utah's first non-Mormon Executive. 

Just prior to Governor Cumming's installation occurred the exciting but bloodless 
conflict known as "The Echo Canyon War," but officially styled "The Utah Expedition.' 1 
It was the heroic crisis of Brigham Young's life, when, on the 15th of September, 1857, 
he, as Governor of Utah, proclaimed the Territory under martial law, and forbade the 
United States army then on our borders (ordered here by President Buchanan to sup- 
press an imaginary Mormon uprising) to cross the confines of the commonwealth. His 
purpose was not to defy the national authorities, but to hold in check Johnston's troops 
(thus preventing a possible repetition of the anti-Mormon atrocities of Missouri and 
Illinois) until the Government which had been misled by false reports could investi- 
gate the situation and become convinced of its error. Governor Young, backed by the 
Utah militia, fully accomplished his design and the affair was amicably settled. 

Though no longer Governor of Utah, Brigham Young remained President of the 



14 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Mormon Church, and as such was the real power in the land. Under his wise and vigor- 
ous administration the country was built up rapidly. The settlements founded by him 
and his people on the shores of the Great Salt Lake formed a nucleus for western civiliza- 
tion, greatly facilitating the colonization of the vast arid plateau known as the Great 
Basin. Idaho, Montana, the Dakotas, Colorado, Wyoming, Nevada (once a part of Utah) , 
Arizona and New Mexico, owe much in this connection to Utah and her founders. 

It was presumed by many that the opening of the great conflict between the Northern 
and the Southern States, would find Brigham Young and his people arrayed on the side 
of secession and in arms against the Federal government. What was the surprise, there- 
fore, when, on the 18th of October, 1861, at the very threshold of the strife, with the tide 
of victory running in favor of .the Confederacy, there flashed eastward over the wires of 
the Overland Telegraph line, just completed to Salt Lake City, the following message 
signed by Brigham Young: "Utah has not seceded, but is firm for the Constitution and 
laws of our once happy country." At this time also the Mormon leader offered to the 
head of the nation the services of a picked body of men to protect the mail route on the 
plains, an offer graciously accepted by President Lincoln. Early in 1862, Utah applied 
for admission into the Union. 

The prevailing prejudice, however, was too dense.to be at once dispelled. Hence, 
notwithstanding these evidences of loyalty, springing not from policy but from true patri- 
otism, a body of Government troops the California and Nevada volunteers, commanded 
by Colonel Patrick E. Connor were ordered to Utah and assigned the task of "watching 
Brigham Young and the Mormons," during this period of national peril. The insult im- 
plied by the presence of the troops who founded Fort Douglas on the bench east of Salt 
Lake City was keenly felt, and considerable friction arose, though no actual collision 
occurred between the soldiers and the civilians in general. Gradually the acerbities wore 
away and friendly feelings took their place. In after years, when President Young was 
summoned to be tried before Chief Justice McKean, who should offer to become one of 
his bondsmen but General Patrick Edward Connor, ex-commandant at the Fort, who was 
then engaged extensively in mining, of which industry he was Utah's pioneer. 

It was twenty-two years after the settlement of Salt Lake Valley when the shriek of 
the locomotive broke the stillness of the mountain solitudes, and the peaceful settlements 
of the Saints were thrown open to the encroachments of modern civilization. A new era 
then dawned upon Deseret. Her days of isolation were ended. Population increased, 
commerce expanded and a thousand and one improvements were planned and exploited. 
Telegraphs and railroads threw a net-work of steel and electricity over a region formerly 
traversed by the slow-going ox-team and lumbering stage coach. The mines, previously 
opened, were developed, property of all kinds increased in value, and industry on every 
hand felt the thrill of an electric reawakening. Tourists from East and West began 
flocking to the Mormon country, to see for themselves the "peculiar people" and their 
institutions, trusting no more to the wild tales told by sensational tradueers. 

In the midst of it all, Brigham Young remained the master mind and leading spirit of 
the time. He had predicted the transcontinental railroad and marked out its path while 
crossing the plains and mountains in 1847, and now, when it was extending across Utah, 
he became a contractor, helping to build the Union Pacific grade through Echo and 
Weber canyons. Two and a half years earlier he had established the Deseret Telegraph 
line, a local enterprise constructed entirely by Mormon capital and labor under his direc- 
tion. In the early "seventies" he with others built the Utah Central and Utah Southern 
railroads, the pioneer lines of the Territory, and of the first-named road he was, for many 
years the President. 

But while in sympathy with such enterprises and anxious to forward them, he was 
not to be caught napping by the changes that he knew would follow. Just before the 
coming of the railroad he organized Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution, a mam- 
moth concern designed to consolidate the commercial interests of his people. In this and 
in other ways he successfully met the vigorous and in many respects unfriendly competi- 
tion that surged in from outside sources. 

With the increase of the Gentile population came the formation of rival political par- 
ties, the first that Utah had known. Non-Mormon churches and newspapers also multi- 
plied, reHgious and political agitators made the air sulphurous with their imprecations 
against the dominant power," and Congress at regular intervals was asked to extermi- 
nate the remaining "twin relic of barbarism." Still, Mormonism, personified in Brigham 
Young, continued to hold its own. 

Under the anti-polygamy statute enacted by Congress in July, 1862, but one attempt 
was made to prosecute the Mormon leader. This was in March, 1863, when a plot 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 15 

was said to be forming to arrest him by military force and run him off to the States for 
trial. He forestalled the success of the scheme if such a scheme existed by surrender- 
ing to the United States Marshal and going before Chief Justice Kinney in chambers, where 
he was examined and held to bail, but subsequently discharged, there not being sufficient 
evidence to justify an indictment. The charge in this case was that of marrying a plural 
wife, the only act made punishable by the law of 1862, which was silent as to the main- 
tenance of polygamous relations. Thenceforth that law remained a dead letter, no at- 
tempt being made to enforce it, the Mormons regarding it as unconstitutional, as it 
trenched upon a principle of their religion, and many non-Mormons, including noted 
editors, jurists and statesmen, sharing the same view. In 1874 a test-case was instituted, 
under President Young's sanction, to secure a decision from the Supreme Court of the 
United States, but that decision, sustaining the law's constitutionality, was not rendered 
until eighteen months after his death. 

But while measurably safe from prosecution under the anti-polygamy act, the Mormon 
leader and his compeers were not free from judicial harassments. In the fall of 1871 
President Young and others were prosecuted before Chief Justice McKean under a local 
law enacted by the Mormons themselves against the social evil, adultery and other sexual 
sins, and never intended to apply to polygamy or association with plural wives, which was the 
head and front of their offending. These prosecutions, with others, were stopped by the 
Englebrecht decision of April, 1872, in which the court of last resort held that the 
grand jury which had found the indictments was illegal. 

A few years later Judge McKean had the Mormon leader again in the toils. Under his 
fostering care had arisen the case of Ann Eliza Young vs. Brigham Young, in which the 
plaintiff, one of the defendant's plural wives, sued him for divorce and alimony. The 
Judge in his zeal went so far as to give Ann Eliza the status of a legal wife, deciding 
against all law and logic that the defendant should pay her alimony pendente lite, to the 
amount of nearly ten thousand dollars. Failing to promptly comply with this demand 
which set the whole country in a roar the venerable founder of Utah was imprisoned by 
order of court in the Utah penitentiary. Sentence was passed upon him March 11, 1875 
the term of imprisonment being twenty-four hours and just one week later the storm 
of censure resulting from this act culminated in McKean's removal from office. 

In the autumn of the same year President Grant visited Utah, the first Executive of 
the Nation to set foot within the Territory. The most interesting incident of his visit 
was a cordial interview between him and President Young, who with a party welcomed 
the Chief Magistrate at Ogden and rode in the same train with him and his suite to Salt 
Lake City. This was the first and only time that Brigham Young met a President of the 
United States. 

The closing labors of President Young's life, following a vigorous and partly suc- 
cessful effort to re-establish the "United Order," (a communal system introduced by the 
Prophet Joseph Smith) comprised the dedication in January and April, 1877, of the St. 
George Temple the first Temple erected by the Saints since leaving Nauvoo; also a reor- 
ganization of the Stakes of Zion, beginning with St. George Stake on April 7th, and 
ending with Box Elder Stake on August 19th of that year. To effect the latter organiza- 
tion, he made his final trip beyond the limits of Salt Lake City. 

President Young died at his residence, the historic Lion House, August 29, 1877. 
He left an estate valued at two and a half million dollars, most of which was divided 
among the members of his family. These were numerous, but their number, for sensa- 
tional effect, has been grossly exaggerated. His children at his death numbered about 
forty. Six of his widows survive. The majority of his families dwelt in the Lion and 
Bee-hive houses, where each wife with her children had separate apartments, and where, 
contrary to facetious report, all dwelt together in amity. The Gardo House, a handsome 
and stately modern mansion, surnamed by non-Mormons the "Amelia Palace," and 
pointed out to tourists as the "home of the favorite wife," was in reality the President's 
official residence, erected mainly for the entertainment of distinguished visitors. 

The best known of President Young's sons are Brigham Young, President of the 
Twelve Apostles; Hon. Joseph A. Young, deceased; John W. Young, once a member of 
the First Presidency, [now a noted business man, and Colonel Willard Young, of the 
United States Army, who commanded a regiment of Volunteer Engineers during the war 
with Spain. Among the President's grand-sons is Major Richard W. Young (like his 
Uncle Willard a graduate of West Point) who recently won laurels in the Philippines. 
He commanded the Utah Light Artillery at the capture of Manila, and was subsequently 
one of the judges of the supreme court at that place. Another grandson, Brigham S. 
Young, is a member of the Salt Lake City Board of Education; another is John Willard 



16 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Clawson, the painter; and still another, George W. Thatcher, Jr., musician. Elder Sey- 
mour B Young, of the First Council of Seventy; Judge LeGrande Young; Brigham 
Bicknell Young, vocalist; Dr. Harry A. Young, killed in the Philippines, and Private 
Joseph Young, who died in the same cause, are among the President's nephews. Cor- 
poral John Young, slain in battle near Manila, was his grand-nephew. Two of Presi- 
dent Young's daughters have been mentioned. In addition might be named, Mrs. Luna 
Thatcher, Mrs. Emily Clawson, Mrs. Caroline Cannon, Mrs. Zina Card, Mrs. Maria 
Dougall, Mrs. Phebe Beatie, Mrs. Dora Hagan, Mrs. Eva Davis, Mrs. Nettie Easton, Mrs. 
Louisa Ferguson, Mrs. Susa Gates, Mrs. Mira Eossiter, Mrs. Clarissa Spencer, Mrs. 
Miriam Hardy, Mrs. Josephine Young, Mrs. Fannie Clayton and others. The most noted 
grand-daughter is Emma Lucy Gates, the singer. 

Brigham Young, like Joseph Smith, was a warm friend of education. Among the 
monuments left to perpetuate his memory are two noble institutions of learning, namely, 
the Brigham Young Academy and the Brigham Young College, the former atProvo, fifty 
miles south, and the latter at Logan, one hundred miles north of Utah's capital. He also 
projected the Young University at Salt Lake City, but died before perfecting his plans 
concerning it. Believing that man, in order to be fully educated, must be developed 
mentally, physically, morally and spiritually, he provided that religion and manual train- 
ing should be included in the curricula of the institutions he founded. In the trust deed 
endowing the Brigham Young College with ten thousand acres of land (worth now about 
$200,000) it was prescribed that no text book should be used which misrepresented or 
spoke lightly of the divine mission of our Savior or of the Prophet Joseph Smith." The 
founding of these institutions was not the sum of President Young's labors in the cause 
of education. The entire school system of the State, crowned with the University of 
Utah, is largely the result of his zealous efforts in this direction. 

Among the President's many talents was a genius for architecture, some of the evi- 
dences of which are the St. George, Logan, Manti and Salt Lake Temples, and the Salt 
Lake Tabernacle. As early as 1862 he built the Salt Lake Theatre, at the time of its 
erection the finest temple of the drama between St. Louis and San Francisco. The 
Brigham Young Memorial Building, one of a group of structures belonging to the Latter- 
day Saints University, founded by the Church at Salt Lake City, was erected with 
means raised from the sale of lands whereon he proposed placing the Young Univer- 
sity; said lands being donated by his surviving heirs for that purpose. 

A mere sketch, this, of the life and character of Utah's illustrious founder. You 
who would peruse him more fully, pore over the annals of Mormonism during its first 
half century; you who would witness his works, look around you they are manifest on 
every hand. He was not only a Moses, who led his people into a wilderness, but a Joshua 
who established them in a promised land and divided to them their inheritances. He was 
the beating heart, the thinking brain, the directing hand in all the wondrous work of 
Utah's development, and to a great extent the development of the surrounding States and 
Territories, transformed by the touch of industry from a desert of sage-brush and sand, 
into an Eden of fertility, a veritable "Garden of the Lord,'' redolent of fruits and blos- 
soming with flowers. Brigham Young needs no monument of marble or bronze. His 
record is imperishably written upon the minds and hearts of many tens of thousands to 
whom he was a benefactor and friend. His name and fame are forever enshrined in the 
temple of history, in the Pantheon of memory, in the Westminister Abbey of the soul. 



HEBER CHASE K1MBALL. 

(J>OR more than two decades after the settlement of Salt Lake Valley, the right-hand 
TV- man of Brigbam Young one with him in all things pertaining to the upbuilding of 
this intermountain empire was his life-long friend and associate, Heber C. Kim- 
ball; rightly numbered among the greatest and foremost of Utah's founders. One 
of the original Twelve Apostles of the Latter-day Church, and the father of its first and 
still most important foreign mission, he was a prominent actor as long as he lived in 
most of the leading events of its strange and stirring history. A tried and trusted friend 
of the Prophet Joseph Smith, he was equally true and steadfast to his successor, whose 
first counselor he was, in the Presidency of the Church, from the pioneer year 1847 up to 
the day of his death in 1868. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 17 

Respecting the personality of this remarkable man, the writer of this memoir has 
said elsewhere: "Tall and powerful of frame, with piercing black eyes that seemed to 
read one through, and before whose searching gaze the guilty could not choose but 
quail, he moved with a stateliness and majesty all his own, as far removed from 
haughtiness and vain pride, as he from the sphere of the upstart who mistakes scorn for 
dignity and an overbearing manner as an evidence of gentle blood. Heber C- Kimball 
was a humble man, and in his humility, no less than his kingly stature, consisted his 
dignity, and no small share of his greatness. It was his intelligence, earnestness, sim- 
plicity, sublime faith and unwavering integrity to principle that made him great, not the 
apparel he wore, nor the mortal clay in which his spirit was clothed, Nevertheless, na- 
ture had given him a noble presence in the flesh, worthy the god-like stature of his 

"He was a singular compound, in his nature, of courage and timidity, of weakness and 
strength; uniting a penchant for mirth with a proneness to melancholy, and blending the 
lion-like qualities of a leader among men, with the bashfulness and lamb-like simplicity 
of a child. He was not a coward ; a braver man probably never lived than ^ Heber C. 
Kimball. His courage, however, was not of that questionable kind which "knows no 
fear;" rather was it of that superior order, that Christ-like bravery, which feels danger 
and yet dares to face it. He had all the sensitiveness of the poet for he was both a 
poet and a prophet from his mother's womb and inherited by birthright the power to 
feel pleasure or suffer pain in all its exquisiteness and intensity." 

In speaking of Heber C. Kimball as a poet, it is not meant that he was a writer of 
rhymes; he probably never made a verse in all his life; but he possessed a poetic soul, 
was a thinker of great thoughts, saw into the heart of things, and recognized the poetic 
symbolism everywhere pervading the universe. His sermons and sayings abound in 
similes, metaphors and comparisons, which came from him as naturally as sparks from a 
flaming forge. That he was a prophet, thousands who knew him still testify. Mormon 
history is interspersed with allusions to his prophetic gift and with incidents and illustra- 
tions of its exercise. It is conceded that with the single exception of Joseph Smith, the 
founder of the faith, no Latter-day Saint has ever possessed this power to a greater de- 
gree than Heber C. Kimball. 

He was an original, even an eccentric character, but withal magnetic and wonderfully 
interesting. He could be as stern as fate, as severe as justice, and his tongue was as a 
whip to evil-doers; yet he had a large and benevolent heart, was a natural philanthropist, 
a friend to the poor, the oppressed and the unfortunate. While like the roused ocean in his 
righteous wrath, he was ever a peace-loving man, wielding a marvelous influence over 
the passions and feelings of his fellows. Because of this gift, the Prophet Joseph sur- 
named him "the peace-maker." Of great force and energy, of mighty faith and invinc- 
ible will, in the presence of rightful authority which he always recognized he was as 
obedient and submissive as a child. 

The Kimballs have long supposed themselves to be of Scotch descent, springing from 
the ancient clan of Campbell a supposition entertained by the illustrious head of the family 
during the whole of his life. Recent genealogical research, however, has proved them to 
be of English origin, their earliest American ancestor being Richard Kemball, a Puritan, 
who emigrated from Ipswich, Suffolk, England, in April, 1634, amidst the revolutionary 
agitation resulting in the execution of King Charles the First and the elevation of Crom- 
well to the Protectorate. Richard Kemball (whose family name was afterwards rendered 
Kimball) settled at Watertown, Massachusetts, from which place his descendants spread 
out over New England and the West. 

Heber C. Kimball's birthplace was Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont; the date of 
his birth, June 14, 1801. He was the fourth child and second son in a family of 
seven. His father, Solomon Farnham Kimball, was born in Massachusetts, and his 
mother, whose maiden name was Anna Spaulding, was a native of Plainfield, New 
Hampshire. Heber derived his middle name from a Judge Chase, by whom his father was 
reared from a boy. In February, 1811, the Kimballs moved from Vermont and settled at 
West Bloomfleld, Ontario County, New York, where Heber, at the age of fourteen, having 
quit school, was put to*work in his father's blacksmith shop. At nineteen, his father 
having met with business reverses and lost his property, he was thrown entirely upon his 
own resources. Owingto his peculiar sensitiveness and extreme diffidence, he suffered much 
in his lonely hours and friendless situation. He relates that he often went two or three 
days without food, "being bashful and not daring to ask for it." His brother Charles, 
hearing of his condition, sent for him and offered to teach him the potter's trade; an offer 
that was gladly accepted. His masterful treatment in after years of his favorite text, 



18 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

"The clay in the hands of the potter," doubtless owed something to his early intimacy 
with that trade, as well as to the lightning-like intuition with which he recognized a 
striking simile and aptly and forcibly applied it. Though unlettered and untaught, he 
could roll out graceful and beautiful phrases, and his thoughts and sentiments, if crudely 
expressed, were frequently brilliant and profound. While living with his brother, the 
latter removed to Mendon, Monroe County in the same State, and there Heber finished 
learning his trade and began working for wages. Six months later he purchased his 
brother's business, and set up in the same line for himself, in which he prospered for up- 
wards of ten years. 

Meanwhile the sun of love dawned on his horizon. In one of his rides he chanced to 
pass, one warm summer day, through the little town of Victor, in the neighboring county 
of Ontario. Being thirsty, he drew rein near a house where an old gentleman was at 
work in the yard, whom he asked for a drink of water. As the one addressed went to the 
well for a fresh bucketful of the cooling liquid, he called to his daughter Vilate to bring 
from the house a glass, which he filled and sent by her to the young stranger. Heber was 
greatly struck with the beauty and refined modesty of the young girl, whose name he 
understood to be "Milatey," and who was the flower and pet of her father's family. 
Lingering as long as propriety would permit, or the glass of water would hold out, he 
murmured his thanks and rode reluctantly away. It was not long before he again had 
"business" in Victor, and again became thirsty (?) just opposite the house where the 
young lady lived. Seeing the same old gentleman in the yard, he again hailed him and 
asked for a drink of water. This time the owner of the premises offered to wait upon 
him in person, but Heber would not have it so, and with the blunt candor for which he 
was noted, nearly took the old gentleman's breath by saying, "I would rather "Milatey" 
would bring it to me." "Latey," as she was called in the household, accordingly 
appeared, did the honors as before, and returned blushing to meet the merriment and 
good-natured badinage of her sister and brolhers. She, however, was quite as favorably 
impressed with the handsome young stranger as he with her. More visits followed, 
acquaintance ripened into love, and on November 7, 1822, they were married. 

Vilate Murray, for that was her name, was the youngest child of Roswell and Susan- 
nah Murray, and was a native of Florida, Montgomery, County, New York, born Junel. 
1806. The Murrays were of Scotch descent. As a race they were gentle, kind-hearted, 
intelligent and refined. Through many of them ran a vein of poetry. Vilate herself 
wrote tender and beautiful verses. She was an ideal wife for a man like Heber C. Kim- 
ball, by whom she was ever cherished as the treasure that she was. 

Some time in the fall or winter of 1831 five Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints came from Pennsylvania to Victor, five miles from Mendon, and tarried 
at the house of Phineas H. Young. These Elders were Eleazer Miller, Elial Strong, 
Alpheus Gifford, Enos Curtis and Daniel Bowen. Heber and Vilate Kimball were then 
members of the Baptist Church. Having duly investigated the new religion, they 
embraced it, Heber being baptized April 15, 1832, by Elder Alpheus Gifford, and Vilate 
about two weeks later, by Elder Joseph Young. Brigham Young, Heber's intimate 
friend, had been baptized on the 14th of April by Eleazer Miller. A branch was raised 
up at Mendon, numbering over thirty souls. Heber, having been ordained an Elder by 
Joseph Young, labored with him and his brother Brigham in the ministry. 

In the fall of 1832, the three friends visited Kirtland, Ohio, and there on the 8th of 
November met for the first time the Prophet Joseph Smith. A year later Elder Kimball, 
haying sold his possessions and settled his affairs, moved with his family to Kirtland, 
arriving there about the first of November. Four children had been born to him up to 
this time, the eldest and youngest of whom were dead. The survivors were William 
Henry and Helen Mar. Heber was the only one of his father's household to embrace 
Mormonism. He was accompanied to Ohio by Brigham Young and his two little daugh- 
ters, who were motherless. In Kirtland, as in Mendon, the families of Brigham and Heber 
were as one. 

Both these men were enrolled in the little band of heroes, about two hundred strong, 
who in May, 1834, under the leadership of the Prophet, set out for Jackson County, 
Missouri, to reinstate the Saints in that section upon the lands from which they had been 
driven. The story of "Zion's Camp" need not be told here. Suffice it that from the 
survivors of that historic organization the Twelve Apostles of the Church were chosen 
at Kirtland, February 14, 1835. Heber C. Kimball was one of them. He accompanied 
his quorum on their first mission, preaching and baptizing through the Eastern States and 
Canada, counseling the Saints to gather westward and collecting means for the comple- 
tion of the Kirtland Temple and for other purposes. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 19 

In June, 1837, he was placed at the head of a mission to England the first foreign 
mission of the Church and accompanied by Orson Hyde, Willard Richards, Joseph Field- 
ing, John Goodson, Isaac Russell and John Snyder, sailed from New York, July 1st, land- 
ing at Liverpool on the 20th a month after Queen Victoria was enthroned. Three days 
later, at Preston, Apostle Kimball preached the first Mormon discourse ever heard in 
alien lands. The first foreign baptisms in the Church took place in the river Ribble at 
Preston, on the 30th day of the same month. These baptisms, nine in number, were 
performed by him. The first person baptized was George D. Watt, afterwards a promi- 
nent Elder in the Church. Having thus gained a foot-hold, the missionaries separated, 
Elders Richards and Goodson going to the city of Bedford, Isaac Russell and John 
Snyder to Alston in Cumberland, while Apostles Kimball and Hyde, with Joseph Field- 
ing, remained in and around Preston. Under their united labors the work spread 
rapidly. In eight months they converted and baptized about two thousand souls, most of 
them gathered into the fold through the powerful preaching and zealous exertions of the 
unlettered but magnetic Apostle, Heber C. Kimball. On April 20, 1838, he with Apostle 
Hyde and Elder Russell embarked at Liverpool for home, leaving Joseph Fielding and 
Willard Richards, with William Clayton, (a new convert) to preside over the mission 
thus founded. 

Our Apostle rejoined the main body of his people at Far West, Caldwell County. 
Missouri, on July 25th of the same year. He passed with them through the fiery ordeal 
of the ensuing autumn and winter, maintaining his integrity without flinching, while a 
number of the most prominent Elders weakened and fell away. One of these, William 
E. McLellin, who had been an Apostle, came to gloat over his former brethren in chains, 
surrounded by the mob forces, and practically under sentence of death, on the public 
square at Far West. The apostate inquired for Heber C. Kimball, and having found 
him, sneeringly asked if he was now satisfied with the "fallen prophet," meaning Joseph 
Smith. The undaunted Apostle replied, "Yes, I am more satisfied with him a hundred 
fold than I ever was before, for I see you in the very position he said you would be in, 
if you did not forsake your lying, fornication, adultery and abominations a Judas to 
betray your brethren." 

Having regained his liberty, Apostle Kimball visited the Prophet and others in prison, 
and assisted President Young to superintend the winter exodus of the Saints from Mis- 
souri. He was one of the party who on April 26, 1839, went back to Far West to fulfil 
the prediction made concerning them and their start from that place upon the second 
Apostolic mission to Europe. 

It was September, however, when they left Nauvoo, Illinois, where the main body of 
the Saints were settling. Heber and his friend Brigham were so sick they could hardly 
travel, and their families, left behind, were ailing and almost destitute. But nobler 
women never lived than Vilate Murray Kimball and Mary Ann Angell Young. Heroically 
rising to the occasion not for the first, nor for the last time they urged their husbands 
to leave them , in order to honor the call made upon them and faithfully fulfil their mission. 

The Apostles sailed from New York on the 9th of March and landed at Liverpool on 
the 6th of April, 1840. After ordaining Willard Richards to the Apostleship, they spread 
out over Great Britain, preaching, baptizing, building up branches and organizing con- 
ferences. Their success was marvelous. The great London Conference was founded 
by Heber C. Kimball, Wilford Woodruff and George A. Smith. 

Heber returned to Nauvoo July 1st, 1841. About this time he accepted and obeyed 
the principle of plural marriage, taught to him by the Prophet Joseph, who also prac- 
ticed it. His eldest daughter, Helen Mar Kimball, was sealed to the Prophet in that 
order. He took an active part in all leading events affecting the Church, performed 
various missions in the Eastern States, and was there with, most of the Apostles when 
Joseph and Hyrum Smith were murdered in Carthage jail. 

In the trying scenes that ensued, beginning with Sidney Rigdon's attempt to seize the 
leadership of the Church, and eventuating in the Mormon exodus from Illinois, Heber C. 
Kimball stood stalwartly by Brigham Young, sustaining him as the Prophet's rightful 
successor, and assisting him heart and hand in all the arduous labors that followed. He 
left Nauvoo and joined the camp of the migrating Saints on Sugar Creek, Iowa, Febru- 
ary 17, 1846. He helped President Young in the summer of that year to recruit the 
Mormon Battalion on the Missouri River, and accompanied him the next spring across 
the plains and over the Rocky Mountains as one of the Utah Pioneers. One of his 
wives, Ellen Sanders Kimball, came with him; the other two women in the company be- 
ing the wives, respectively, of Brigham Young and his brother, Lorenzo D. Young. 

At a Conference held at Winter Quarters, .December 27, 1847, after the return of 



20 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

many of the Pioneers for their families, the First Presidency of the Church vacant since 
the death of the Prophet was again organized, and Heber C. Kimball became first 
counselor to President Brigham Young; Willard Richards being the second counselor. 
Early in May, 1848 the First Presidency organized the main body of the Saints on the Elk 
Horn, preparatory to leading them to Salt Lake valley. They arrived here in September. 
When the Provisional Government of Deseret was organized, Heber C. Kimball was 
elected Chief Justice, and was also Lieutenant-Governor of the State. At the October 
Conference of that year he introduced the subject of the Perpetual Emigrating Fund 
Company, which was forthwith organized. At the legislative session in March, 1851- 
the State of Deseret still existing he was president of the council branch of the assem- 
bly, and in September of the same year was president of the council in the first legisla- 
tive assembly of the Territory of Utah. At the laying of the corner stones of the Salt 
Lake Temple, April 6, 1853, he assisted President Young to lay the south-east corner 
stone, and offered thereon the prayer of consecration. 

Mention has been made of President Kimball's prophetic gift. His most famous 
prophecy is recorded in another volume of this history. ( It may here be con- 
densed. The incident happened soon after his second arrival in "The Valley,'' and dur- 
ing a season of famine, when the half-starved, half-clad settlers, isolated from the civil- 
ized world, "a thousand miles from anywhere," were living on rations, eked out with wild 
roots dug from the earth or obtained from the Indians, scarcely knowing where to look 
for the next crust of bread or for rags to hide their nakedness. Under these circumstances 
Heber C. Kimball, in a public meeting, declared to his astonished hearers that within _a 
very short time "States goods" would be sold in Salt Lake City cheaper than in St. Louis 
or New York. "I don't believe a word of it," said Charles C. Rich, voicing no doubt the 
opinion of nine-tenths of the congregation. "Well, I don't believe it either," said the 
Prophet Heber, with a characteristic smile, after he had sat down; "I am afraid I 
have missed it this time.'' 

But the fulfilment came. Not many months after the delivery of the prophecy, the 
gold hunters began passing through Salt Lake valley on their way to California; an 
event entirely unanticipated by the Mormon settlers. fn order to lighten their loads 
and expedite progress to the gold fields, they sold at enormous sacrifice the valuable 
merchandise with which they had stored their wagons to cross the plains. Their choice, 
blooded, but now jaded stock they eagerly exchanged for the fresh mules and 
horses of the Pioneers, and bartered off dry goods, groceries, provisions, clothing, tools, 
etc., for the most primitive outfits, with barely enough provisions to enable them to 
reach their journey"s end. Thus was the prophecy fulfilled. Scores of such incidents 
might be recounted, and many are recounted in the author's published life of Heber C. 
Kimball. 

In the famine of 1856, this great and good man, as provident as he was prophetic, 
played a part like unto that of Joseph of old, feeding from his own bins and store-houses 
filled by his foresight in anticipation of the straitness of the times the nungry 
multitude. His own family a numerous flock were put upon short rations to enable 
him to administer more effectually to the wants of others. Many are the acts of benev- 
olence related of President Kimball and his family, especially his noble and unselfish 
partner, Vilate, during this season of distress. They kept an open house, feeding 
many poor people at their table daily, besides making presents innumerable of bread, 
flour and other necessaries that were literally worth their weight in gold. 

The fall and winter of the same year witnessed the strenuous and successful exertions 
of the First Presidency to rescue the survivors of the belated handcart companies, caught 
in the early snows along the Platte and Sweetwater. President Kimball sent two of his 
sons, William H. and David P. with the relief corps that went out to meet the immigrants, 
taking with them wagon loads of bedding and provisions for the sufferers. President 
Young and others did likewise. This prompt action on the part of the Church authori- 
ties saved hundreds of souls from sharing the fate of their unfortunate companions who 
had perished. 

Preaching, colonizing, traveling through the settlements, encouraging the Saints in 
their toils and sacrifices, sitting in council with the Church leaders, ministering in sacred 
places, and in various other ways playing the part of a public benefactor so wore away 
the remaining earthly years of President Kimball. His name was a household word 
wherever his people dwelt, and "Brother Heber'' was everywhere honored and beloved. 
Even the Gentiles esteemed him, admiring his high courage and outspoken candor. 

President Kimball was the father of a numerous posterity, mostly sons. The more 
notable of these are General William H. Kimball, his deceased brothers, David P. and 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 21 

Heber P.; his living brothers, Charles S. and Solomon F.; Jonathan G., one of the 
First Seven Presidents of Seventies; Joseph, ex-Bishop of Meadowville; Newel W., 
Bishop's counselor at Logan; Andrew, President of St. Joseph Stake; and Elias S., ex- 
President of the Southern States Mission. The best known of his daughters up to the 
time of her death, was Helen Mar Kimball Whitney; the most prominent one at present is 
Mrs. Alice Kimball Smith. 

President Kimball died at his home in Salt Lake City, June 22, 1868; his death being 
superinduced by a severe fall sustained several weeks previously. The accident occurred 
at Provo, to which place where lived his wife Lucy and her family he had driven 
from Salt Lake alone, arriving in the night. Near his residence Hhe wheels of his 
buggy went suddenly into a ditch throwing him over the forward wheels violently upon 
the ground, where he lay for some time stunned and helpless, before being discovered 
and assisted into the house. This mishap, though he partly recovered from its effects, 
was the forerunner of his fatal illness. He had predicted his own death at the funeral of 
his wife Vilate, eight months before, saying sadly as he followed the remains of his be- 
loved partner to the tomb, "I shall not be long after her. 7 ' 

His death was mourned by the whole Church and by many outside its pale, all realiz- 
ing that "a prince and a great man had fallen in Israel." President Young said at his 
funeral, "He was a man of as much integrity, I presume, as any man who ever lived on 
the earth. I have been personally acquainted with him forty-three years, and I can testi- 
fy that he has been a man of truth, a man of benevolence, a man that was to be trusted. 
* * * We can say of him all that can be said of any good man." 



WILLARD RICHARDS. 



PON the roll of honored names whose records as Pioneers and State-builders make 
up the early history of our commonwealth, few shine as luminously as that of 
Willard Richards, physician, theologian, historian, journalist and statesman. A 
member of the historic band led by Brigham Young from the Missouri River to 
Salt Lake Valley in 1847, from that time until the day of his death he was intimately 
associated with the great man in the arduous and stupendous labor of establishing the 
feet of his people in their new-found home in the wilderness; in carving out of the desert 
and the rock the State whose sovereign star is forty-fifth on the flag of the Union. 

Dr. Richards was Secretary of the Provisional Government of Deseret, and after the 
organization of the Territory of Utah, for several years did most of the business of the 
Territorial Secretary; at the same time presiding over the Council branch of the Legisla- 
tive Assembly. He was the first editor and proprietor of the Deseret News, and at the 
time of his death, Postmaster of Salt Lake City. During the last six years of his life he 
was one of the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, hold- 
ing simultaneously the office of Church Historian. 

Willard Richards was not only a Pioneer of Utah ; he was also the pioneer in Mor- 
monism of a numerous and distinguished family, numbering among its members some of 
the foremost citizens of the State. An Apostle of the Church from April, 1840, he shared 
with John Taylor, also an Apostle, the tragic honor of being a fellow prisoner with Joseph 
and Hyrum Smith when they fell pierced with the bullets of assassins in Carthage jail. 
On that occasion, when the bodies of the two martyrs, with that of Apostle Taylor, were 
riddled with balls, one of the missiles grazed Willard's neck, carrying away the tip of his 
left ear; otherwise he was unhurt, though right in the midst of the massacre. He was a 
close friend and confidante of the Prophet, and acted in the capacity of his private secre- 
tary up to the very moment of the martyrdom. 

Willard Richards was born at Hopkinton, Middlesex county, Massachusetts, June 
24, 1804. He was the youngest of eleven children, whose parents were Joseph and 
Rhoda Howe Richards. His elder brothers, Phineas and Levi, who followed him into 
the Church, and also came to Utah, were both able and worthy men, but Willard was the 
master mind of the family. His father was a Revolutionary soldier, and in time of peace 
a fairly well-to-do New England farmer. He and his wife belonged to the Congrega- 



22 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

tional church in Hopkinton, but their children were reared mostly under Presbyterian 
influences. When Willard was about nine years old the family removed to Richmond, in 
Berkshire county, where his previous training in the common schools was supplemented 
with courses of instruction in the high school at that place. 

At the early age of sixteen he taught school at Chatham, Columbia county, New York, 
and subsequently had charge of schools at Lanesborough, Massachusetts, and other places. 
He had an active and penetrating mind, and was given to scientific investigation. _ In his 
leisure hours he studied medicine, electricity and other kindred subjects, delivering lec- 
tures thereon. In 1834 he entered the Thompsonian Infirmary at Boston, and practiced 
under Dr. Samuel Thompson, founder of the Botanic or Thompsonian school of medicine. 
Next year he practiced his profession at Holliston, Massachusetts, where he resided at 
the home of Albert P. Bockwood. 

It was here that Mormonism found him. Though susceptible to religious influences 
from childhood, he had paid but little attention to churches and creeds, and had supposed 
at one time that his indifference to such things was due to a reprobate condition of mind. 
In his despair he feared that he had committed the unpardonable sin. A great light 
burst upon him, he says, when in the summer of 1835 he read the Book of Mormon, a 
copy of which had been left by his cousin, Brigham Young, with another cousin, Lucius 
Parker, at Southborough. Up to this time Willard had never seen a Latter-day Saint, 
and his knowledge of them amounted to nothing more than that "a boy named Joe Smith, 
somewhere out West, had found a gold Bible." Opening the book at random, he had 
read less than half a page of its contents, when he declared, "God or the devil had a 
hand in that book, for man never wrote it." He read it twice through in about ten days, 
and was so impressed that he immediately resolved to visit the headquarters of the 
Church, seven hundred miles distant, and give Mormonism a thorough investigation. 
The execution of his purpose was delayed by an attack of palsy until October of the year 
following, when he arrived at Kirtland, Ohio, in company with his brother, Dr. Levi 
Richards, who attended him as physician. They were cordially received and entertained 
by their cousin Brigham, who was one of the Twelve Apostles. 

Willard was baptized at sunset on the last day of December, 1836, Brigham Young 
officiating in the ceremony, which was also witnessed by Heber C. Kimball and others 
who had spent the afternoon cutting the ice in order to prepare for the baptism. Soon 
afterward he was ordained an Elder. Having formed a partnership with Brigham Young, 
he accompanied him on a special business trip to the East, from which he returned just 
in time to start with Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Joseph Fielding and others on a 
mission to England, June 13, 1837. Abroad, his early field of labor was the Bedford 
district. When Apostles Kimball and Hyde returned to America, in April, 1838, they 
left Joseph Fielding, Willard Richards and William Clayton in charge of the British Mis- 
sion. 

While in England Willard met and married Miss Jennetta Richards, daughter of the 
Rev. John Richards, Independent Minister, at Walker Fold, Chaidgley, Lancashire. The 
young lady had been converted to Mormonism by Heber C. Kimball, who, after baptizing 
her, met his friend, who had not yet seen her, and said, "Willard, I baptized your wife 
today." Some time later, Willard, having formed Jennetta's acquaintance, remarked to 
her, "Richards is a good name; I never want to change it, do you, Jennetta!" "No, I 
do not," she replied, "and I think I never will." A few months later September 24, 
1838 they were married. Their first child, a son named Heber John, died suddenly 
soon after his birth. Another son was born to them October 11, 1840, and him they also 
named Heber John. He is today Dr. Heber John Richards, of Salt Lake City. 

At Preston, April 14, 1840, Willard Richards was ordained an Apostle by President 
Brigham Young, assisted by .others of the Twelve, then upon their first mission as a quo- 
rum in foreign lands. He had been called to the Apostleship by revelation, July 8, 1838. 
Willard assisted his brother Apostles in their great work of broadening and strengthening 
the foundations of the British Mission. For a while he edited the Millennial Star, then 
published at Manchester, during the temporary absence of Parley P. Pratt, who had re- 
turned to America for his family. 

Returning across the Atlantic in May, 1841, Apostle Richards visited his old home in 
Massachusetts, and leaving his family in care of his sisters there (his parents had both 
died while he was in England) he proceeded on to Nauvoo, Illinois. He located tempo- 
rarily at Warsaw, where he sold lands for the Church, received immigrants, and counseled 
the Saints who had settled in that part ; at the same time attending to his other duties as a 
general officer of the Church. In October he was elected a member of the city council of 
Nauvoo, and on the llth of December removed to that place. It had previously been 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 23 

voted by the Apostles in council that he should take charge of the publication of the limes 
and Seasons. Two days after his arrival at Nauvoo he was appointed by the Prophet his 
private secretary; he also became his general clerk, the recorder for the Temple, and 
for the city council, and clerk of the municipal court. "He is a great prop to me in my 
labors," wrote the Prophet to Willard's wife, while she was still in Massachusetts. He 
kept Joseph's private journal, and made an entry therein only a few minutes before the 
tragedy that terminated the earthly life of his beloved leader. 

When the Prophet, in the absence of most of the Apostles, felt the toils gathering 
round him, and knew that his only safety lay in flight from the murderous mobs that 
were thirsting for his blood, Willard Richards was one of those, who on the night of June 
22nd, 1844, crossed the Mississippi with him in a skiff, and started for the Rocky Moun- 
tains. When, yielding to the importunities of faint-hearted friends, Joseph returned and 
surrendered himself into the power of the wretches who had planned his destruction, 
Willard still clung to him, and was imprisoned with him, his brother Hyrum and John 
Taylor in Carthage jail. 

Just before the murder of the two brothers (their jailor having suggested, in view of 
certain rumors, that they would be safer in the cell of the prison than in the apartment 
they then occupied) the Prophet said to Dr. Richards, "If we go into the cell, will you 
go in with us?" The Doctor answered, "Brother Joseph, you did not ask me to cross 
the river with you you did not ask me to come to Carthage you did not ask me to come 
to jail with you and do you think I will forsake you now? But I will tell you what I 
will do; if you are condemned to be hung for treason, I will be hung in your stead, and 
you shall go free." Joseph said, "You cannot." The Doctor replied, "I will." 

His subsequent experience in the prison, when it was assaulted by the band of black- 
ened assassins who imbrued their hands in the blood of the Prophet and the Patriarch, is 
graphically told in his own thrilling narrative, originally published in the Times and 
Seasons, and entitled 

"TWO MINUTES IN JAIL. 

"Possibly the following events occupied near three minutes, but I think only about 
two, and have penned them for the gratification of many friends. 

CARTHAGE, June 27, 1844. 

"A shower of musket balls were thrown up the stairway against the door of the 
prison in the second story, followed by many rapid footsteps. 

"While Generals Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Mr. Taylor and myself, who were in the 
front chamber, closed the door of our room against the entry at the head of the stairs, 
and placed ourselves against it, there being no lock on the door, and no catch that was 
useable. 

"The door is a common panel, and as soon as we heard the feet at the stairs head, a 
ball was sent through the door, which passed between us, and showed that our enemies 
were desperadoes, and we must change our position. 

"General Joseph Smith, Mr. Taytor and myself sprang back to the front part of the 
room, and General Hyrum Smith retreated two-thirds across the chamber in front of and 
facing the door. 

A ball was sent through the door which hit Hyrum on the side of the nose, when 
he fell backwards, extended at length, without moving his feet. 

"From the holes in his vest (the day was warm, and no one had their coats on but 
myself,) pantaloons, drawers and shirt, it appears evident that a ball must have been 
thrown from without, through the window, which entered his back on the right side, and 
passing through lodged against his watch, which was in his right vest pocket, completely 
pulverizing the crystal and face, tearing off the hands and mashing the whole body of the 
watch. At the same time the ball from the door entered his nose. 

"As he struck the floor he exclaimed emphatically, 'I'm a dead man.' Joseph looked 
towards him and responded, 'Oh dear! Brother Hyrum,' and opening the door two or 
three inches with his left hand, discharged one barrel of a six shooter (pistol) at random 
in the entry, from whence a ball grazed Hyrum's breast, and entering his throat passed 
into his head, while other muskets were aimed at him and some balls hit him. 

"Joseph continued snapping his revolver round the casing of the door into the space 
as before, three barrels of which missed fire, while Mr. Taylor with a walking stick stood 
by his side and knocked down the bayonets and muskets which were constantly discharg- 
ing through the doorway, while I stood by him, ready to lend any assistance, with an- 
other stick, but could not come within striking distance without going directly before the 
muzzles of the guns. 



24 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

"When the revolver failed, we had no more firearms, and expected an immediate 
rush of the mob, and the doorway full of muskets, half way in the room, and no hope but 
instant death from within. 

"Mr. Taylor rushed into the window, which is some fifteen or twenty feet from the 
ground. When his body was nearly on a balance, a ball from the door within entered 
his leg, and a ball from without struck his watch, a patent lever, in his vest pocket near 
the left breast, and smashed it into 'pie,' leaving the hands standing at 5 o'clock, 16 min- 
utes, and 26 seconds, the force of which ball threw him back on the floor, and he rolled 
under the bed which stood by his side, where he lay motionless, the mob from the door 
continuing to fire upon him, cutting away a piece of flesh from his left hip as large as a 
man's hand, and were hindered only by my knocking down their muzzles with a stick; 
while they continued to reach their guns into the room, probably left-handed, and aimed 
their discharge so far round as almost to reach us in the corner of the room to where we 
retreated and dodged, and then I recommenced the attack with my stick. 

"Joseph attempted, as the last resort, to leap the same window from whence Mr. 
Taylor fell, when two balls pierced him from the door, and one entered the right breast 
from without, and he fell outward, exclaiming, '0 Lord my God!' As his feet went out 
of the window my head went in, the balls whistling all around. He fell on his left side a 
dead man. 

"At this instant the cry was raised, 'He's leaped the window!' and the mob on the 
stairs and in the entry ran out. 

"I withdrew from the window, thinking it of no use to leap out on a hundred bayo- 
nets, then around General Smith's body. 

"Not satisfied with this I again reached my head out of the window, and watched 
some seconds to see if there were any signs of life, regardless of my own, determined to 
see the end of him I loved. Being fully satisfied that he was dead, with a hundred men 
near the body and more coming round the corner of the jail, and expecting a return to 
our room, I rushed towards the prison door, at the head of the stairs, and through the 
entry from whence the firing had proceeded, to learn if the doors into the prison were open. 

"When near the entry, Mr. Taylor cried out, 'Take me.' I pressed my way until I 
found all doors unbarred, returning instantly, caught Mr. Taylor under my arm, and 
rushed by the stairs into the dungeon, or inner prison, stretched him on the floor and cov- 
ered him with a bed in such a manner as not likely to be perceived, expecting an imme- 
diate return of the mob. 

"I said to Mr. Taylor, 'This is a hard case to lay you on the floor, but if your wounds 
are not fatal, I want you to live to tell the story.' I expected to be shot the next mo- 
ment, and stood before the door awaiting the onset." 

The expected almost happened. While Willard was caring for his wounded friend 
in the inner part of the prison, a portion of the mob again rushed up stairs to finish the 
fiendish work already more than half completed. Finding only the dead body of Hyrum 
Smith in the front apartment, and supposing the other prisoners to have escaped, they 
were again descending the stairs when a loud cry was heard, "The Mormons are coming!'' 
Thinking the inhabitants of Nauvoo were upon them, to avenge the murder of the 
Prophet, the whole band of assassins broke and fled, seeking refuge in the neighboring 
forest. Their groundless fear was shared by the people of Carthage in general, who 
fled pell mell, terrified by the thought of a wrathful visitation from the betrayed and 
stricken community. 

Dr. Richards' marvelous escape from death in the midst of the fiery shower to which 
his three friends succumbed, fulfilled a prediction made to him by the Prophet over a 
year previously, when he told him that the time would come when the balls would fly 
round him like hail, and he would see his friends fall upon the right and upon the left, 
but there should not be a hole in his garment. As during that terrible ordeal he was the 
personification of calm courage and collected heroism, so in the events immediately fol- 
lowing he manifested the highest wisdom and discretion. Writing from Carthage to Nau- 
voo, he advised the people to be patient, to trust in God, and not seek to avenge 
themselves upon their enemies. He and the Prophet's brother, Samuel H. Smith, with 
the wounded John Taylor, then superintended the removal of the bodies of the martyrs 
to Nauvoo for burial. 

In all subsequent movements of the Church Willard Richards was a recognized 
power. He assisted in the inauguration and conduct of the exodus from Illinois, helped 
to raise the Mormon Battalion on the Missouri River, and was one of the first enrolled 
among the Pioneers who accompanied Brigham Young to the Rocky Mountains. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 25 

After the return of the Apostles to Winter Quarters, when the First Presidency was 
again organized (December 27, 1847), Willard Richards was chosen second counselor to 
President Brigham Young. In the following summer, when the main body of the 
migrating Saints crossed the plains, President Richards led one of the three grand divis- 
ions into which the numerous companies were organized. 

At the election held for officers of the Provisional Government of Deseret, March 12, 
1849, Willard Richards was chosen Secretary of State, and served as such until the 
organization by Congress of the Territory of Utah and the arrival of the Territorial 
Secretary, B. D. Harris, of Vermont, who did not reach Salt Lake City until late in July, 
1851. After the summary departure of Mr. Harris, in September of that year, Dr. Rich- 
ards again took up the burden of the Secretary's business if, indeed, he had laid it 
down and continued to carry it for another year or more, when Secretary Benjamin G. 
Ferris appeared upon the scene. Again, after that official's premature departure, Dr. 
Richards was Secretary ad interim. 

June 15, 1850, witnessed the publication of the first number of the Deseret News, of 
which Willard Richards was editor and proprietor. The News was then a small quarto, 
issued weekly, but what it lacked in size it made up in vigor, thanks to the pungent pen 
of the ready writer occupying the editorial sanctum. He continued to edit the News as 
long as he lived. His incumbency of the position of postmaster covered about the same 
period. He had the confidence of the Postmaster General, who respected his judgment 
touching postal arrangements throughout the mountain territories. 

September 22, 1851, the first Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah convened 
at Salt Lake City. Willard Richards was a member of the Council. In 1852 he presided 
over that body, and succeeded himself at the two following sessions of the Legislature, 
which then met annually. The last time that he left his house a retired little cottage 
now on Richards Street, and then -only a few rods from the Council House, where the 
Legislature convened it was to discharge his duty as President of the Council on the 
final day of the session ending January 20, 1854. In his effort to walk these few rods 
from his residence he said to a bystander, "I will go and perform this last duty, if like 
John Quincy Adams I die in the attempt." He was suffering from dropsy. He died on 
the llth of March following. 

Dr. Richards magnified to the last, along with his other duties, his office as one of 
the First Presidency of the Church, enjoying to the full the love and confidence of Presi- 
dents Young and Kimball, his associates. The latter once said of' him, referring to his 
humility and deferential regard for his seniors, "He would never so much as go through 
a doorway ahead of me." President Richards, in other words, was a gentleman. His 
death, in the prime of life, was regarded, in view of his many gifts and general useful- 
ness, as a public calamity. 

His immediate descendants the issue of several marriages are his sons Heber J., 
Willard B., Joseph S., Calvin W. and Stephen L. ; and his daughters, Rhoda Ann Jenetta 
(Mrs. Frank Knowlton) deceased; Sarah Ellen (wife of President Joseph F. Smith); 
Paulina (Mrs. A. F. Doremus) ; Alice Ann (widow of the famous Lot Smith) ; Asenatb. 
(widow of Judge Joel Grover) ; Mrs. Phebe Peart and Mrs. Mary Ann VanFleet. Three 
of his sons embraced their father's early profession medicine; and two of them are 
still active practitioners at SP' 'Lake City. 



ORSON PRATT. 

famous Apostle and Pioneer, one of the most prominent figures in the founding 
\/ of Utah, was born at Hartford, Washington county, New York, September 19, 
^ 1811. His parents were Jared and Charity Dickinson Pratt, and his father's ances- 
tor, Lieutenant William Pratt, with his elder brother John, was among the first 
settlers of Hartford, Connecticut. These brothers were sons of the Rev. William Pratt 
of Stevenidge, Hertfordshire, England. Orson Pratt was next to the youngest of six 
children, the fourth child in the family being his brother, Parley P. Pratt, destined like 



26 HISTOEY OF UTAH. 

himself to become a noted preacher and writer, and among those first upon the ground 
as colonizers and settlers of the Rocky Mountain region. The younger brother is here 
given precedence, for the reason that he was one of the Pioneers proper, and the first of 
that historic band to set foot upon the site of Salt Lake City, the earliest white settle- 
ment in these parts. 

The parents of Orson Pratt were poor, and he also was fated to plod through life in 
comparative poverty, so far as this world's wealth was concerned; but he was rich in 
powers of mind and accumulations of knowledge, treasures beyond compute. Orson 
Pratt was an intellectual millionaire. 

His father began life as a weaver, but subsequently became a tiller of the soil. He 
taught his children to be moral and honest, and to believe in the Bible, but he had no 
faith in creeds and churches. When Orson was three or four years old the family moved 
from his birthplace to New Lebanon, Columbia county, in the same State, where he was 
sent to school several months in each year until the spring of 1822, when he began hiring 
out as a farm boy. At intervals he picked up a knowledge of arithmetic, book-keeping, 
geography, grammar and surveying. Though a frequent reader of the scriptures, it was 
not until the autumn of 1829 that he began to pray fervently and "seek after the Lord." 
This continued for about a year, when two Elders of the Latter-day Church came into 
his neighborhood and held several meetings which he attended. One of these Elders 
was his brother Parley, a recent convert to the Mormon faith, by whom Orson was bap- 
tized on the nineteentli anniversary of his birth. 

October of that year found him at the birthplace of the Church Fayette, Seneca 
County, New York upon a visit to the Prophet Joseph Smith, by whom he was con- 
firmed and ordained an Elder on the first day of November. His first mission, taken 
soon afterward, was to Colesville, in Broome county. Early in 1831 he followed the 
Prophet to Kirtland, Ohio, and after preaching for several months in that region, set out 
for Jackson county, Missouri, with his brother Parley, in compliance with a revelation 
directing many of the Elders to travel two by two to that land, preaching by the way. 
The Pratt brothers held fifty meetings en route and baptized eleven souls. 

At Kirtland, January 25, 1832, Orson Pratt was appointed to preside over the Elders 
of the Church, and was set apart to that Presidency under the hands of Sidney Rigdon. 
At the conference where this appointment was made the Prophet voiced a revelation in 
the presence of the whole assembly, assigning many of the Elders to missions. Orson 
Pratt and Lyman E. Johnson were sent to the Eastern States. Prior to starting, the 
former, on February 2nd, was ordained a High Priest by Sidney Rigdon, under the direc- 
tion of the Prophet. During his mission he baptized and confirmed his eldest brother, 
Anson Pratt, at Hurlgate, Long Island, and after visiting his parents at Canaan, Colum- 
bia county. New York, proceeded northward with Elder Johnson. At Bath, New Hamp- 
shire, they baptized, among fourteen others, Amasa M. Lyman. In Vermont they bap- 
tized Winslow Farr, William Snow, Zerubbabel Snow and others, and on a subsequent 
mission to that State Orson Pratt brought Gardner Snow, Willard Snow and Jacob Gates 
into the Church. In the intervals of several other missions to the East, he attended the 
School of the Prophets, worked upon the Temple and in the Church printing office at 
Kirtland, and boarded for a season in the Prophet's family. 

In February, 1834, Orson Pratt and Orson Hyde were directed to travel together and 
assist in "gathering up the strength of the Lord's house,'' preparatory to "the redemp- 
tion of Zion." Many other Elders participated in this labor, which resulted in the 
organization of " Zion's Camp.'' In the journey to Missouri Orson Pratt had charge of 
a number of the wagons. He was one of those attacked with cholera, but his great faith 
and iron will saved him while others perished. As one of the standing High Council in 
Zion, he with Bishop Edward Partridge visited the scattered Saints in Clay County, set- 
ting in order the various branches. 

The early part of the year 1835 found him on his way back to Kirtland, under leave 
of absence, and accompanied part way by his brother, William D. Pratt. While on his 
first visit to Missouri he had suffered from fever and ague, which now returned, brought 
on by over-exertion in traveling. "Sometimes," says he, ''I lay down upon the wet 
prairies, many miles from any house, being unable to travel." In the streets of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, a man passed to whom he felt impelled to speak; he proved to be a Latter- 
day Saint, the only one in that city. At the home of this brother the worn traveler tar- 
ried certain days, and there read in a late number of the "Messenger and Advocate," 
published at Kirtland, that he had been chosen one of the Twelve Apostles, and was re- 
quested to be at headquarters on the 26th of April. A two-days journey by stage enabled 
him to arrive there on the day appointed. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 27 

He was ordained an Apostle under the hands of David Whitmer and Oliver Cowdery, 
two of the three witnesses to the Book of Mormon, and on the same day was blessed by 
Joseph Smith, Sr., the Prophet's father, who was the Patriarch of the Church. He 
accompanied his fellow Apostles on their first mission, through the Middle and Eastern 
States, and in October, 1835, raised up a small branch in Beaver county, Pennsylvania, 
ordaining Dr. Sampson Avard an Elder to take charge of it. 

The 4th of July, 1836, was Orson Pratt's wedding day. He chose as his wife Miss 
Sarah M. Bates, sister to Ormus E. Bates, of Henderson, New York. Apostle Luke John- 
son performed the ceremony, which took place while they were on a mission in that State. 

At the time of the exodus of the Saints from Ohio, Apostle Pratt was presiding over 
a large branch of the Church in New York City. Summoned to Missouri, he started 
with his family for Far West, but was detained by the ice at St. Louis, where he arrived 
about the middle of November, 1838. He rejoined his driven people at Quincy, Illinois, 
the next spring. His brother Parley was at that time a prisoner in the hands of the 
Missourians, but made his escape in July following, through the instrumentality of his 
brother Orson and other friends. The latter was one of those who risked their lives by 
returning to Far West to fulfil prophecy, on the historic date, April 26, 1839. 

The ensuing autumn found our Apostle again in New York City, where he embarked 
with others of the Twelve in the spring of 1840, for England. April of that year saw 
him in Edinburgh, Scotland, where he preached for about nine months and raised up a 
branch of over two hundred Latter-day Saints. While upon this mission he published his 
noted pamphlet, "Remarkable Visions," which was re-published in New York. 

His time from the spring of 1841 to the summer of 1844 was spent at Nauvoo where \ 
he had charge of a mathematical school and was a member of the City Council and upon 
various missions in the East. As a city councilor he helped to draw up a memorial to 
Congress, which he afterwards presented at the seat of government. There he tarried 
for ten weeks, preaching, baptizing, and in his leisure moments calculating eclipses and 
preparing his first almanac for publication in 1845. It was entitled "The Prophetic 
Almanac," and was calculated from the latitude and meridian of Nauvoo and other 
American towns. "From 1836 to 1844," says the Apostle, "I occupied much of my 
leisure time in study, and made myself thoroughly acquainted with algebra, geometry, 
trigonometry, conic sections, differential and integral calculus, astronomy and most of 
the physical sciences. These studies I pursued without the assistance of a teacher." He 
was still in the east when he heard of the murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, and soon 
afterwards he returned to Nauvoo. The following year he presided over the branches in 
the Eastern and Middle States, but returned home in November to prepare for his 
departure to the West. 

He left Nauvoo February 14, 1846, accompanied by his family four wives and three 
small children, the youngest a babe three weeks old. Financially exhausted by his fre- 
quent missions and the great amount of gratuitous service he had rendered, he had to be 
assisted to an outfit with which to begin the long journey lying before him. April 24th 
found him at Garden Grove, where the question of sending a band of pioneers, men 
without families, across the Rocky Mountains, with seed-grain, farming utensils, pro- 
visions, etc., to prepare for those who would follow, was considered in a council of the 
Apostles and laid before the people. At the next halting place, Mount Pisgah, it was 
decided by President Young and the Apostles that during the absence of the pioneers the 
main body of the people should tarry on the Pottawattomie lands at and around Council 
Bluffs, if the Indian owners would consent. While Orson Pratt was following in the 
wake of President Young to the Missouri River, one of his wives, Louisa Chandler Pratt, 
died of typhus fever on the 12th of June, between Mount Pisgah and Council Bluffs. 

In the spring of 1847 he accompanied the President and his pioneer associates on 
that historic journey which, beginning in April at the Missouri River, and ending in July 
upon the shores of the Great Salt Lake, led to the founding of Utah and the settlement 
and development of this intermountain country. Orson Pratt was in charge of the van- 
guard sent by President Young, who was ill with mountain fever, from Echo Canyon 
across the Wasatch range into Salt Lake Valley. He and Erastus Snow were the first of 
the Pioneers to enter the Valley, and the former, as related elsewhere, was the first among 
them to plant foot upon the site of Salt Lake City. This was on the 21st of July, three 
days before the arrival of President Young. That he was alone at this time was due to 
the fact that his comrade had returned toward the mountains to look for his lost coat. 
The original survey of Salt Lake City was begun by Orson Pratt, with Henry G. Sher- 
wood, on the 2nd of August, and on the 26th of that month, he started, with others of the 
pioneers, on the return journey to Winter Quarters. 



28 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

At a conference held there on April 6, 1848, Apostle Pratt was appointed to ^succeed 
Elder Orson Spencer as President of the European Mission and as editor of the 'Millen- 
nial Star," and in compliance with that call he with his wife Sarah and thefr children left 
Winter Quarters about the middle of May and arrived at Liverpool on the 26th of July. 
The British Mission contained at that time about forty thousand Latter-day Saints. The 
Apostle's reputation as a preacher and a writer had preceded him, and the sun of his 
fame rose well-nigh to its zenith during this period. For three years he labored incess- 
antly as President, preacher, editor and author. Every noted town in Great Britain 
heard the sound of his voice deep, sonorous, powerful proclaiming with fervid and 
fearless eloquence the principles he had been sent forth to promulge. While editing the 
"Star" he wrote, published and distributed many pamphlets on various subjects pertaining 
to the doctrine and history of the Church. With means obtained from the sale of his 
works he supplied the urgent needs of a portion of his family left on the Iowa frontier. 
In May, 1850, he paid them a visit, and while there received word from President Young 
that he was honorably released from his mission and at liberty to return home. Going 
back to England he remained until the spring of 1851, and then started for Utah, arriving 
here on the 7th of October. 

The following winter he sat as a member of the Council in the first legislative assem- 
bly of the Territory of Utah, and was in the legislature during every subsequent session 
when at home. For several sessions, including the one next preceding his demise, he 
was speaker of the House. The winter and spring of 1851-2 was occupied in the delivery 
of a series of twelve lectures on astronomy, which awakened general interest. He was 
also connected with the University of Deseret as one of its corps of instructors. He was 
such an ardent lover of knowledge, and so anxious to disseminate it, that he offered at 
one time to teach the youth of the community free, if they would but give their time 
to study. 

In August, 1852, he was appointed to preside over the Latter-day Saints in all the 
States of the Union and in the British Provinces of North America. Establishing his 
headquarters at Washington, D. C., he there began the publication of "The Seer," in the 
columns of which periodical appeared the Prophet Joseph's Revelation and Prophecy on 
War and the Revelation on Celestial marriage, then for the first time given to the world. 
In 1853, while still editing "The Seer," he made a flying trip to Liverpool, and from 
April, 1856, to January, 1858, was absent from home on another presiding mission in Great 
Britain. He returned by way of California, while Johnston's army was in winter quar- 
ters east of the Wasatch Mountains. For about two years from 1862 he presided at St. 
George, in Southern Utah. 

In April, 1864, Apostle Pratt was set apart for a mission to Austria, and was accom- 
panied to Vienna by Elder William W. Riter. Finding the laws of that country too 
stringent to allow them to obtain a footing for missionary work, they returned to England, 
where in May, 1866, the Apostle published an edition of his mathematical work, "Pratt's 
Cubic and Biquadratic Equations." Three years later, in New York City, he transcribed 
and published the Book of Mormon in the phonetic characters called the Deseret Alphabet. 

The month of August, 1870, was made memorable by the great public discussion 
between Orson Pratt the Mormon Apostle, and Dr. John P. Newman, the Methodist 
Chaplain of the United States Senate, upon the subject "Does the Bible sanction poly- 
gamy?" This famous debate took place in the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City, in the 
presence of ten thousand people, and lasted three days. During its progress the Apostle 
amazed and bewildered his learned opponent, not only by his thorough familiarity with 
the scriptures, but by his incisive logic, his clear-cut mathematical demonstrations, his 
profound knowledge of the original Hebrew and the writings of the most eminent com- 
mentators on the Bible. 

In 1874 he became the Church Historian, a position held by him during the remainder 
of his days. In 1877 he went to England, to transcribe and publish an edition of the 
Book of Mormon in the Pitman phonetic characters, but was almost immediately re-called 
to Utah by the death of President Brigham Young, in August of that year. In the fall of 
1878, accompanied by Apostle Joseph F. Smith, he visited Nauvoo, Kirtland, the Hill 
Cumorah and other places of historic interest, and at Richmond, Ray County, Missouri, 
had a pleasant interview with David Whitmer, the survivor of the famous Three 
Witnesses. 

In December of the same year the venerable Apostle started upon his last foreign 
mission his fifteenth voyage across the ocean; this time to stereotype and publish at 
Liverpool the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants, as arranged by him in 
paragraphs, with foot notes and references. He also published while there his astronomi- 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 29 

cal work "Key to the Universe." Prior to this time he had achieved wide fame in the 
field of higher mathematics. As early as November, 1850, he had discovered a law 
governing planetary rotation, and subsequently had made other scientific discoveries. 
Professor Proctor, the astronomer, while lecturing at Salt Lake City early in the "eight- 
ies," referred admiringly, almost reverently, to Professor Pratt, and gave it as his opinion 
that there were but four real mathematicians in the world, and Orson Pratt was one of 
them. While in London upon his last mission he made a discovery regarding the 
chronological symbolism of the Great Pyramid, concerning which he had just been 
reading. This discovery, he claimed, conclusively demonstrated that the date of the 
organization of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was symbolized in the 
grand gallery's chronological floor line. 

Though now an old man, with hair and beard as white as snow, he was still ph3'sic- 
ally and mentally strong and enduring; and while fulfilling this mission worked for 
weeks at a stretch, not less than eighteen hours out of the twenty-four. At home again 
in September, 1879, he showed in the enfeebled state of his health that the heavy toil 
had told severely upon him. From that time he was a sufferer from diabetes, which finally 
terminated his life. 

This patriarchal Apostle was the father of forty-five children, and, at the time of his 
death, sixteen sons and as many daughters were living. Among the sons are Professor 
Orson Pratt, musician; Arthur Pratt, ex-chief of police; Laron Pratt, printer; Lorus 
Pratt, artist; Milando Pratt, a High Councilor of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion; Ray R. 
Pratt and Royal G. Pratt, both of whom enlisted among the Utah Volunteers during the 
war with Spain. Among the daughters are Mrs. Willard Weihe, of the Church Histo- 
rian's Office, Mrs. Joseph Kimball, Mrs. J. U. Eldredge, Mrs. James Douglass, Mrs. 
John Silver, Mrs. Willard Snow, Mrs. Anthony Ivins, Mrs. Alvin Beesley, Mrs. James S. 
Morgan, and the late Mrs. F. M. Bishop. Two of the Apostle's grand-daughters, Mrs. 
Viola Pratt Gillette and Miss Ruth Eldredge, are known in the professional world; the 
former as a singer, the latter as an elocutionist. 

Orson Pratt was not only a preacher, eloquent and powerful, a theologian learned 
and profound, a linguist to whom the dead languages were an open book, a writer lucid 
and logical, and a scientist of eminent attainments; he was also a philosopher, a fact as 
clearly evinced in his every day association with his fellows, as in his thoughtful literary 
productions. An anecdote or two will suffice to illustrate. One of the evidences of the 
humble circumstances in which he lived *as a weather-beaten but respectable straw 
hat, which he wore both summer and winter. One of his daughters Mrs. Kimball 
asked him one day, "Father, why do you wear a straw hat in winter?" "To keep my 
head warm, my child," he answered. "But is a straw hat warm in winter?" she per- 
sisted. "Warmer than no hat at all, my daughter,'' was the reply, worthy of a 
Diogenes. Another incident also portrays the philosophical side of his nature and 
emphasizes his powers of concentration and self-mastery; all the more strikingly when 
it is known that Orson Pratt was naturally as high-spirited as he was determined. He 
was preaching in the open air at Liverpool, when an arrogant, noisy fellow, emerging 
from the crowd, planted himself squarely in front and began denouncing him. Without 
deigning to notice the interruption, the speaker raised his powerful voice and completely 
drowned that of the disturber. The latter then shouted in stentorian tones, but the 
Apostle, increasing his own lung power, again rendered him inaudible. This was kept 
up until the fellow ceased from sheer exhaustion, and retired amid the laughter of the 
bystanders. The speaker then lowered his voice to its normal pitch and calmly continued 
his discourse to the end. 

Orson Pratt, the meek and faithful Apostle "the Saint Paul of Mormondom,'' as 
Tullidge aptly styled him ; a man of whom President Wilford Woodruff said at his funeral, 
that he had traveled more miles, preached more sermons, studied and written more 
upon the Gospel and upon science than any other man in the Church, died at his home in 
Salt Lake City, October 3rd, 1881. Upon his death bed, just before breathing his last, 
he dictated to President Joseph F. Smith, who took down the words as he uttered them, 
the following epitaph, to be placed upon his tombstone: "My body sleeps for a moment, 
but my testimony lives and shall endure forever." 



WILFORD WOODRUFF. 

the faithful Wilford the beloved. In those two phrases are summed up 
tae character, the career, and a portion of the reward of that great and good 
man, President Woodruff, one of the pioneer builders of the commonwealth, 
which he saw grow from an infantile colony into a Territory, and finally into a 
sovereign State. On almost the identical spot where he and his confreres, in July, 1847, 
broke the virgin soil and put in the first seed planted in Salt Lake valley, he, in July, 
1897, unveiled the monument erected by a grateful people to the memory of Brigham 
Young and the Pioneers. That was his life's crowning act in a temporal way, as the 
dedication of the Salt Lake Temple, a little over four years previous, was its crowning 
act in a spiritual way. Thenceforth the tired body, worn out by the ceaseless activity of 
the spirit, seemed but awaiting the inevitable dissolution that would prepare the mortal 
frame for the peaceful rest of the tomb and open to the immortal intelligence the portals 
of paradise. 

Wilford Woodruff was a native of Farmington (now Avon), Hartford county, Con- 
necticut, and was born March 1st, 1807. He was the son of Aphek Woodruff and his 
wife, Beulah Thompson. He came of a hardy, long-lived race his great-grandfather, 
Josiah Woodruff, attaining to the age of nearly a hundred years; and he inherited from 
his ancestors the activity, endurance and industrious nature for which he was noted. 
Almost from infancy, it seemed as if two opposing powers were at work, one to destroy, 
the other to preserve him. This conviction was borne in upon his mind by a remarkable 
succession of accidents, from which he recovered or was rescued, as he believed, by an 
interposing Providence. He frequently remarked during his life, that every bone in his 
body had been broken, excepting his neck and spine. 

A miller by vocation, at twenty years of age, after having assisted his father in the 
Farmington mills, he took the management of a flouring mill belonging to his aunt, 
Helen Wheeler. He afterwards had the charge of flouring mills at South Canton and 
New Hartford, Connecticut. In the spring of 1832 he went with his brother Azmon to 
Richland, Oswego county, New York, where he purchased a farm and sawmill and set up 
in business for himself. 

It was while living at Richland, in the year 1833, that he was converted to Mormon- 
ism, which he first heard preached by Zera Pulsipher and Elijah Cheney, two Elders of 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Though naturally religious, he was far 
from sanctimonious, and up to this time had held aloof from all churches, his course de- 
termined by a belief that none of the modern religious societies had divine authority, and 
that the true church of Christ would yet be re-established upon the earth. He derived 
some of his views from Robert Mason, otherwise known as "The Old Prophet Mason," who 
lived at Simsbury, Connecticut. He was therefore prepared for the message proclaimed 
by Joseph Smith and his followers. He and his brother Azmon both believed, enter- 
tained the Elders, and offered themselves for baptism, Wilford being baptized and con- 
firmed by Zera Pulsipher December 31st, 1833. Two days later he was ordained to the 
office of a Teacher- 
Early in February, 1834, he was visited by Elder Parley P. Pratt, under whose 
advice and instructions he began at once to make preparations for joining the body of the 
Church at Kirtland, Ohio. Having settled up his business, he started with a wagon and 
horses, and arrived there on the 25th of April. A week later he became a member of 
Zion's Camp, and in May set out for Missouri. AtLyman Wight's house, in Clay county, 
Missouri, on the 5th of November, he was ordained a Priest by Elder Simeon Carter, and 
soon afterward was sent upon a mission to the Southern States. 

Passing through Jackson county, the hotbed of anti'Mormonism. from which section 
the Latter-day Saints had recently been driven, he and his companion, Elder Harry 
Brown, after suffering much from hunger and fatigue, were entertained by a man named 
Conner, who gave them breakfast, but cursed them while they were eating it, because 
they were Mormons. At Pettyjohn creek, in Arkansas, they called upon Alexander 
Akeman, who had belonged to the Church in Jackson county, but had turned against it, 
and was now very bitter in his opposition. Wilford Woodruff bore his testimony to the 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 31 

apostate, who followed him from the house in a great rage, but just before reaching the 
object of his wrath fell dead at his feet, as if struck by lightning. Meetings and baptisms 
followed, after which the two missionaries proceeded southward, rowing down the Ar- 
kansas river in a cottonwood canoe of their own manufacture. From Little Rock they 
waded through mud and water on toward Memphis, Tennessee, during which journey 
Elder Brown, annoyed by the slow progress they were making, departed, leaving his 
companion, who was suffering from rheumatism, sitting on a log in the mud and water, 
unable to walk, without food, and far from any house. Kneeling down in the wet, the 
young Priest prayed to God, asking Him to heal him. He was instantly relieved of 
pain, and continued on his way, preaching wherever he could find hearers. 

In Benton county, Tennessee, early in April, 1835, he joined Elder Warren Parrish and 
labored with him for over three months, during which time they converted and baptized over 
forty persons. Elder Parrish, called to Kirtland, ordained Wilford Woodruff an Elder 
(June 28), and the latter, after being left alone, prosecuted his labors in Kentucky and 
Tennessee, baptizing over thirty more. Among his associates was Abraham Owen 
Smoot, whom Elder Parrish had baptized, and whom Elder Woodruff now ordained an 
Elder. In April, 1836, the latter labored in Tennessee, under the direction of Apostle 
David W. Patten, who, on May 31st, ordained him to the office of a Seventy. Some 
months later Elders Woodruff and Smoot were released to go to Kirtland, where they 
arrived on the 25th of November, the former having previously organized the first com- 
pany of Saints that emigrated from the Southern States. It numbered twenty-two souls. 

Up to this time Wilford Woodruff was a single man, but now he decided to marry. 
The lady who became his wife was Phebe W. Carter, to whom he was united April 13th, 
1837, President Frederick G. Williams performing the ceremony at the home of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith in Kirtland. The Prophet himself was to have officiated, but was 
prevented by a mob. Those were perilous times for the Church, some of whose leading 
men had apostatized and others were preparing to fall away. Wilford Woodruff was 
among those who stood staunchly by the Prophet, defending him against the attacks of 
his enemies. By Joseph's advice he attended the Temple school and studied English and 
Latin for a season, but missionary work was more to his liking, and he was soon on his 
way to a new field of labor. 

It was on the last day of May, in the year 1837, that he started upon a mission to Fox 
Islands, off the coast of Maine. He was now one of the First Quorum of Seventy. After 
attending a conference in Canada, and ordaining Elders, Priests, Teachers and Deacons, 
he proceeded to Farmington, Connecticut, where he baptized his uncle, Ozem Woodruff, 
and others of his kindred. He visited his wife's relatives at Scarborough, Maine, and 
then went on to his destination. He was accompanied to Fox Islands by Elder 
Jonathan H. Hale. The day they landed, Sunday, August 20th Wilford Woodruff 
preached the first Mormon sermon ever delivered there, in the only church on North 
Island. They preached often and baptized many. In the summer of 1838 Elder 
Woodruff baptized his father, his stepmother, his sister Eunice and other relatives in 
Connecticut, and after organizing a branch there, went back to Fox Islands, where, on 
August 9th he learned of his appointment to fill a vacancy in the quorum of the Twelve 
Apostles. 

In the ensuing fall, at the head of a company of Saints, including his wife and infant 
child, he started through rain, mud, frost and snow for Missouri, but on the way learned 
of the exodus of the Church from that state, and so tarried through the winter in Illinois. 
At Quincy he met Apostles Brigham Young and John Taylor, whom he afterwards accom- 
panied, with others, to Far West, Missouri. There, on the 26th of April, 1839, he was 
ordained an Apostle by President Brigham Young, the ordination taking place on the 
Temple lot, during the meeting held on that memorable morning by those apostolic ful- 
fillers of prophecy. George A. Smith was ordained an Apostle at the same meeting. 
Returning to Quincy, Wilford Woodruff again met President Joseph Smith, who had just 
escaped from captivity in Missouri. 

He was with the Prophet in the founding of Nauvoo, and assisted him in the midst 
of a fearful epidemic of fever and ague that swept over that section, during which Joseph 
healed many that were lying at the ooint of death. Not having time to visit and bless 
two sick children three miles away, the Prophet gave Elder Woodruff a red silk handker- 
chief and told him to go and lay hands on the children and wipe their faces with the 
handkerchief and they should be healed. The Apostle did as he was told, and the little 
ones recovered. The date of this incident was July 22nd, 1839. 

Sick himself with chills and fever, his family also sick, and with only four days' pro- 
visions on hand, Apostle Woodruff, on the 8th day of the ensuing August, started upon 



32 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

his first mission to England. Sailing from New York in company with John Taylor and 
Theodore Turley, he landed at Liverpool January 11,1840. He spent forty days in the 
Staffordshire potteries, preaching'and baptizing, and then proceeded south into Hereford- 
shire, where he found a society called "United Brethren," numbering some six hundred 
and fifty souls. In eight days he baptized one hundred and sixty of them, including their 
presiding elder, Thomas Kington, and forty-seven other preachers. He also baptized 
three clerks of the Church of England, who had been sent by their ministers to watch and 
report his movements. A constable who came to arrest him was also gathered into the 
fold. After meeting President Young and others of his quorum at Liverpool, where 
they landed on the 6th of April, and attending a council and conference at Preston, where 
Wiilard Richards was ordained an Apostle and the missionary work of the Twelve out- 
lined, he returned to Herefordshire. There and in Worcestershire and Gloucestershire 
he spent seven months. During that time he and his brethren baptized over eighteen 
hundred souls, including two hundred preachers of different denominations. In August 
he went to London and assisted Heber C. Kimball and George A. Smith to establish Mor- 
monism in that great city. In April, 1841, he sailed with President Young and his party 
for America, landing at New York about the last of May. Journeying westward, he was 
wrecked on Lake Michigan, but escaped and reached Nauvoo on the 6th of October. 

He was now placed in charge of the business department of the Church printing 
office, and also became a member of the city council. He filled a mission to the East, in 
company with Brigham Young and George A. Smith, to collect funds for the Nauvoo 
Temple and the Nauvoo House; and later went forth with other Elders to electioneer for 
the Prophet in the Presidential campaign of 1844. He little dreamed upon leaving 
Nauvoo, May 9th, that he had looked his last, that day, upon the living features of his 
revered and beloved leader. He was at Portland, Maine, about to step on board a 
steamer bound for Fox Islands, when he saw an account of the murder of Joseph and 
Hyrum Smith. He forthwith returned to Boston and accompanied President Young and 
others of the Twelve to Nauvoo. 

At a council held there soon after their arrival, Wilford Woodruff was appointed to 
preside over the British mission, and pursuant to that call landed at Liverpool January 
3rd, 1845. April 13th, 1846, found him back at Nauvoo, where the exodus of the Saints 
was in progress. President Young and most of the Apostles having already departed for 
the west. As soon as possible he followed with another company, stopping at Mount 
Pisgah, one hundred and seventy-two miles from Nauvoo, where, on the 26th of June, he 
met Captain James Allen, of the United States army, who had come to present the Gov- 
ernment's requisition for the Mormon Battalion. The Apostle at once sent a courier to 
the Church leaders at Council Bluffs (whither Captain Allen immediately repaired), and 
then, under ad T :te from President Young, he proceeded to enroll volunteers at Mount 
Pisgah. The f< ilowing winter he spent on the Missouri River, where occurred one of his 
terrible accidr'-s, in whi-:h he was crushed by a falling tree. He was healed by the 
prayer of faith vui tht administration of the Elders, including President Young. 

The next spring found him on his way across the plains as a member of the Pioneer 
Company , He was captain of the first ten wagons in that famous organization. He 
arrives ; n Salt Lake valley on the 24th of July, bringing with him in his carriage Presi- 
dent i'.ang, who was sicn. with mountain fever. Pioneer Woodruff's first act after 
his anival here was emineiidy characteristic of him. It was to plant the seed potatoes 
he had brought with him from the frontier. Having assisted to explore the Valley, lay 
out Salt Lake City, and erect the Old Fort, he returned with President Young and others 
to the Missouri River, where he had left his family. He was there when the First Presi- 
dency was reorganized, but in the spring of 1848 went on a mission to the Eastern States, 
from which he returned to Salt Lake City in 1850. 

December of that year found him a member of the Council or Senate of the General 
Assembly of Deseret, and September following a member of the House in the first Legis- 
lative Assembly of the Territory of Utah. He subsequently sat in the Council for a period 
of twenty years. He traveled much with President Young, exploring and helping to col- 
onize various parts of Utah and establish new settlements. 

Wilford Woodruff was a natural agriculturist. Most aptly could he have been 
styled the Cincinnatus of Utah. Without worldly ambition, and utterly devoid of show 
and ostentation, he shunned prominence rather than courted it, and esteemed place and 
power, so far as this world's honors went, as mere baubles, not worth the seeking. He 
delighted in tilling the soil and causing it to yield in abundance and variety. It was his 
pride and pleasure to find upon his trees or vines an abnormally large peach, apple, 
strawberry, or potato, to take its circumference and diameter, and exhibit the same- 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 33 

admiringly to his neighbors. He was the first president of the Utah Horticultural 
Society, organized at Salt Lake City in September, 1855, and for a long period was presi- 
dent of the Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society. He resided for many years 
in what is now the Valley House, which he owned; but he also had a fine farm in the 
southern suburbs of the town, the place known as "Woodruff Villa." He loved outdoor 
life, was exceedingly active and busy, and when not in his office or away from home, was 
sure to be found bustling about his farm, hoeing corn, harvesting grain, building, or en- 
gaging in like pursuits. 

For one who made no pretensions to education, oratory or literary ability, Wilford 
Woodruff was remarkable for his extensive fund of general knowledge, his ready and 
rapid utterance, and his graphic powers of description. He perused with avidity the 
public prints, which, with the Church works, constituted the greater part of his reading; 
and had a retentive memory and quick recollection of personal experiences and historical 
happenings, especially those affecting his people and religion. He kept a daily journal 
from the time he entered the ministry up to within two days of his death, and recorded 
therein with untiring industry every important event in Mormon history. His well 
known zeal and diligence in this direction doubtless suggested him in due time as a 
most proper person for Church Historian, to which office he succeeded at the death of 
Apostle Orson Pratt, in 1881, having previously held the position of his assistant. He 
continued to be Church Historian until he succeeded to the Presidency of the Church. 

When the St. George Temple was dedicated, in 1877, Apostle Woodruff was placed in 
charge as its president, and during the next two years he performed an immense amount 
of labor in that sacred edifice. More than forty-one thousand vicarious baptisms took 
place there during his term of presidency, and of these, three thousand one hundred and 
eighty-eight were performed by himself, his family and friends for their dead ancestors. 
President Woodruff testified that while in the Temple he received visitations three nights 
in succession from prominent Americans of the Colonial period, including the signers of 
the Declaration of Independence, who from the spirit world solicited his services in their 
behalf. He responded cheerfully, and had the necessary work done for them. 

In October, 1880, he was sustained as President of the Twelve Apostles, succeeding 
President John Taylor in that position. During the anti-polygamy crusade following the 
enactment of the Edmunds law, March, 1882, he spent much of his time in Arizona and 
Southern Utah, but was at Salt Lake City in February, 1886, when the Gardo House, the 
President's Office and the Historian's Office were raided by the United States marshal 
and his deputies, in quest of Presidents Taylor, Cannon and Smith. President Woodruff 
was in the Historian's Office at the time, with Apostles Erastus Snow and Franklin D. 
Richards. Calmly walking into the street, he passed by the officers into the crowd, appa- 
rently unrecognized 

At the death of President Taylor, in July, 1887, he succeeded virtually to the leader- 
ship of the Church, which then rested upon the Apostolic Council over which he presided. 
On April 9, 1889, the Council of the First Presidency was reorganized and Wilford Wood- 
ruff was sustained as President of the Church, with George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. 
Smith as his counselors. He succeeded President Taylor as Trustee-in-trust for the 
Church, also as president of Z. C. M. I. and of Zion's Savings Bank. 

On September, 24, 1890, President Woodruff issued the famous "Manifesto," discon- 
tinuing the practice of plural marriage; a declaration accepted and sutained by the 
Church at the following October Conference. The people were told by their leader that 
the Lord accepted their sacrifices in behalf of the principle, and desired them now to sub- 
mit to the law of the land. They obeyed. 

An era of good feeling ensued. Mormons and Gentiles affiliated socially and 
politically, and were friendly as never before. Local politic-al lines, upon which a long 
and bitter fight had been waged, were obliterated; the People's party and subsequently 
the Liberal party disbanded, and the citizens generally, regardless of past prejudices and 
affiliations, divided on national party lines, mostly as Democrats and Republicans. The 
crusade a six years' reign of terror came to an end. Presidents Harrison and 
Cleveland, in successive proclamations, pardoned all polygamists, and the Mormon 
Church property, forfeited and escheated to the government under the provisions of the 
Edmunds-Tucker law of March, 1887, was restored by act of Congress to its rightful 
owner. Utah, a Territory since September 9, 1850, on January 4, 1896, was admitted 
into the Union as a State. 

In the midst of these changes predicted in a general way by President Woodruff at 
the dedication of the Salt Lake Temple, April, 1893 the venerable leader in the fall of 
that year visited the World's Fair at Chicago, accompanying the Tabernacle Choir, which 



34 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

there competed with the trained choristers of Wales and other countries, and in the great 
vocal contest bore off second prize. President Woodruff and party, including his 
wife, Emma Smith Woodruff, and other members of his family, Presidents George Q. 
Cannon and Joseph F. Smith, with members of their families, were everywhere greeted 
cordially and received with honor. Especially was this the case at Independence, Jack- 
son county, Missouri, from which part, just sixty years before, the Latter-day Saints had 
been ruthlessly expelled by mob violence. By the civic authorities of Independence and 
by the Elders of the so-called Reorganized Church there residing, the Utah visitors were 
warmly welcomed and treated with the utmost courtesy. 

The year 1897 was a notable one in the life of President Woodruff and in the history 
of the commonwealth of which he was one of the principal founders. It was Utah's year 
of jubilee. On March 1st, the President attained his ninetieth anniversary, an 
event celebrated at the great Tabernacle in the presence of an immense gathering of 
friends, including the Governor of the State, members of the Legislature and other public 
officials, Mormons and non-Mormons. At the close of the proceedings, which were also 
in honor of Mrs. Emma Woodruff, who was fifty-nine years old that day, a reception was 
held, the entire assemblage passing by and shaking hands with the venerable leader and 
his wife. On July 20th, at the opening of the Utah Pioneer Jubilee, the President, though 
in feeble health, officiated in the ceremony of unveiling the statue of President Brigham 
Young surmounting the monument erected in his honor and that of the Pioneers. In the 
afternoon he attended the reception at the Tabernacle, where he was presented with a 
gold badge designed for the oldest Pioneer present. July 22nd, the third day of the fes- 
tival, he was crowned with flowers at the Tabernacle by the children who had marched in 
that day's procession; the floral wreath being presented and placed upon the brow of the 
aged Pioneer by little Ida Taylor Whittaker, a grand-daughter of President John Taylor. 
July 24th, the closing day of the celebration, President Woodruff, in his carriage, headed 
the great Pioneer pageant, and was greeted with enthusiasm by the multitude. 

A year later to the day he made a speech at the dedication of the Old Fort Square as a 
public park of Salt Lake City; and within the next three weeks set out upon a visit to San 
Francisco the visit from which he was destined not to return alive. For several years 
he had taken frequent trips to California, where he obtained relief from his besetting ail- 
ment, insomnia. During one of these trips, in 1896, while fishing at Catalina Islands, the 
aged sportsman, assisted by his wife, had hauled out a yellow tail weighing thirty pounds. 
He was as proud of his catch as if it had been a five-pound strawberry, picked from his 
patch at Woodruff Villa. His love for rod and gun was almost equal to his fondness for 
hoe and sickle. An event of his last visit to the coast was his attendance, by invitation, 
in company with President George Q. Cannon, at a banquet given on the evening of Au- 
gust 27, 1898, by the Bohemian Club of San Francisco, in honor of an octogenarian, 
who addressed the assemblage. The company, surprised and delighted at the vigor 
manifested by their aged friend, were simply astounded when President Woodruff, then 
in his ninety-second year, promptly responded to a call for an impromptu speech, with 
even more vigor and vivacity. 

The next day was the Sabbath: and the President addressed the Latter-day Saints 
of the San Francisco branch at their regular meeting in that city. This was his last 
public appearance. On Tuesday he was taken ill, and though everything possible was 
done for him that skill and kindness could devise, he gradually sank into the sleep of 
death, passing peacefully away at twenty minutes to seven o'clock on the morning of the 
2nd of September. He died at the home of Colonel Isaac Trumbo, where he and his party 
had been most kindly entertained. Accompanied by his wife Emma and other friends, the 
remains of the deceased leader were brought home for burial. The funeral services 
were held in the Tabernacle on the 8th of September. 

President Woodruff during his life was married five times, and was the father of 
thirty-one children, one of whom, his son Abraham Owen Woodruff, is now one of the 
Twelve Apostles. The eldest son bears his father's full name. These two, with his sons 
James, Asahel, David and Newton, are probably the male descendants best known in the 
community. Among the President's daughters are Mrs. Phebe Snow, Mrs. Beulah 
Beatie, Mrs. Belle Moses, Mrs. Clara Beebe, Mrs. Blanche Daynes, Mrs. Alice McEwan 
and Miss Mary Woodruff. 

Wilford Woodruff was beloved by his people for his great integrity, and was univers- 
ally esteemed for his honest and guileless nature. He had no enemies, and in his case 
though such examples are rare this fact constituted a credit shadowed by no element of 
reproach. His crowning characteristic, next to fidelity and devotion to principle, was his 
simple, childlike humility. He was "an Israelite indeed, 1 ' in whom there was "no guile.'' 



GEORGE ALBERT SMITH. 

'HEE were giants in the earth in those days." Scarcely more apt were these words 
i the days described in Genesis than to the days of George A. Smith and his fel- 
iw founders of Utah. Seldom have so many great spirits been grouped in any one 
t riod as were gathered around the Prophet Joseph Smith and President Brigham 
Younir..ssisting the former in the establishment of a new religion, and the latter in the 
buildin jip of a new commonwealth. Among these none loomed grander, in mature and 
later yirs, and none were humbler and more unassuming, than the beloved and revered 
. . " whose name, thus affectionately abridged, remains a synonym for all that is 
upritrhtuoble and good in the lexicon of the Latter-day Saints. A big-hearted, broad- 
miii'i' philanthropist, a giant in intellect and almost a giant in physique, he was for 
many nrs the historian and general recorder of his Church, holding simultaneously the 
Apo.-iuuip, and during the last seven years of his life he was one of the council of the 
Firv ! 'sideney. 

ire A. Smith was born at Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, New York, June 26, 
1817. ither, John Smith, and his mother, Clarissa Lyman Smith, were both natives 

of NI-..I lamphshire. His first American ancestor came from England early in the seven- 
teen ti 'iitury. John Smith was uncle to the Prophet Joseph and the Patriarch Hyrum 
SmitL. onsequently George A. was first cousin to those worthies. He bore the same rela- 
tion tv udge Elias Smith, was second cousin to President Joseph F. Smith, and father to 
John imry Smith, the Apostle. Among the best known of his descendants are his 
dautf> '.s Mrs. Clarence Merrill and Mrs. William N. Williams, his grandson, George A. 
Smith, ad his granddaughter, Mrs. Alice Merrill Home, all residents of Salt Lake City. 

arly life, checkered more or less with perils and mishaps through which he passed 
withou any permanent evil -results, was spent under the immediate watchcare of his 
parent They were members of the Congregational church, and he himself was strictly 
trainee tiierein until he was fifteen years of age; but he was an independent thinker and 
soon bike away from the churches and creeds of his time. His father being an invalid, 
the sun-.-as under the necessity of laboring constantly to supply the needs of the home. 
His orortunities for education were therefore limited, but he valued knowledge and 
made <fry effort in his power to obtain it. He early showed signs of a superior intellect, 
and hisnemory, as he grew older, became phenomenal. Though genial and humorous 
in di.-Tsition, he was old-fashioned in his ways, caring little or nothing for the company 
of chilron of his own age, so far as their fun and frivolity were concerned, and preferring 
and siting the society of older people. He was a great favorite with his grandfather, 
Asaei .Tiith, a veteran of the Revolution and the war of 1812, and would climb upon the 
old ma's knees and listen spell-bound to his thrilling narrations of his experience while 
fightiirior liberty and independence. 

e year 1828 came to this branch of the Smith family the news of the discovery 
by the- kinsman Joseph Smith, at Manchester, Ontario county, of the famous golden 
plate< -om which he translated the Book of Mormon. A copy of this book was 
brotipi to them two years later by Joseph Smith, Sr., and his son, Don Carlos, a 
younj." brother of the Prophet. George A. read the book very carefully, and after 
thorouQ inquiry and investigation, accepted it as an inspired record. A wealthy and 
inflti<"!al Presbyterian in his neighborhood offered to send him to college as a prepar- 
ation : the Christian ministry if he would promise not to become a Mormon, but he 
decline- the offer, and on the 10th of September, 1832, joined the Church of Jesus Christ 
of L." day Saints. He was baptized by Elder Joseph H. Wakefield, and confirmed by 
Elder -lomon Humphrey. 

1833. he removed with his parents to Kirtland, Ohio, and during the sum- 
mer n! iat year quarried and hauled rock for the building of the Kirtland Temple. The 
5th of lay, 1834, found him on his way to Missouri as a member of Zion's Camp. He 
walked lie entire distance to Clay county where most of the Saints expelled from Jack- 
son > ity had gathered in forty- five days; a distance of a thousand miles; his outfit 
consist^ of a musket, a blanket and a knapsack. During the last three weeks of the 
journ- he was the Prophet's personal attendant or "armor bearer.'' ' Sleeping in the 



36 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

same tent with Joseph and Hyrum, and present at most of the councils held, he acquired 
much information that afterwards proved invaluable to him, regarding the Prophets 
manner and method of governing men and settling difficulties. He returned to Kirtland 
early in August of the same year. When the time came to ordain the Twelve Apostles 
and the first Seventies of the "Church, he was ordained a Seventy under the hands of 
Joseph Smith, Sr., Joseph Smith, Jr., and Sidney Rigdon, the last named being mouth. 
The date of his ordination was March 1, 1835. He was set apart as a member of the 
first quorum of Seventy. 

Between May, 1835, and April, 1838, he fulfilled three missions, the first in company 
with Elder Lyman Smith in Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York; the second in Ohio, and 
the third in southeastern Ohio and northwestern Virginia. In the intervals he attended 
school at Kirtland. While upon the third mission he taught grammar classes, thereby 
earning means to purchase clothing. This mission was a very arduous one. He met 
with much opposition, held public debates with ministers of various denominations, and 
suffered for six weeks with inflammatory rheumatism, caused by exposure and privation 
while traveling through all kinds of weather and experiencing all sorts of treatment in a 
wild and sparsely inhabited region. While thus occupied he met the lady who was des- 
tined to become his wife Miss Bathsheba W. Bigler, of Harrison county, West Virginia. 

The summer of 1838 found him located at Adam-Ondi-Ahman, Daviess county, 
Missouri, where on the 28th of June he was ordained a High Priest and set apart as a 
member of the High Council of that Stake. In the fall of the year, with his cousin, Don 
Carlos Smith, he went upon a mission through Kentucky and Tennessee. During his 
absence the Prophet and many of his brethren were made prisoners and various atrocities 
were perpetrated by the Missourians upon the Mormon settlers. George A. and Don 
Carlos, while on their way home, were pursued by a mob and came nigh perishing in a 
storm on the prairie. 

On April 26, 1839, George A. Smith was ordained an Apostle, to fill a vacancy in the 
quorum, caused by the apostasy of Thomas B. Marsh. His ordination took place on the 
Temple corner-stone at Far West, then all but deserted by Latter-day Saints, who had 
been driven from Missouri into Illinois. He was ordained under the hands of Brigham 
Young and several other Apostles, Heber C. Kimball being mouth. He soon set out with 
a majority of his quorum upon their mission to Great Britain, and though suffering much 
sickness, steadily held on his way, preaching through Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, New York, Massachusetts' and Connecticut. 

April 6, 1840, was the date of his landing in England. He labored in the counties 
of Lancaster, Chester, Stafford, Warwick, Worcester, Hereford, Gloucester, Essex and 
Middlesex; and with Heber C. Kimball and Wilford Woodruff built up a branch of the 
Church in London. It required a strong effort to introduce Mormonism in the Metropolis, 
and much street preaching had to be done. Apostle Smith there injured his left lung, 
which troubled him during the remainder of his life and finally caused his death. 

AtNauvoo, to which place he returned early in July, 1841, he married, on the 25th 
of that month, Miss Bathsheba W. Bigler, who as Mrs. Bathsheba W. Smith has long 
held a prominent place among the women of Utah. In February, 1842, he was elected 
a city councilor, and a year later an alderman of Nauvoo. He was successively a chap- 
lain and Quarter-master General of the Legion, also a trustee of the Nauvoo House 
Association. In 1842, 1843 and 1844 he did considerable ministerial work in Illinois and 
in states farther east. He was in Michigan when his kinsmen, Joseph and Hyrum Smith, 
were murdered in Carthage jail. 

When the time came to evacuate Nauvoo, George A. Smith was one of the first of the 
Mormon leaders to set out for the West. An anecdote aptly illustrating his character 
finds its place at this point. At a council where the subject of the exodus was being 
considered, a great many discouraging views were expressed, when George A., after 
listening intently to the pessimistic sentiments, and it coming his turn to speak, arose 
and said: ''Well, brethren, if there's no God in Israel, we're a sucked in set of fellows; 
I'm going to cross the river. " A general laugh followed, hope was kindled in every 
heart and the spirit of gloom that had rested upon the assembly was at once dispelled. 
Short speeches and shorter prayers were characteristic of George A. Smith, and his utter- 
ances were always pithy and to the point. 

He accompanied the vanguard of the migrating Church across Iowa to the Missouri 
river, where, after many hardships and delays, caused by wet weather and bad roads, they 
arrived about the first of July, 1846. He had five men to assist him in building bridgrs, 
constructing ferry boats and driving and caring for teams, but when the Mormon Bat- 
talion was called for, these men all enlisted, leaving him with the teams on his hands. At 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 37 

Winter Quarters he constructed by his own labor five cabins of logs and earth for the use 
of his family. At the expiration of six months they were compelled by government 
officers to remove to the east side of the river. There he built four cabins, which were 
occupied by his family until June, 1849. While on the west side, one of his wives, Nancy 
Clement Smith, and four of his children died from scurvy, superinduced by a lack of 
vegetable diet. As a cure for this disease, which was prevalent, he urged upon the peo- 
ple the cultivation of the potato, visiting their camps for that purpose. This caused him 
to be called "the potato Saint." 

During the pioneer journey of 1847 he walked a distance of seventeen hundred 
miles, and was for six weeks without bread; but was better off than most of the company, 
for he had about twenty-five pounds of flour locked up in his trunk, unknown to any one. 
This he issued by cupfulls to the sick, some of whom attributed to it the preservation of 
their lives. He entered "the Valley" on the 22nd of July, two days before the arrival of 
President Young, and states in his journal that he planted the first potato put in the soil 
of Salt Lake valley. A cabin built by him as a portion of the Old Fort was occupied by 
his aged sire, "Father John Smith," who was in the immigration immediately following 
the Pioneers and became president of the first Stake of Zion organized in the Rocky 
mountains. 

Having returned with President Young to the Missouri river, our Apostle had 
charge, after the departure of the First Presidency in 1848, of the emigration at Kanes- 
ville, or Council Bluffs, and in the last of the westbound companies of 1849, he set out 
with his family for Salt Lake valley. His heavily loaded teams encountered severe 
storms, the cattle were stampeded, and at South Pass seventy of his animals were frozen. 
He arrived at his journey's end on the 27th of October. 

Hon. George A. Smith was a member of the Senate of the Provisional State of 
Deseret, and reported the first bill printed for the consideration of the General Assembly. 
It was a bill for the organization of the Judiciary. He also reported a bill relating to the con- 
struction of a national railroad across the continent. The Assembly having provided for the 
organization of Iron county, of which he was appointed "Chief Justice," with "power to 
proceed," he raised a company of one hundred and eighteen volunteers, and in December, 
1850, accompanied by about thirty families, started southward to plant a colony in the 
vicinity of the Little Salt Lake. The expedition after crossing five ranges of mountains, 
located on Centre Creek, where they unfurled the stars and stripes and organized the 
county of Iron. During that winter he taught school, having thirty-five pupils, to whom 
he lectured on English grammar around the evening camp fire. 

At the first Territorial election in August, 1851, he was elected to the Council of the 
Legislature. In the following October he was commissioned Postmaster of Centre Creek, 
by Postmaster- General Hall. In November he was commissioned by Governor Young as 
Colonel of Cavalry in the Iron military district. He was afterwards placed in charge of 
the militia throughout Southern Utah, and instructed to take measures for the defense 
and safety of the inhabitants against Chief Walker and his blood-thirsty bands, who had 
begun to rob and kill the settlers. In 1852 he was appointed to preside over Church affairs 
in Utah County and to exercise a general supervision over all the colonies in the southern 
part of the Territory. 

Possessed of a legal and statesmanlike mind, he early turned to the study of law and 
constitutional principles. In October, 1851, while yet a tyro in the profession, he 
defended in the district court at Salt Lake City, Howard Egan, one of his fellow Pion- 
eers, who was on trial for slaying James Monroe, the seducer of his wife. Parts of the 
notable speech delivered by him on that occasion, and which brought a verdict of acquittal 
from the jury, may be found in the twenty-third chapter of our first volume. It should be 
stated that George A. Smith practised law for the pure love of justice and the legal 
science. His services were given free, not only to the defendant Egan, but to all his 
other clients as well. He was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of Utah and 
received his certificate as an attorney and counselor at law and solicitor in chancery, 
February 2nd, 1855. 

At the General Conference of the Church in 1854, he was elected Historian and General 
Recorder, and immediately went to work compiling the documentary history of Joseph 
Smith. Assisted by four clerks, he compiled and recorded the Prophet's history from 
February 20, 1843, to the date of his death, June 27, 1844, and also supplied from mem- 
ory and other sources blanks in the record compiled by President Willard Richards, his 
predecessor, who had written on the margin "To be supplied by George A. Smith." 

He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of March, 1856, and was elected 
by that body one of two delegates to proceed to Washington and present the proposed 



38 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

State Constitution and its accompanying Memorial to Congress. The other delegate was 
John Taylor, who was editing "The Mormon" in New York City. This political mission 
, was given to Apostle Smith as a respite from his too close application to the Historian's 
office. The only response vouchsafed to Utah's appeal for statehood was the stopping of 
the mails and the setting of an army in motion for the invasion of the Territory. Our 
Apostle was absent in the East for about eleven months, during which time, besides 
attending to his duties as a delegate, he preached in nine States of the Union. He 
returned in time to take part in the general preparations for defense made by the people 
of Utah at the approach of Johnston's army. 

In the fall of 1860 he suffered a terrible shock in the tidings brought to him of the 
murder of his eldest son, George A. Smith, Jr., who was killed by Navajo Indians, about 
thirty-five miles north of the Moquis villages in New Mexico, now Arizona. It was many 
months before he fully recovered from the effect produced upon him by this lamentable 
tragedy. In 1866, owing to the incursions of Indians upon the southeastern settlements, 
he organized the militia of the Iron military district into a brigade of three regiments, 
embraced in the counties of Iron, Washington, Kane and Beaver, and established posts 
to prevent the inroads of Ute and Navajo Indians. He was then an aid-de-camp of 
Lieutenant-General Wells. He received a commission as Brigadier-General from 
Governor Charles Durkee on April llth of the same year. 

For many years George A. Smith had charge of the extension of settlements in 
Southern Utah, embracing the cotton districts in Washington and Kane counties. He 
was known as the father of the Southern Utah settlements, the chief of which, St. George, 
was named after him. He was elected every two years to the Council of the Legislative 
Assembly, and up to 1864 served as a member of every session except one. From 1864 
to 1870 he was President ot the Council. 

At the October Conference in 1868 came his elevation to the First Presidency, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of President Heber C. Kimball, first counselor to Presi- 
dent Brigham Young. The selection of George A. Smith for this important position gave 
universal satisfaction. 

In October, 1872, President Smith set out upon a special mission to Palestine, to 
bless the land that it might be redeemed from sterility, and to dedicate it for the speedy 
restoration of the tribes of Israel. The members of the party were George A. Smith, 
Lorenzo Snow, Paul A. Schettler, Feramorz Little, George Dunford, Thomas W. Jennings, 
Eliza R. Snow and Clara S. Little. From Genoa, George Dunford returned and Albert 
Carrington took his place, completing the tour. After leaving England they passed through 
Holland, Belgium, France and Italy, thence sailing to Egypt and Palestine. An interest- 
ing incident of the journey was a call upon President Thiers of the French Republic. 
President Smith much enjoyed the tour, especially of the Holy Land. Having accom- 
plished his mission, he returned by way of Constantinople and Athens to Trieste, and 
visited the principal cities of Austria and Germany. May 18th, 1873, found him and his 
party in London, and on the 28th of that month they sailed for home, arriving at Salt 
Lake City on the 18th of June. 

During President Smith's absence, he had been appointed Trustee-in-trust for the 
Church, which office he held until his death. After his return from abroad he spent con- 
siderable time in his name-sake city, St. George, encouraging the building of the Temple 
at that place. A zealous advocate of the United Order, which President Young sought 
to establish, he preached much upon that theme in various parts of the Territory. 

While returning from St. George to Salt Lake in February, 1875, either while 
journeying or soon after his arrival here, he was attacked with a severe cold, which set- 
tled upon his lungs, depriving him of the use of his voice. This affliction, combined with 
a very peculiar manifestation of insomnia, which prevented him from sleeping except in 
an upright posture, and then only at short intervals, finally caused his death, September 
1st, 1875. 

President George A. Smith possessed great qualities of mind and heart. Humble as 
a child, he was every inch a man; prudent and wise, yet fearless as a lion. He was a 
counselor par excellence, respectful to authority, but no cringing sycophant. When 
asked for his opinion he gave it candidly, whether or not it agreed with opinions already 
expressed. If his counsel was rejected a very rare occurrence he was not offended, 
and if opposite advice prevailed, he stood one with his brethren in carrying out the 
policy agreed upon. A great economist, he dressed plainly, lived within his means and 
zealously advocated home manufactures. Public-spirited and generous, his acts of bene- 
volence and charity were many, but entirely without ostentation. He was a man of few 
words, but his speeches abounded in apt anecdotes and illustrations. He was noted for 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 39 

his good judgment, his capacious and retentive memory, and his sound, common sense. 
President Young said at his funeral that he had known him for forty-two years, had 
traveled and labored with him in the ministry during much of that time, and believed him 
to be as faithful a boy and man as ever lived. He added these telling words: "I never 
knew of his neglecting or over-doing a duty. He was a man of sterling integrity, a 
cabinet of history, and always true to his friends." 



AMASA MASON LYMAN. 

'HE name of this noted man Apostle and Pioneer is inseparably interwoven with 

| the early history of Utah and other parts of the West. An industrious colonizer, 
an eloquent orator, and a leader of more than ordinary ability, he was with the 
Mormon Church and people from the days of Kirtland until long after the settle- 
ment of Salt Lake Valley. He performed many missions, and passed through some 
thrilling experiences during the anti-Mormon troubles in Missouri. Loved and trusted 
by the Prophet Joseph Smith, whose affection he warmly returned, and whose confi- 
dence he merited, he was likewise a staunch and able supporter of President Brigham 
Young in all the toils and trials of the exodus from Illinois and the exploration and col- 
onization of the western wilderness. At the time of his death he was still a resident of 
Utah, though no longer a member of the Mormon community. 

Amasa M. Lyman was the third son of Boswell Lyman and his wife Martha Mason, 
and was born in Lyman township, Grafton county, New Hampshire, March 30, 1813. He 
was less than two years old when.his father, in order to mend his fortune, started for the 
West. He never returned, and is supposed to have died near New Orleans, six years 
after his departure from home. Amasa's eldest brother, Mason, was indentured to a New 
Hampshire farmer. His elder brother Elijah died in infancy. Himself, his younger brother 
Elias and his sister Ruth remained with their mother until she re-married, when Amasa 
was placed in charge of his grandfather, Perez Mason, with whom he lived until he was 
eleven years of age. At that time the old gentleman went to reside with his eldest son, 
Perley Mason, and his grandson, accompanying him, remained at his uncle's home during 
the next seven years. 

Amasa was about eighteen when his mind became thoughtful upon the subject of re- 
ligion, and he remained in that condition, though not uniting himself with any church, 
until the spring of 1832, when he heard the Gospel preached by Lyman E. Johnson and 
Orson Pratt. This was his first acquaintance with Mormonism. He was baptized by 
Elder Johnson on April 27th of that year and confirmed by Elder Pratt the day follow- 
ing. Soon after, on account of the ill-feeling that arose in his uncle's household over his 
conversion to the unpopular faith, he resolved to leave and go to the Weet. 

Accordingly, on the 7th of May, 1832, he bade adieu to the family and started upon 
a journey of seven hundred miles. He had but a few dollars in cash, and after this 
means was exhausted, mostly in traveling by stage and canal, he walked some distance to 
Palmyra, Wayne county, New York, where he found employment with Mr. Thomas 
Lacky. This was the man who bought the farm of Martin Harris when he sold it to 
raise money with which to publish the Book of Mormon. After working for Mr. Lacky 
about two weeks and receiving four and a half dollars in wages, Amasa continued his 
journey by way of Buffalo, Lake Erie and Cleveland, to Hiram, Portage county, Ohio, 
where he arrived on the 5th of June. There he was kindly received and entertained by 
Father John Johnson, whose son Lyman had baptized him. 

It was at Father Johnson's house that the Prophet Joseph Smith and Elder Sidney 
Rigdon were staying when they were brutally mobbed on the night of March 25th of that 
year. The Prophet was now absent on a visit to Missouri, but he returned to reside at 
Johnson's about the 1st of July, and it was there and then that young Lyman first met 
him. The latter, having entered the employ of Father Johnson, continued working for 
him until some time in August, when the Prophet said to him, "Brother Amasa, the Lord 
requires your labors in the vineyard." He at once replied, "I will go," though up to 
that time he had had no experience as a preacher. He was ordained an Elder under the 
hands of the Prophet and Elder Frederick G. Williams on the 23rd of August, and next 



40 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

day he and Zerubbabel Snow (ordained an Elder at the same time) started upon their 
first mission. They labored in Southern Ohio and in Cabell county, Virginia, until 
spring, baptizing about forty souls. 

From Kirtland, Ohio, March 21st, 1833, Elder Lyman started upon his second mis- 
sion, having as his companion Elder William F. Gaboon. He traveled in the State of 
New York for about eight months, and saw one hundred souls added to the Church. He 
then set out for Kirtland, but on the way met Elders Lyman E Johnson, Orson Pratt 
and John Murdock in Erie county, Pennsylvania, where a conference was held and 
Elder Lyman ordained a High Priest under the hands of Lyman E. Johnson and Orson 
Pratt. He next proceeded to Livingston county. New York, where he labored until early 
in 1834, when, in company with Alva L. Tippetts, he visited his native State, but was 
soon recalled to Kirtland and enrolled as a member of Zion's Camp. The two sons of 
Father John Tanner, of Warren county, New York, John J. and Nathan accompan- 
ied him to Ohio. There he turned over to the Prophet money and teams contributed by 
Father Tanner and others for the expedition to Missouri. His connection with Zion's 
Camp extended until the disbandinent in Clay county, Missouri, where he assisted in tak- 
ing a census of the Latter-day Saints in that section. He then returned to Kirtland, ar- 
riving there May 26, 1835, having, on the way, in company with Elder Heman T. Hyde, 
preached, baptized, and raised up a branch in Madison county, Illinois. 

During the three weeks that he remained at the Church headquarters, Elder Lyman 
married his first wife, Louisa Maria Tanner, daughter of Father John Tanner, previously 
mentioned; the same who was afterwards cruelly maltreated by the mob in Missouri. 
The marriage was solemnized by Elder Seymour Brunson. Five days later the young 
husband was again in the mission field, mostly in the State of New York, where he la- 
bored with success. He was now a member of the first quorum of Seventy, having been 
ordained about the time of his marriage, by Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery and Sidney 
Rigdon. The following winter he spent at Kirtland, attending the Temple school, and in 
the spring again labored in New York State, where he performed the ceremony of mar- 
riage uniting his brother-in-law and fellow missionary^ Nathan Tanner, to Miss Rachel 
Smith. Now came a short mission to Erie county, Pennsylvania, and then his removal 
to Missouri. 

Amasa M. Lyman set out for the new gathering place at Far West in the autumn of 
1837. He and his family were accompanied by Nathan Tanner and household, and Mr. 
Jared Randall, who had been engaged to provide the means of transportation. Arriving 
in Caldwell county, Missouri, Mr. Lyman left his family there while he sought and found 
employment at Fort Leavenworth, where he worked through the winter. In the spring he 
did a job of work on the courthouse in Chariton county, and then rejoined his family. 
When the difficulties arose that eventuated in the expulsion of his people from Missouri, 
he took the field and was in the very thick of the trouble. Early in October, 1838, he was 
deputed by the authorities at Far West to find a way to the beleagured Saints at Dewitt, 
Carroll county, who were surrounded by mobs in such a way as to preclude any approach 
to them by ordinary routes, in consequence of which little or nothing could be learned of 
them. Selecting James Dunn as his companion, and disguising himself in such a manner 
as to completely conceal his identity, he went forth upon his dangerous errand. The two 
reached Dewitt in safety, but found the place almost deserted, the inhabitants having fled 
to Far West. They took dinner with some of the mobbers and departed, but on the way 
home were intercepted by armed and mounted Missourians and made prisoners. Their 
captors required them to take charge of a cannon they were transporting to Daviess 
county for service against the Mormons, and on this cannon they were permitted to ride. 
At the end of four days they were liberated, but were compelled to take the back track, 
not being allowed to rejoin their friends, then only seven miles away. By a circuitous 
route they finally reached Far West. 

Mr. Lyman was now given charge of a squad of ten men, whose duty it was to spy 
out the enemy and discover their designs. He was near Crooked river, engaged in this 
service, when the battle at that place was fought. He was one of the defenders of Far 
West, and after the betrayal of the Prophet and his brethren by Colonel Hinckle, and the 
surrender of the city, he was also singled out as a prisoner and condemned with 
others to be shot next morning, the execution of which murderous sentence was defeated 
by General Doniphan. Mr. Lyman was allowed five minutes to bid adieu to his weeping 
wife and prattling babe and was then conducted with his fellow prisoners to Jackson 
county, and subsequently confined in chains at Richmond, in Ray county. On November 
24th he was discharged and made his way back to Far West. 

The Sabbath after his release he met Colonel Hinckle, the traitor, who proposed to 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 41 

him, now that the Prophet was in trouble, from which he stated he would not escape, 
that they join and go to the South and build up a church for themselves. Lyman spurned 
the base proposition. About this time he was elected a justice of the peace, and did much 
clerical work for his brethren when they were compelled by the mob to convey their 
lands, purchased from the government, to pay the expenses of the war waged against 
them. Though suffering much from sickness at this time, he was closely watched by the 
mob commander, Captain Bogart, and his emissaries. In March, 1839, he rejoined his 
family at Quincy, Illinois, they having preceded him out of Missouri. 

During the spring he was engaged with others in earnest but futile attempts to res- 
cue Parley P. Pratt and his fellow prisoners from captivity. The following winter he 
resided with his friend Justus Morse in McDonough county, Illinois, where his eldest 
son, Francis M. Lyman, the present Apostle, was born, January 12, 1840. Early in the 
spring of that year he built a cabin on what was known as the ''Half-breed Tract" in Lee 
county, Iowa, and having housed his family therein, went to work boating wood on the 
Mississippi. 

A year later he moved to Nauvoo, and shortly afterward went upon a mission of 
several months into Northern Illinois, in company with Charles Shumway. A mission to 
Indiana, with Peter Haws, to secure means for the building of the Nauvoo Temple and 
the Nauvoo House, was followed by a similar errand to Tennessee in the summer of 
1842, when he had as his companions Horace K. Whitney, Adam Lightner and subse : 
quently Lyman Wight. 

Amasa M. Lyman was ordained an Apostle, August 20, 1842, and on the 10th of 
September he started, in company with George A. Smith, on a mission into Southern 
Illinois. He was afterwards joined by Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball. The fol- 
lowing winter, under the direction of the Prophet, he moved to Henderson county, where 
he superintended the survey of a new townsite and began to build, remaining there until 
the summer of 1843. When the Prophet was kidnapped by the Missourians Apostle 
Lyman participated in the movement that resulted in his rescue. Another mission fol- 
lowed, this time to Indiana, where he labored until the spring of 1844, and then repaired 
to Nauvoo. 

At the April Conference of the Church he was commissioned to labor with Elder G. 
J. Adams in the cities of Cincinnati and Boston. Parting (for the last time) with the 
Prophet, who warmly grasped his hand, exhorted him to practice the principles he had 
taught him, and gave him a fervent "God bless you," he went forth upon his mission. 
He was at Cincinnati in July, when he received the news of the double murder in Carth- 
age Jail. 

The Twelve Apostles having been acknowledged as the presiding council of the 
Church, in lieu of the First Presidency, dissolved, Apostle Lyman, as one of that coun- 
cil, continued to play an active part in public affairs. He was in the exodus of 1846. and 
was one of the Pioneers who accompanied President Young to the Rocky Mountains in 
1847. At Fort Laramie, early in June, he with Thomas Woolsey, John H. Tippetts and 
Roswell Stevens, was sent horse-back to Pueblo, to lead thence to Salt Lake valley a 
company of Latter-day Saints en route from the State of Mississippi. Owing to this 
duty, which was promptly performed, he did not reach the valley until three days after 
the main body of the Pioneers. He helped to explore the region, to lay off the city, and 
otherwise participated in the initial labors of the original settlers. He returned with 
President Young and others to the Missouri River the same season. The next year he, 
with his family, came to Salt Lake valley, in charge of a subdivision of the general emi- 
gration led by President Young in person. 

Not long after his second arrival here Apostle Lyman was appointed upon a mission 
to California, from which he returned in September, 1850. Six months later he and 
Apostle Charles C. Rich headed the famous San Bernardino colony, so named from a 
ranch purchased by them in Southern California, upon which in the following autumn 
they settled. The purpose was to found an outfitting post, similar to Kanesville on the 
Missouri, in order to facilitate Mormon emigration from the West. The settlement of 
San Bernardino was continued until the year 1858, when, owing to the trouble between 
Utah and the General Government, it was deemed best to break it up and have the col 
onists return f o their former homes. This wa done. 

During the years 1860, 1861 and 1862 Apostle Lyman was presiding with Apostle 
Rich over the European Mission. Returning thence he spent the remainder of his days 
in Utah, his home being at Fillmore in Millard County. He was the husband of eight 
wives, and the father of thirty-seven children twenty-two sons and fifteen daughters. 
His eventual separation from the Church an event deeply deplored by the whole Mor- 



42 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

mon community was due to his persistent preaching of a doctrine condemned by the 
general authorities; a doctrine involving a virtual repudiation of the atonement of the 
Savior. He was excommunicated May 12, 1870, and died at his home in Fillmore, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1877. 



EZRA TAFT BENSON. 

'N Apostle from the summer of 1846, one of the Pioneers of 1847, and otherwise a 
man of mark in the Mormon community, the subject of this sketch will be best 
remembered for the part played by him in the settlement and development of Cache 
valley. Two names are pre-eminently connected with its colonization. They 
are Ezra T. Benson and Peter Maughan; the latter the pioneer, and the former the high- 
est presiding authority for nearly a decade in that always promising and now prosperous 
section. Needless to say that he was a man of force and energy; such qualities were 
indispensable in the founders of Utah. A fearless and able expounder of his faith, an 
earnest and industrious worker in whatever he undertook, he enjoyed the confidence of 
his associates, and exercised a potent influence over the people in their temporal as well 
as their spiritual affairs. 

The first son of John and Chloe Benson, he was born February 22, 1811, at Men- 
don, Worcester county, Massachusetts. His father was a farmer, noted for his industry, 
and Ezra, until sixteen years of age, remained at home, working upon the farm. He 
then went to live with his sister and her husband, who kept a hotel in the town of Ux- 
bridge. He remained with them three years, when the sudden death of his grandfather 
Benson, also a farmer, who fell dead while at work in the field, brought about another 
change in his life. At the request of his -vidowed grandmother, he became the manager 
of her farm. 

When twenty years of age Ezra T. Benson married Pamelia Andrus, daughter of 
Jonathan H. and Lucina Andrus, of Northbridge, in his native county. The next year 
he quit farming and went to hotels-keeping, buying out his brother-in-law and running 
that business for about two years. He made considerable money, with which he hired a 
cotton mill, and with his wife's brother began the manufacture of cotton in the town of 
Holland, Massachusetts. Through a combination of causes it proved an unprofitable 
venture, and retiring from it, Mr. Benson took a hotel in the same town, and again made 
money. He was also appointed postmaster. Though prosperous, he was not content, 
having a great desire to go to the West. 

This desire was partly put into effect in the spring of 1837, when he and his family 
started westward. At Philadelphia, however, a gentleman whose acquaintance he there 
formed, persuaded him to go to the town of Salem, promising to assist him in setting up 
in business at that place. He remained at Salem for about a year, at the expiration of 
which time, though his neighbors offered to render him any aid he might need in a 
business way, he again yearned for the West and finally started in that direction. 

At St. Louis he procured a small stock of goods and proceeded up tlie Illinois river, 
not knowing where he should land. Meeting upon the boat a man who proved to be his 
father's cousin, and who was living at Griggsville, Illinois, Mr. Benson concluded to stop 
there, and did so, but not for long. He moved to Lexington in the same State, and then 
to the mouth of the Little Blue, where he and one Isaac Hill laid out and named the 
town of Pike. Here Mr. Benson.built a dwelling house and a warehouse and prepared 
to stay, but the place was sickly, and he soon longed to be elsewhere. 

Early in 1839 he was induced to go to the city of Quincy in quest of a home, and 
there he met with the Latter-day Saints, who had just been driven by mob violence out 
of Missouri. He heard of them as a very peculiar people, but in listening to the preach- 
ing of their Elders, and in conversing with them, he found them very agreeable. During 
the following winter he boarded with a family of Latter-day Saints and formed a high 
opinion of them. 

In the spring of 1840 he took up his residence at Quincy, securing two acres of land 
in the town and building a house thereon. He still associated with the Saints, with whom 
he strongly sympathized on account of their persecutions, and held conversations with 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 43 

them concerning their doctrines. He first saw the Prophet Joseph Smith at a debate 
in Quincy between some of the Mormon Elders and a Dr. Nelson, who was much opposed 
to them. This debate convinced him that the Latter-day Saints believed and practiced 
the truths of the Bible. Though pleased with their victory over Dr. Nelson, Mr. Benson 
at that time had no idea that he himself would become a Mormon. Their principles, 
however, were the chief topic of conversation with himself, his family and the neighbors, 
and he and his wife attended their meetings. She was first to avow a belief in the doc- 
trines. When the word went out that the Bensons were believers in Mormonism, a 
strong effort was made by their non-Mormon friends to get them to join some other 
church. Abont this time Apostles Orson Hyde and John E. Page visited Quincy, having 
started on their mission to the Holy Land. Their preaching resolved Mr. and Mrs. Ben- 
son upon joining the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and they were accord- 
ingly baptized by the president of the Quincy branch, July 19, 1840. They recognized 
in this event the explanation of the strong desire that had possessed them to come West, 
and the feeling of discontent they had experienced in their previous places of residence. 

While attending the fall conference of 1840 at Nauvoo, Ezra T. Benson was or- 
dained an Elder, and after his return to Quincy he was visited by President Hyrum 
Smith, who ordained him a High Priest and appointed him second counselor to the presi- 
dent of the stake which he there organized. April, 1841, found him a resident of Nau- 
voo, where he bought a lot. fenced and improved it, and built a log house for his family. 
From June, 1842, until the fall of 1843 he was upon a mission in the Eastern States, and 
in May, 1844, again started East in company with Elder John Pack. They were recalled 
to Nauvoo by the tidings of the martyrdom. 

The autumn of 1844 foun<? him acting as a member of the High Council at Nauvoo, 
and in December of that year he was again sent East upon a mission. He presided over 
the Boston Conference until the beginning of May, 1845, when he was counseled to 
gather up all the members of the Church who could go, and move them lo Nauvoo. In 
the ensuing summer and fall he worked on the Nauvoo Temple, frequently standing 
guard all night to keep off the mob then threatening. 

In the exodus of 1846 he and his family left in the first company that started for the 
West. At Mount Pisgah he was appointed a counselor to Father William Huntington, 
who presided there. While at that place he received a letter from President Brigham 
Young on the Missouri, informing him of his appointment as an Apostle, to take the place 
made vacant by the excommunication of John E. Page. He now moved on to the main 
camp at Council Bluffs, where he was ordained to the Apostleship and received into the 
Quorum of the Twelve, July 16, 1846. Shortly afterwards he was sent East upon a mis- 
sion, from which he returned on the 27th of November. 

The next spring found him enrolled as a member of President Young's band of 
Pioneers and on his way to the Rocky mountains. After their arrival in Salt Lake valley 
he was sent back to meet the oncoming emigration of that season and inform them that a 
place of settlement had been found. Having discharged this duty, he returned to the 
valley, and then accompanied President Young back to Winter Quarters. About the 
close of the year 1847 he started upon another mission to the East, and upon his return 
at the expiration of several months was appointed to preside over the Saints in Potta- 
wattamie county, Iowa, in which charge he was associated with Apostles Orson Hyde 
and George A. Smith. 

In the year 1849, in company with Apostle Smith, he moved with his family to Salt 
Lake valley. He was dangerously sick while on the way, and was not expected to live, 
but the camp fasted and prayed for him, and he recovered and reached his destination. 
In 1851 he was commissioned to proceed to the frontier, gather up the Saints in Potta- 
wattamie county, and bring them to Utah. From this mission he returned in August, 
1852. He remained at home until 1856, when he was appointed upon a mission to 
Europe, where in conjunction with Apostle Orson Pratt, he presided over the British mis- 
sion until the fall of 1857, when he was released to return home. 

The year 1860 witnessed his removal to Cache valley, where he had been appointed 
to preside, virtually as president of the Stake; Peter Maughan being also in authority as 
presiding Bishop of those northern settlements. President Benson made his home at 
Logan, and continued to reside there until the day of his death. 

In the year 1864 he, with Apostle Lorenzo Snow, Elders Joseph F. Smith, William W. 
Ouff and Alma L. Smith, were sent upon a special mission to the Sandwich Islands, to 
set in order the affairs of the Church in that land, which had been much disturbed by the 
nefarious operations of the imposter, Walter M. Gibson, who had palmed himself upon the 
credulous native Saints as a sort of kingly and priestly ruler, to whom they must pay 



44 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

abject homage. Apostle Benson and his companions faithfully executed their errand, 
though in attempting to land upon one of the islands, he and Apostle Snow, by the acci- 
dental capsizing of their boat, came very near being drowned. This mission, from which 
he returned the same year, was his last absence from Utah. 

He continued, however, to be prominent in public affairs at home. He had taken 
active part in organizing the Provisional Government of Deseret, and after the Territory 
of Utah was created he was a member of the House branch of the Legislature for several 
sessions. During the last ten years of his life he was continuously a member of the 
Council. 

When the railroad came, he with Lorin Farr and Chauncey W. West, of Ogden, took 
a large grading contract on the Central Pacific and built many miles of that road. 
President Benson's mind was much preyed upon during this period through the inability 
of himself and his partners to secure a settlement with the railroad company, and it is 
supposed that these troubles superinduced his death, which was sudden, like that of his 
grandfather, many years before. It was Friday, September 3, 1869, and he had just 
arrived at Ogden, from his home in the north, and was in the act of caring for a sick 
horse, when he fell dead, stricken with apoplexy. The funeral and burial took place at 
Logan on the following Sabbath. 

Like most of the Mormon leaders of his time, Ezra T. Benson was the husband and 
father of several families. Among his living sons are Messrs. Don and Frank Benson, the 
former for several terms City Marshal of Logan. The Apostle was the father also of Mrs. 
Belle Goodwin, of Logan; Mrs. Dr. Norcross, formerly of that place; and the late Mrs. 
Boliver Roberts, of Salt Lake City. 



ERASTUS SNOW. 

[E Pioneer who shared with Orson Pratt the distinction of being the first among 
their famous band to enter Salt Lake valley was a prominent Elder and soon be- 
came an Apostle of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Of all the 
distinguished characters surrounding Brigham Young at that or at any subse- 
quent period of his life, perhaps no other resembled him in so many respects as did this 
man, whose record as a colonizer and a statesman is second only to that of the pioneer 
chieftain himself. He was to Southern Utah and farther south what President Young 
was to the whole inter-mountain region its leading explorer and principal founder of 
settlements. Abroad he was the father of the Scandinavian Mission, than which few 
fields have been more prolific of converts to the Mormon faith or have done more to people 
and build up the Rocky Mountain country. At home he was no less a father, a friend, 
a wise counselor to the people, and an ever watchful guardian over their interests. 

Erastus Snow was a native of St. Johnsbury, Caledonia county, Vermont; born 
November 9, 1818. He was a descendant of Richard Snow, who settled in Massachusetts 
in 1635, and a son of Levi and Lucina Streeter Snow, whose seven sons and four daugh- 
ters were named as follows: Levi Mason, Lucina, William, Zerubbabel, Willard, Mary 
M., Shipley W., Erastus, Charles V., Lydia M., and Melissa D.; all born in St. Johns- 
bury. The father made no profession of Christianity, but the mother was a member of 
the Wesleyan Methodist church. Erastus received a common school education. At the age 
of nine his mind was exercised over religion to some extent, and he experienced joy and 
satisfaction as the result; but later he "became entangled in the vanities of the world." 

He was but a lad of fourteen, when, in the spring of 1832, Elders Orson Pratt and 
Luke S. Johnson came to St. Johnsbury preaching the religion of the Latter-day Saints. 
He believed the message, and two of his elder brothers, William and Zerubbabel, who 
were of age, accepted it and were baptized. Subsequently all the family were converted; 
Erastus being baptized by his brother William at Charleston, Vermont, on the 3rd day of 
February, 1833. The next year, on the 28th of June, he was ordained a Teacher by 
Elder John F. Boynton, and on the 13th of November, a Priest, under the hands of his 
brother, William Snow. Up to this time he had labored upon his father's farm, but he 
now felt an irresistible desire to preach the Gospel. On the 22nd of November he 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 45 

started upon his first mission, visiting the surrounding settlements, in company with his 
cousin, James Snow. On the 16th of August, 1835, he was ordained an Elder by Luke 
S. Johnson, then one of the Twelve Apostles. 

December of that year found him a resident of Kirtland, Ohio, where he first met 
the Prophet Joseph Smith, and lived for several weeks in his family. During the winter 
he attended the Elders' School established by the Prophet, and the following spring, 
having been ordained into the second quorum of Seventy, he started upon a mission to 
the State of Pennsylvania. In his absence of eight months he baptized eight persons. 
The year 1837 and the first half of the year 1838 were also spent upon missions, in Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and other States. He baptized a goodly number, and 
returned to Kirtland to find that most of the Saints were moving or preparing to move 
to Missouri. 

With that State as his destination, he himself left Kirtland on the 25th of June, 
1838, arriving at Far West on the 18th of July, and there rejoining his parents, who had 
come directly from Vermont. In the troubles that ensued Erastus Snow shouldered a 
musket and helped to defend his people against mob violence. He was at Far West 
when the town surrendered to the State forces, and was present at the court of inquiry 
when the case of the Mormon leaders was considered at Richmond, prior to their im- 
prisonment in Liberty jail. During the following winter he taught school at Far West, 
where, on December 13, 1838, he married Miss Artimesia Beman, sister of Elder Alvah 
Beman, whose acquaintance he had formed at Kirtland. 

In February, 1839, he and others were sent as messengers to the Prophet and his 
fellow prisoners in Liberty jail. The visitors were permitted to enter the cell. When 
supper was served, the captives, aided by their friends, attempted to escape, but the at- 
tempt failed, and all were locked in together. In the trial that followed, Erastus Snow, at 
the advice of the Prophet, pleaded his own case and was discharged from custody, the rest 
being held to bail. He had a legal mind, like his brother Zerubbabel noted in Utah 
history as Judge Snow and this may or may not have been the first opportunity for its 
exercise. After his release he went to Jefferson City and tried to get the case of his im- 
prisoned brethren before the judges of the Supreme Court. This effort was fruitless, 
but after, through the influence of the Secretary of State, he secured for them a change 
of venue, on the strength of which the prisoners were started for Boone county, when 
they succeeded in making their escape. 

October, 1839, found him at Montrose, Iowa, across the Mississippi from Nauvoo, 
acting as a member of the High Council at that place. Experiences of sickness and 
extreme poverty followed ; and then a mission to the States of Virginia, New York, 
Ehode Island, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, from which he returned to Nauvoo Oc- 
tober 21, 1840. 

During the next three years he labored as a missionary in the Eastern States, his 
wife and child being with him. They resided at Salem, Massachusetts. He had brought 
his family back to Nauvoo and was on another mission and at a conference in Salem, when 
he learned of the murder of the Prophet and the Patriarch. He immediately returned 
home, and was at the memorable meeting on August 8, 1844, when the Twelve Apostles, 
with President Brigham Young at their head, were acknowledged by the body of the 
Church as the highest existing authority therein. A mission to Wisconsin and Northern 
Illinois was then undertaken, but an accident to his horse compelled him to return, and 
he was thus enabled to be present at the trial of the murderers of Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith, at Carthage, Illinois, in May, 1845. He rightly regarded it as a mere mockery 
of justice. His next public service was a mission, about February 1, 1846, to the city of 
Quincy, to lay in supplies for the pioneer company, which it was proposed, even at that 
early date, to send across the great plains to explore the Rocky Mountains. 

In the exodus that followed, Erastus Snow and his family left Nauvoo, crossing the 
Mississippi river in a boat, which capsized in mid-stream, part of his goods being thus 
destroyed and his eldest child, a daughter five years old, nearly drowned. He left most 
of his property, valued at about two thousand dollars, to be disposed of by a committee 
appointed for that purpose in behalf of the exiles. He journeyed westward in President 
Brigham Young's company, Captain A. P. Rockwood having immediate command of the 
subdivision in which he traveled. From Garden Grove he returned to Nauvoo for addi- 
tional supplies, and rejoined his family and the main camp of the Saints at Cutler's Park 
on the Missouri river. 

Having been selected as one of the Pioneers, on April 6, 1847, he blessed and bade 
good-bye to his wives and children, and a few days later began the immortal journey 
to the Rocky Mountains. Erastus Snow was one of the company who fell sick with 



46 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

mountain fever, which attacked the camp in the vicinity of South Pass. He soon recov- 
ered, and it so chanced that while President Young and others were still suffering from 
that malady, he was dispatched as a messenger from the main camp to Orson Pratt's 
vanguard, which was looking out a road over the mountains into Salt Lake valley. He 
overtook the vanguard in Emigration canyon, and on the morning of July 21st he, with 
Orson Pratt, entered and partly explored the valley. In the subsequent work of explo- 
ration, and in laying out the pioneer city, he took a prominent part, and returned as one of 
President Young's party to the Missouri river, arriving there on the 31st of October. 
He was six weeks without tasting bread, buffalo meat forming the staple of subsistence 
during that period. He found his family well, though one child, a son, had died during 
his absence ; making two that had perished in the wilderness. 

At the special conference held in December of that year on the Missouri river, 
Erastus Snow was called to accompany Ezra T. Benson to the Eastern States, to solicit 
from the Saints residing there, and from all who wished to contribute, means to enable 
the poor at Winter Quarters to emigrate to Salt Lake valley. They visited Boston, New 
York and other eastern cities, and returned in April, 1848, to Winter Quarters. Having 
assisted in organizing the emigration on the Elk Horn, Erastus Snow with his family left 
that point on the 5th of June, traveling in President Young's company, and arriving in 
Salt Lake valley on the 20th of September. 

His first appointment after his arrival here was as second counselor to Elder Charles 
C. Rich, who had succeeded Father John Smith (the Patriarch of the Church) as Pres- 
ident of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion. Next came his call to the Apostleship, 
February 12, 1849, when he was ordained as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve 
under the hands of Presidents Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards; 
Apostles Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor assisting in the ordination. He was active in 
the organization of the Provisional Government of Deseret, and was a member of the 
first legislative council. In the militia organization of that period he officiated as a 
chaplain. When not occupied with public duties, he was engaged in building houses, 
improving his farm, and otherwise providing for his family. 

At the General Conference of the Church in October, 1849, the Apostle was called 
upon his first foreign mission; it was to the kingdom of Denmark. Taking leave of his 
family and his widowed mother, he set out on the 19th of October, in company with 
thirty-four other missionaries bound for various nations. The main incident of the 
journey across the plains was an attack made upon the little party by about two hundred 
Indians, Cheyennes, during a noon-day halt on the Platte river, forty miles above Fort 
Laramie. The Indians, who were mounted, charged furiously upon the camp, but the 
missionaries, who were on the alert, staunchly stood their ground and defeated the pur- 
pose of the maurauders, which was evidently to frighten the campers, plunder their 
wagons and run off their stock. 

Sailing from Boston on the 3rd day of April, Apostle Snow arrived at Liverpool on 
the 16th of that month, and after visiting the Saints in England, Scotland and Wales, 
and receiving contributions in aid of his mission, be set sail for Copenhagen in company 
with Elders George P. Dykes and John E. Forsgren. Elder P. O. Hansen, a native of 
Copenhagen, had preceded the party from England. About two months later, on the 
12th day of August, 1850, Apostle Snow baptized fifteen persons in the river Oresund, 
near the Danish capital. He and his assistants continued to labor energetically, and 
during the next eighteen months nearly six hundred members were added to the Church 
in Denmark; also a few in Norway and Sweden. Thus was founded the Scandinavian 
Mission. Its founder returned to Utah in the summer of 1852. 

In October of the ensuing year Apostle Snow was called, with Apostle George A. 
Smith, to take fifty families and strenghten the settlements in Iron county. He per- 
formed this duty, and was sent the next year to take charge of the Church at St. Louis and in 
the Western States. He organized on November 4, 1854, a Stake of Zion in St. Louis, and 
began the same month the publication of the St. Louis "Luminary." He also superintended 
the Chrch emigration. He returned from this mission in September, 1855. In 1856 and 
again in 1860 he filled brief missions to the States. The latter was taken in company 
with Apostle Orson Pratt; Governor Alfred Gumming and his wife being their fellow 
travelers across the plains. 

The year 1861 witnessed a renewal of our Apostle's labors in Southern Utah virtu- 
ally the beginning of his long and useful career as a colonizer in that and adjacent parts. 
Again he accompanied George A. Smith and a special expedition. They went this time 
with a view to locating and founding settlements on the Rio Virgen and Santa Clara 
rivers, and incidentally to raise cotton in that region, to offset the prevailing scarcity of 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 47 

the article occasioned by the outbreak of the Civil War. They camped on the 3rd day of 
December near the site of the present city of St. George, so named in honor of the leader, 
George A. Smith. Other settlements were located the same year. 

Erastus Snow settled at St. George, and for many years devoted a great deal of his 
time to the building up of that place and the surrounding country, over which as an 
Apostle he presided. He served for a long period as a member of the city council of St. 
George, and represented the Southern counties Washington, Kane, Iron and San Juan 
in the Council branch of the Legislative Assembly. He was a legislator almost contin- 
uously from the time of his settling in the South until he was disfranchised under the 
anti-polygamy provisions of the Edmunds Law. 

He passed through all the hardships and privations incident to the settlement of 
Southern Utah and Southeastern Nevada, thoroughly exploring those parts, locating set- 
tlements in the most desirable places, and giving directions to the settlers for their de- 
fense and the protection of the general public against Indian depredations. Especially 
was this the case in the early "sixties," when the Navajoes frequently crossed the Colo- 
rado river, driving off stock and murdering defenseless citizens in the weaker settle- 
ments and on the public highways. He was Brigadier-General, and as such commander 
of the Iron military district, and was chief counselor and adviser to the people through- 
out the southern country. 

In the years 1873, 1875 and 1880 Apostle Snow performed short missions to the 
East. During the first of these he crossed the Atlantic, re-visiting Scandinavia. In 
1878 he served as a member of Zion's Board of Trade, and the same year visited and set 
in order the branches of the Church in Arizona and New Mexico. In November, 1882, 
he was appointed by the First Presidency, with authority to call to his aid others, to go 
to Arizona and to the States of Chihuahua and Sonora in Old Mexico, with a view to lo- 
cating and purchasing lands near the borders of the two nations, as a gathering place for 
Latter-day Saints. While he was upon this mission in Southern Arizona, his first wife, 
Artimesia Beman Snow, died in St. George, December 20, 1882. 

In January, 1885, Apostle Snow accompanied President John Taylor and party on 
their trip to Arizona and Mexico, and in 1880 he went with Apostle Moses Thatcher and 
others to the City of Mexico, where they purchased large tracts of land in Northern Chi- 
huahua, where the settlements of Diaz, Juarez, and Pachecho were afterwards founded, 
chiefly by Latter-day Saints fleeing from the rigors of "the crusade." He left Juarez in 
the latter part of July, 1887, having been summoned to Salt Lake City by the tidings of 
the approaching death of President Taylor, who was sick in exile. 

After the death of that leader the Twelve having assumed the Presidency of the 
Church Apostle Snow returned to St. George, where he spent most of the following 
winter. In the spring he came back to Salt Lake City, where he continued to reside and 
to discharge the duties of his Apostleship until he fell sick with his final illness, which 
terminated his life May 27, 1888. 

Apostle Snow was the husband of four wives, and the father of thirty-five children, 
twenty of whom, twelve sons and eight daughters, are living. Of the former, the best 
known are Mahonri M., Willard, Frank R., Moroni, George A. and Edward H., the last 
named the President of St. George Stake. Mahonri is a member of the High Council of that 
Stake, and Moroni a Bishop in Provo. The other sons named are business men of more 
or less prominence. Erastus B. Snow, deceased, was one of the Stake Presidency at St. 
George. Apostle Snow's eldest daughter is Mrs. Sarah L. Thurston, of Santa Ana, Cal- 
ifornia; others of the daughters are Mrs. Artimesia Seegmiller, Mrs. Elizabeth Ivins, 
Mrs. Susie Young, Mrs. Josephine Tanner, Mrs. Georgie Thatcher and Mrs. Martha 
Keat. 

During the anti-polygamy crusade, when the Mormon leaders were much sought for 
by the minions of the law, Apostle Snow escaped arrest, though frequently in close prox- 
imity to the raiding deputies. Notably was this the case in February, 1886. On the 8th- 
of that month he was in the Church Historian's Office while that and the adjacent build- 
ings were being searched by the United States Marshal and his men, and five days later 
was OB the same train with President George Q. Cannon en route to Mexico, when the 
latter was arrested at Humboldt Wells, Nevada. He spent much of the time of his 
exile in visiting and counseling the people of the Southern settlements, both in public 
and private, the former when he could do so with safety, the latter in season and out of 
season, as his sense of duty impelled. 

Erastus Snow was a man of great practical wisdom, and withal an eloquent speaker; 
fiery in his youth, deliberate in his age, and noted always for the soundness of his views 
and the logic of his utterances. He was eccentric to a degree, but his eccentricities were 



48 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

only character marks that endeared him to his friends and associates. A mental por- 
trait of the man, sitting in his buggy in the midst of a stream, reading a newspaper, 
while waiting for his balky horse to get ready to go on, is but one of many such pictures 
called up by the mention of his name. He was as patient and stoical in trouble, as in 
action he was fearless and wise. Wherever there are Latter-day Saints, at home or 
abroad, few names and memories are more affectionately cherished than those of the 
Apostle and Pioneer, Erastus Snow. 



JOHN BROWN. 

"IrOHN BROWN and Orson Pratt were the first of the Pioneer company to gaze upon 

y the Talley of the Great Salt Lake. The former was a native of Sumner county, 

@l Tennessee, where he was born October 23, 1820. His father, John Brown, was 

a native of North Carolina, and his mother, Martha Chapman, was from Virginia. 
They were in humble circumstances, but by frugal living maintained themselves in com- 
fort, and reared a family of fourteen chidren, John being the twelfth. 

In 1829 the family moved to Perry county, Illinois, where the father died three 
years later. At the age of seventeen John was left alone with his mother, five of the 
other children being dead and the rest married and settled. In the spring of 1837, for 
better educational advantages, he was sent back to Tennessee to attend school and 
live with his uncle, John Chapman. While there he was converted to the Baptist faith. 
He aftarwards converted his mother and other members of the family, who previously 
were Presbyterians. His vacation was spent at home, but he returned to school the next 
year 1839 his mother accompanying him. 

Upon their return to Illinois in the fall, they first heard of Mormonism, "some 
strange men" having been preaching the new religion in their neighborhood. The Elders 
had baptized a few persons and caused considerable excitement, which gradually abated 
upon their going away. Young Brown, though much imprsssed by what he heard con- 
cerning them and their doctrines, remained a zealous member of the Baptist Church and 
was urged by the clergy to increase his educational qualifications with a view to entering 
the ministry. He had some desire for an education, but the other proposition did not 
harmonize with his feelings. 

In the spring of 1841 he took a school in order to raise means to enable him to com- 
plete his education. One of the patrons of the school, a cousin of his who had become a 
Latter-day Saint, took great pains to bring the Mormon publications to John's notice, 
but in vain. Equally unavailing were the further efforts of his Baptist friends to induce 
him to become a minister of that persuasion. 

Finally Elder George P. Dykes came from Nauvoo, stayed at the cousin's home, and 
obtained permission to preach in John's school house, which was surrounded by a field 
where the farmers were harvesting. The Elder addressed the farm workers during the 
noon recess on three successive days, and Mr. Brown, though shunning him as much as 
possible, became a little acquainted and rather reluctantly conversed with him. The re- 
sult was his conversion to Mormonism, which was a great shock to his mother and other 
relatives, who told him they would rather have buried him. He was baptized on a Friday 
morning, before breakfast. The news of his conversion spread throughout the district, 
for he had been a very popular young man : and one night his school house was burned 
down by incendiaries. 

After consulting with the trustees, and collecting what money he could, he started 
for Nauvoo, taking steamboat at St. Louis, and arriving at his destination a few days be- 
fore the October conference of 1841. He knew but one man there the Elder who had 
baptized him, but soon became acquainted with the Prophet Joseph Smith, his brother 
Hyrum and other Mormon leaders, who treated him with great kindness. Firmer than 
before in his faith, he paid a visit, in March, 1842, to his mother and friends, who ex- 
pressed great surprise that he was not "cured of Mormonism." He preached to some, 
and it was 'said of him, "He is calculated to do more harm than any other Mormon in this 
region.'' 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 49 

At the April conference of 1843 he was called on a mission to the Southern States, 
and in company with another Elder traversed without purse or scrip parts of Kentucky, 
Alabama and Mississippi. He met with much success, baptizing in a few months over 
one hundred persons. While upon this mission, in Monroe county, Mississippi, May 21, 
1844, he married. He was prosecuting his labors in the South when the news came of 
the murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. 

In response to a call for men to work upon the temple at Nauvoo, he returned to that 
place with five others in the year 1845. He was enrolled in an organization called "The 
Whittling and Whistling Club/' which took the place of police, after the Illinois legisla- 
ture repealed the Nauvoo charter. Says he, "We worked on the temple during the day 
and whittled and whistled through the streets at night, keeping everything in order, and 
guarding the city against mobs. There was no need of a curfew bell in those times ; none 
were seen upon the streets, except those on duty.'' In about two months he returned to 
Mississippi for his wife; and at Nauvoo built a house; but soon after its completion came 
the exodus of 1846. 

Having some property in Mississippi, the Browns returned to that state, with orders 
to join the Nauvoo companies on the Platte river. Mr. Brown's brother-in-law, William 
Crosby, was with him. He disposed of some property in Illinois and sent the means 
to Nauvoo, to assist the poor families that were about to leave. He then started on a 
direct route to Independence, Missouri, where he was joined by his cousin Robert Crow 
and others; in all, twenty families with twenty-five wagons. They took the Oregon trail, 
without pilot or guard, and struck the Platte at Grand Island. They could hear nothing 
of the Nauvoo companies, and at Fort Laramie decided to winter at Pueblo, being piloted 
thither by a mountaineer named John Reshaw, a Frenchman with an Indian wife. 
Thanks to this man's tact and acquaintance with the Indian tribes, no trouble with the 
redskins occurred, though one notable incident took place. 

An Indian youth fancied a young married woman in the company and insisted that 
she should become his wife. He offered her husband five horses in exchange for her, 
and was quite insulted when the oiler a great one in the eyes of him who made it was 
declined. Trouble threatened. He said he would treat her well; he was not poor; he 
had several horses and plenty of tobacco. Other Indians began to take an interest in the 
trade, and Reshaw, acting as interpreter, saw that the matter would have to be disposed 
of. Being well acquainted with the language, manners and customs of the savages, he 
began to talk to them, telling them the Americans were like the Indians they did not 
like to sell their squaws to strangers; that he was among the Indians five years before 
they would sell him a squaw. This explanation, with a few presents, passed the matter 
off satisfactorily. 

At one point in the journey the Cheyenne Indians swarmed around the little com- 
pany in thousands, demanding tribute of them for passing through their country. Under 
Reshaw's instructions they prepared a meal for the savages, explained their inability to 
pay tribute owing to the fewness of their numbers, and were permitted to move on un- 
molested. 

Crossing to the right bank of the South Platte, the party went up to Cherry Creek, 
where the city of Denver now stands, and then traveled across the country to Pueblo, 
where "there was one log house and some lodges occupied by mountaineers, with Mexi- 
can wives." There they received their first tidings of those who had left Nauvoo. They 
were at Council Bluffs, where five hundred of them had volunteered in the United States 
service for the Mexican war, and were then on the march to Santa Fe. 

"Our next business," says Mr. Brown, "was to prepare our company for winter. A 
plat of ground was selected on the river bottom, and two rows of log houses, built of 
cottonwood timber, and facing each other in parallel lines, were constructed. The ends 
of the street thus formed were left open, but could be barricaded in case of emergency. 
In a short time every family had a house to live in. We organized them into a branch of 
the Church, with a presiding Elder and counselors, and gave them instructions regarding 
their duties as Saints. We told them to remain there till they had word from headquar- 
ters. The detached members of the Mormon Battalion, left at Santa Fe as not being 
able to cross the deserts to California, had to draw their supplies from the government 
depot at Bent's Fort on the Arkansas river, about fifty miles below where we had located 
our little company. When they heard of us they came and joined us." 

Seven of the Brown party, including himself, now returned to Mississippi for their 
families. They traveled part way with a government ox-train bound for Fort Leaven- 
worth, and met en route Colonel Sterling Price with a regiment on the way to New 
Mexico; also the main body of the Mormon Battalion. They reached Mississippi in No- 



50 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

vember. Three weeks later messengers from Council Bluffs brought word that they 
should leave their families at home another year, and furnish some able bodied men with 
proper outfits to accompany the Apostles as pioneers to the Rocky Mountains. 

On January 10, 1847, John Brown started for Council Bluffs, a distance of a thou- 
sand miles. He was accompanied by another white man and four colored servants. The 
change of climate proved too severe for the latter, two of whom perished on the way. At 
Winter Quarters he was chosen captain of the thirteenth ten of the pioneer company, 
and was appointed one of a hunting party to kill game as it might be needed. His colored 
servants 'were also taken along. 

On the way to the mountains the Pioneers picked up the Mississippi company left at 
Pueblo, and led them to Salt Lake Valley, which was first sighted by John Brown and 
Orson Pratt from the crest of Big Mountain on the 19th of July. The former arrived 
with President Young on the 24th. On August 21st, he with two others made the ascent 
of Twin Peaks, taking the altitude ; Albert Carrington being the engineer. The meas- 
urement was 11, 2 19 feet above the sea level. Five days later he started back to the 
States, accompanying President Young and traveling in the same wagon with George A. 
Smith. Leaving his fellow pioneers at Winter Quarters, he proceeded on to Mississippi, 
arriving there in December. The next year he emigrated with his family to Utah, trav- 
eling from Council Bluffs in Amasa Lyman's company, and arriving in Salt Lake Valley 
on the 16th of October. 

"I settled," says he, "between the Cottonwoods. ten miles south of the city. Late 
in the year, near Christmas, a troop of men were sent into Utah valley to chastise a little 
thieving band of Indians. I was in this expedition. We met the savages and had a 
skirmish with them on a little creek afterwards called Battle Creek. We killed four and 
took the rest prisoners." 

In November, 1849, John Brown, as captain of fifty, accompanied Parley P. Pratt's 
exploring expedition into Southern Utah. About the same time he became a director of 
the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, and in the fall of 1850 went back to the fron- 
tier as its agent, carrying five thousand dollars in gold for the purchase of oxen and sup- 
plies for the emigration. He conducted a large train to Utah the next season. On No- 
vember 15, 1851, he was elected to fill a vacancy in the first Territorial legislature. In 
1852 he went upon a mission to New Orleans, and returning the following year conducted 
a company of English emigrants to Salt Lake valley. 

In 1855 he removed to Lehi, and while there represented Utah county in the legisla- 
ture. In the spring of 1857 he accompanied President Young to Fort Lemhi on Salmon 
river, and in the fall of that year took part in the "Echo Canyon war." In 1861-2 he 
fulfilled a mission to England, and soon after his return was made president of the 68th 
quorum of Seventy. 

In February, 1863, he became bishop of Pleasant Grove, succeeding Henson Walker 
in that position. He remained bishop for twenty-nine years, and was then released at 
his own request, on account of failing health. In the interim he performed a two years' 
mission to the Southern States. 

John Brown was in every sense a representative man. The public offices held by 
him were numerous. He was Colonel in the Utah militia and an aid-de-camp on the 
Lieutenant-general's staff as early as April, 1852 ; was mayor of Pleasant Grove for twenty 
consecutive years; selectman and member of the county court for two years, and a mem- 
ber of the legislature in 1874 and again in 1876. His life was one of energy, industry 
and fidelity to every trust. He died November 4, 1896, at his home in Pleasant Grove. 



JOHN PACK. 

TOHN PACK, a prominent member of the Pioneer company, was born of American 
parents in St. Johns, New Brunswick. Lower Canada, May 20, 1809. His father 
was George Pack and his mother, before marriage, Philotte Greene, second cousin to 
General Nathaniel Greene of Revolutionary fame. They were farmers, fairly well- 
-do, and their children numbered twelve, five sons and seven daughters. 

When John was about eight years old the family moved to Rutland. Jefferson county. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 51 

New York. There he worked on his father's farm, clearing off timber and doing general 
farm labor until he was twenty-one. At intervals he attended school and received the 
rudimental education common at that time. His natural inclination was towards farming 
and stock raising, and he succeeded to that degree that he finally purchased from his 
parents the old homestead, managed the farm at a profit, and provided for his father and 
mother in their declining years. 

His early manhood was passed at Watertown, near Rutland, where on the 10th of Octo- 
ber, 1832, he married Julia Ives of that place. On the 8th of March, 1836, he and his wife were 
baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Father and mother Pack 
had previously been baptized. John sent them to Kirtland, Ohio, in 1836, and the next 
year, as soon as he had sold his property, followed them, his wife and her mother, Lucy 
Paine Ives, accompanying him. 

He purchased a farm near the Kirtland Temple aud partly built a saw-mill, which he 
sold at a great sacrifice when he moved, in the year 1838, to Missouri. His parents, as 
well as his immmediate family, settled with him on a farm in Caldwell county, eighteen 
miles from the city of Par West. 

They were barely established in their new home when the mob troubles began. 
One day Mr. Pack, having received word from his sister Phoebe, residing at Huntsville, 
some distance away, that her husband was dead and she and her children sick, started 
with his wife for that place for the purpose of bringing the afflicted family to his own home. 
When near the crossing of_ Grand river, a mob of twenty-five men on horseback came 
from a side road, formed a line in front of and behind them, and demanded to know if 
'they were Mormons. They answered in the affirmative, and were then told that they 
were prisoners. They were taken by their captors several miles out of their road to a camp 
in the timber, where were five hundred armed men, under the command of Sashiel 
Woods, a Presbyterian minister. His men yelled like demons when their comrades rode 
into camp with the two prisoners. Woods ordered Mr. Pack to go with him and others 
through an opening in the bushes, at the same time telling Mrs. Pack that she could go to 
a grog shop near by. She, however, was about to follow her husband, saying she was 
willing to die with him, when he requested her to remain with the horse and wagon, 
assuring her that he would be back soon and that he did not fear the mob. Seated on 
the ground in a circle around him, they first examined the contents of his valise, but 
finding nothing by which to condemn him as "a Mormon spy," the mob leader next 
demanded that he deny that Joseph Smith was a Prophet. The prisoner refused to do 
so, whereupon Woods asked some one to volunteer to shoot him. Mr. Pack then arose 
and adressed the crowd in such a way as to cause them one by one to go away, leaving 
him alone with their leader. A voice from the camp called out "Let the d d 
Mormon go." He and his wife were then marched back to the point where they were 
arrested, and there released, the mob jeering and yelling after them as they crossed the 
river, and threatening to kill them if they returned that way. They heeded not the 
threat, but returned with their sick relatives along the same road; and though again 
threatened by some of the mob, they were not otherwise molested; perhaps for the reason 
that Mr. Pack, after dark, left the main road and taking the stars for his guide, 
proceeded by another way to his home, where he arrived a little before daylight. 

Subsequently he and his family were driven by the mob into Far West, and were there 
when the Prophet with others was court-martialed and sentenced to be shot. After the 
surrender of the city, John Pack helped William Bosley to escape, the latter being wanted 
by the mob on a trumped-up charge of murder, he having been present at the Crooked 
river battle. 

In the Mormon exodus from Missouri Mr. Pack proceeded to Pike county, Illinois, 
where he resided near the town of Perry qptil 1840, and then moved to Nauvoo. When 
the Prophet was kidnapped by Sheriff Eeynolds of Jackson county, Missouri, John Pack, 
at the head of twenty-five men, was among those who went to his rescue. He was on a 
mission in New Jersey, with Ezra T. Benson, when the Prophet and the Patriarch 
were murdered. 

An Elder since the year 1836, he had spent three months in the ministry in Pike 
county, and subsequently had filled a short mission to the State of Maine. On the 8th of 
October, 1844, he was ordained a Seventy and became senior president of the Eight 
Quorum, which had just been organized. Later he was ordained a High Priest. In a 
military capacity he was major in the First Regiment, Second Cohort, Nauvoo Legion, 
taking rank July 21, 1843. He was commissioned by Governor Ford on the 28th of the 
following October. 

In the exodus from Illinois, he traveled in Heber C. Kimball's company to the 



52 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Missouri river, and in the spring of 1847 left his family at Winter Quarters while he 
accompanied President Young as a pioneer to the Rocky Mountains. He was appointed 
major in the military organization of the camp, and with the vanguard entered Salt Lake 
valley on the 22nd of July. Next day he returned with Joseph Matthews to meet 
President Young and report that the other divisions of the company had entered and 
partly explored the valley. He returned with the President the same season to the 
Missouri river. 

Early in the spring of 1848 he made a small farm on Pigeon Creek, Iowa, but 
abandoned it the same year in order to come to Utah. He was captain of a company in 
President Kimball's division, which left the Elkhorn early in June. While camped on 
the Horn, the Indians raided their cattle, killing one of Mr. Pack's oxen in the river. 
The savages were followed and a skirmish ensued, in which Thomas E. Ricks was shot and 
left for dead, Howard Egan wounded in the wrist, and two horses shot under William 
H. Kimball. Mr. Pack tried to yoke in a small cow in place of his dead ox, when a 
strange ox came and tried to get into the yoke. As no owner could be found for the 
animal, he was yoked in and driven to Utah, doing excellent service all the way. After- 
wards, the ox having shed his hair, the brand U. S. was found upon him. Mr. Pack 
entered Salt Lake valley (for the third time) on the 19th of October. 

He settled in the Seventeenth Ward, Salt Lake City. He labored in the canyons, 
and hauled logs to a saw-mill in City Creek canyon and to Chase's mill upon the site 
now known as Liberty Park, thus procuring lumber with which to build. He erected the 
first dancing hall in Utah, and in this building Livingston and Kincaid opened the first 
store. Later it was used by the University of Deseret. Mr. Pack also kept a boarding 
house, most of his guests being gold hunters on their way to California. 

In the spring of 1849 he plowed new land in Farmington, Davis county, and raised 
a crop of corn, making a water ditch on the mountain side to ward off the crickets, which 
he fought daily. Later he procured eighty acres of new land in West Bountiful, where 
he built another home. Before this was finished, however, he went upon a foreign 
mission, and it was his eldest son, Ward E. Pack, then but fifteen years old, aided by the 
women and children, who fenced the land, plowed, drove team and sustained the family 
during his father's three years absence. The latter started upon his mission October 19, 
1849, accompanying Apostle John Taylor and Elder Curtis E. Bolton to France. He 
returned home in 1852. 

During the year 1855 he lost most of his crop by grasshoppers, but unselfishly shared 
the scanty remainder with his brethren and sisters who had none. In 1856 he helped to 
settle Carson valley, which was then in Utah, and was absent upon this mission from 
April till September. While crossing the desert, at the Sink of the Humboldt river his 
horses tired out, and his company having gone ahead, he and his animals nearly perished 
for want of water; but by dint of perseverance he succeeded in saving all. In 1857 he 
assisted in detaining Johnston's army at FortBridger, and in "the move''of 1858 camped 
with his family on Shanghai Bottom, south-west of Battle Creek, now Pleasant Grove. 

In 1861-2 he procured quite a large piece of land, at Kamas, Summit county, where 
he built another home. From 1861 to 1865 he was engaged with his son Ward E. Pack 
and Charles L. Russell in the manufacture of lumber; also carrying on the dairying business 
with his sons from 1863 to 1868. From November, 1869, to March, 1870, he was absent 
upon a mission to the Middle and Eastern States. He was greatly interested in agri- 
culture and stock raising, and from the time of the organization of the Deseret Agricultural 
and Manufacturing Society, was identified with it, doing much to promote its interests 
and its exhibitions, especially in the live stock department. 

John Pack died at his home in Salt Lake City on the 4th day of April, 1885. His death 
was quite sudden, being due to heart failure. He left a numerous family, being the 
husband of six wives namely, Julia Ives, Nancy Boothe, Ruth Mosher, Mary Jane 
Walker, Jessie Sterling and Lucy Jane Giles and was the father of forty-three children. 



LORENZO DOW YOUNG. 

/*2)ORENZO D. YOUNG, youngest brother to President Brigham Young, and for many 
^ f years a Bishop and a Patriarch in the Mormon community, was born at Smyrna, 
^"^ Chenango county, New York, October 19, 1807. His health was feeble when a boy, 

and his mother dying when he was a little over seven years old, he was partly 
prepared, in very early life, for the hard experiences attending his subsequent career. 
He was born a pioneer, his parents, at that time, dwelling in a dense forest. The family 
was in adverse circumstances, suffering most of the inconveniences incidental to life in a 
primitive region ; hence they were unable to give their children much education. At six, 
fourteen and fifteen years of age, Lorenzo went to school for a few weeks not to exceed 
six months in all. 

When ten years old he was apprenticed to his brother-in-law, James Little, and 
remained with him five years, working hard and learning the trade of gardener and 
nurseryman, in which he became quite proficient. He was naturally inclined to gardening, 
fruitgrowing and a farming life generally, which stood him in good stead in after years. 

In 1832 he was induced to read the Book of Mormon. This decided his future, for 
he was immediately baptized into the Mormon Church. He moved to Kirtland, Ohio, 
and assisted to build the Temple at that place, having charge of the outside plastering, 
which was pronounced a fine piece of workmanship. He was also called upon to preach 
the Gospel to the people of Ohio and the surrounding States. 

He next went to Missouri, where he bought a hundred and sixty acres of land and 
built a good log-house, but when he had cultivated the land and had a thousand bushels 
of corn ready to harvest, the anti-Mormon mobs drove him away. They took his property, 
including three cows and a yoke of oxen ; the latter being killed for beef to supply 
General Clark's mob militia. His next home was at Nauvoo, Illinois, whence he was 
ariven with the main body of his people early in 1846. He spent the following winter 
at the Mormon camps on the Missouri river. 

The time had now come for the Pioneers to cross the Great Plains to the Rocky 
Mountains. Lorenzo D. Young was included in that historic band, also his wife, Harriet 
Page Wheeler Young, his son Lorenzo Sobieski Young, and his step-son, Isaac Perry 
Decker; the latter two being the only children in the company. It was no part of the 
original plan to include women and children therein, but Lorenzo's wife was in feeble 
health, and fearing to leave her behind, and hoping that the open air of the plains and 
mountains would benefit her, he persuaded his brother, President Young, to allow her 
to accompany him. The two other women pioneers Clara Decker Young, wife of 
President Young, and Ellen Sanders Kimball, wife of Apostle Heber C. Kimball were 
then added. April 7th, 1847, was the date of Lorenzo's start from the Missouri river, 
and the following July 24th the date of his entrance into Salt Lake valley. He was 
one of the third "Ten," of which his brother Phineas was captain. He made the trip 
with one two-horse team, one four-ox team, and also brought a cow and some chickens. 

His first act after arriving in the valley was to plant a few potatoes that he had brought 
with him from the frontier. He succeeded in raising and saving a few small tubers for 
seed. The next year he raised a few more, which he dealt out in two-quart lots to 
some of his fellow settlers. 

Lorenzo D. Young was the father of the first white male child native to Salt Lake 
valley. This child, the son of his wife Harriet, was born September 20, 1847, and was 
named for his father, Lorenzo Dow Young. He died March 22, 1848. 

Mr. Young, after camping successively on the south and north branches of City 
Creek, and living a few weeks in the fort on Pioneer Squar/3, built a house near the spot 
where the Bee-Hive house now stands. His experience during the cricket plague of 1848, 
and the famine years following, when his family subsisted each person on a daily 
allowance of four ounces of flour, without vegetables, and with wild roots and boiled 
raw-hides to eke out their scanty store, was the general experience of the early settlers. 

In the spring of 1849, he made a trip to the States, taking with him his wife Harriet, 
and his stepson, Isaac Perry Decker. They traveled in company with Dr. John M. 
Bernhisel, who was en route to the Nation's capital on business connected with the newly 
organized government of the State of Deseret. Mr. Young only went as far as Missouri, 
returning in 1850, bringing a flock of five hundred sheep and some fine blooded cows. 



54 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

He clamed to have owned the first thoroughbred Devonshire bull ever brought to Utah. 

At the outset of the homeward journey, he joined his train of fifteen wagons to James 
Lake's train of fitty, their company including sixty or seventy men. Near one of the 
Pawnee Indian villages, a young man of the tribe rode in among the sheep, and with the 
utmost sang froid speared one of the lambs and rode off with it. The Pioneer's blood was 
up in an instant. The Indian was pursued, shot at, and, as his fellows claimed, severely 
wounded in the leg by a young Irishman having charge of the sheep. As indemnity 
the savages demanded five beeves, which the owner refused, at the same time agreeing to 
give two beeves. The proffer was rejected and the Indians returned to their village. At 
sunrise next morning hundreds of Pawnees, armed and in war paint, rode into the camp, 
where their chief reiterated the demand for five beeves. Again "Uncle Lorenzo" 
refused, reminding them that the young Indian was the aggressor and had deserved his 
fate; and while for peace sake he was willing to part with two of his cattle, lie was not 
willing to be robbed and would not give more. The chief's eyes snapped angrily as this 
bold answer was interpreted to him, and he looked around significantly upon his assembled 
braves, who apparently where only awaiting the signal to help themselves to the sheep and 
cattle of the company. The sturdy pioneer also looked around; his wife and little stepson 
were sitting in the wagon, listening, and the teams were all ready to start. Taking up 
his rifle and a large pistol, both well loaded, he turned to the chief and said: "I am 
prepared to defend myself and my property, and our men are likewise armed and ready. 
If you or any of your tribe attempt to molest us or stampede our stock, I'll kill you that 
instant." He then gave the order to advance, and the train moved on, all the Indians 
following. A mile was traversed in silence, when suddenly the chief, turning to his 
band, uttered a peculiar yell, whereupon they all wheeled about and returned, leaving 
the intrepid company to pursue its way over the plains. 

With the sheep and cattle that he brought from the States Mr. Young stocked a 
ranch opposite Willow Creek, on the west bank of the Jordan. It was a time when horse 
thieves were giving trouble, and a secret guard had been placed by the sheriff at the 
White Bridge over the river, with instructions to intercept and arrest the marauders. 
One evening it was March 1st, 1851, as Mr. Young was returning on horseback from 
his ranch, he was hailed in a somewhat boisterous manner by the guard, whom he mistook 
for drunken campers. Refusing to halt at their command, he was fired at by three men, 
and seriously wounded in the left arm, the ball severing the main artery and causing him 
to bleed profusely. With characteristic doggedness he rode on, but nearly bled to death 
before reaching the house of Daniel Daniels, a friend, about half a mile from the scene 
of the shooting. Says Mr. Young: "Brother Daniels went for Brother Thomas Jeremy, 
close by, and they two laid hands on me, and asked the Lord to stop the flow of blood 
from my wounded arm. It stopped immediately. The main artery was cut above the 
elbow, and but for this timely relief I should have bled to death." 

Early in the same year Lorenzo D. Young was ordained Bishop of the Eighteenth 
ward, Salt Lake City. He served in that capacity until 1878, when, his health becoming 
feeble, he resigned, nominating Orson F. Whitney, the present Bishop, as his 
successor. Four years prior to his retirement he had been given charge of a corps of 
home missionaries, with Apostle Orson Pratt and Bishop Reuben Miller as his assistants. 
For three years he traveled, preached and visited in most of the stakes of Zion, 
administering to the sick, comforting the afflicted, and encouraging the wealthy to aid 
and befriend the poor. Shortly before the death of President Young, in 1877, Bishop 
Young was ordained by him a Patriarch, and in this capacity he ministered much comfort 
and encouragement, especially to the poor, the sick and the sorrowful. He held this 
office during the remainder of his days. 

He was married five times. By his first wife, Persis Goodall, whom he wedded 
June 6, 1826, he was the father of ten children, including the late Bishop William G. 
Young and Elder Joseph W. Young, who died President of St. George Stake. She was 
also the mother of Lorenzo S. Young, who accompanied his father upon the pioneer 
journey. By his second wife, Harriet Page Wheeler, whom he married March !), 1843, 
he had two sons, John Brigham and Lorenzo D., Jr.. who both died in childhood. His 
third wife, Hannah Ida Hewitt, had five children, one of whom, Brigham Willard Young, 
died July 20, 1887, while on a mission in New Zealand. The fourth wife, Eleanor Jones, was 
the mother of four. By his last wife, Anna Larsen, he had three sons, the eldest of 
whom, Dr. Harry A. Young, of the Utah Batteries, was killed in the Philippines, 
February 6, 1899. 

Another serious accident, and one from which he never fully recovered, befell the aged 
Bishop in the summer of 1872. It was the 4th of July, and he was riding in a buggy behind 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 55 

a spirited mare along Second South Street, when a boy, intent only on the celebration 
then in progress, threw a lighted fire-cracker under the mare's feet. Frightened by the 
report, she jumped, and kicking with both feet, came down astride the thills. The 
Bishop was violently thrown out, and on being raised from the ground, it was thought 
that his neck was broken and he was dead. He was resuscitated, however, and taken to his 
home, but remained bed-fast for weeks, unable to speak above a whisper. Though able to be 
about, he never saw a well day afterwards. On the 21st of November, 1895, the venerable 
Pioneer and Patriarch passed to his well earned rest. 



MILLEN ATWOOD. 



XK PIONEER of 1847, a handcart veteran of 1856, and at the time of his death Bishop of 
*wr the Thirteenth Ward, Salt Lake City, the subject of this sketch was born at Willing- 
*Y* ton, Tolland county, Connecticut, May 24, 1817. He was the son of Dan Atwood 
and his wife Polly Sawyer. His father, who was a farmer, had poor health, inso- 
much that he required his son's almost constant assistance upon the farm, and was 
therefore unable to give him many opportunities for education. The boy remained with his 
parents until he was twenty-one, and then went to learn the mason's trade of his brother, 
remaining with him until he was twenty-three. 

During the year 1840 he learned that Mormon Elders were preaching at the house of 
a neighbor. He attended one of the meetings, and for the first time heard a discourse 
upon the principles taught by the Latter-day Saints. The preacher was Joseph T. Ball. 
Young Atwood at once became a believer. Many years later, speaking of his conversion, 
he remarked in his quaint humorous way: "Something got down into me that has never 
gone out since." 

Filled with the "spirit of the gathering," though not yet baptized, Millen Atwood 
set out for Nauvoo April 27, 1841. He arrived there on the 21st of May, and for the first 
time beheld the Prophet Joseph Smith. All his former ideas regarding the venerable 
appearance and solemn gravity of a prophet vanished like smoke when he came in con- 
tact with the genial, jocular leader of the Latter-day Saints, witnessed his frank, open 
manner, and felt the spell of his kindly influence. His disappointment was a delight. He 
felt perfectly at home with the Prophet on conversing with him, for the first time, two days 
after his arrival. 

He was baptized in the Mississippi river, August 2nd, 1841; and on April 10th, 
1842, was ordained an E'der of the Church. Soon after his ordination which was under 
the hands of Apostle Willard Richards he was called on a preaching mission through the 
States of Illinois, New York and Connecticut. He traveled "without purse or script" 
and passed through many hardships and vicissitudes, but on the whole greatly enjoyed 
his labors. 

From Chicago he went by boat to Oswego, through the kindness of a gentleman who 
paid his fare, thus obviating a long and wearisome tramp. Hearing there were some Latter- 
day Saints in Oswego, he made diligent search for them and was sent by different people 
from place to place, only to find that he had been hoaxed. Tired and hungry, he sat 
down on a hitching rail to rest. Presently a man approached driving a span of horses. 
Elder Atwood asked him if he was the man he was looking for, and received the rough 
answer, "No, but I am the devil." Discovering the Elder's calling, the man abused him 
shamefully with his tongue, ordering him to get off the rail, or he would kick him off, at 
the same time shaking his fist at him. Atwood calmly replied that he was tired and wanted 
to rest, and would not get off the rail till he was ready. Suddenly the man's manner 
changed. He became mild and gentle, took the Elder into his home, entertained him 
hospitably and procured the scoolhouse for him to preach in. A large congregation 
listened to him. among them his erratic entertainer whose name was LeRoy Burt. Before 
his Mormon visitor left, he begged his pardon a dozen times and fully made amends for 
his former rudeness. 

During the same mission Elder Atwood and a companion applied for entertainment 
at the home of a Baptist preacher, who was very bitter against the Mormons. He said 



56 HISTOfeY OF UTAH. 

he would take them in, not as servants of the Lord, but as "vagabonds of the earth." 
They stayed over night and in the morning as they were leaving At wood said to him: "In- 
asmuch as you have entertained us as servants of God, you shall have the reward of a 
servant of God." "I entertained you as vagabonds," the old Baptist shouted savagely. 
"Well, then, you shall have a vagabond's reward," replied Atwood and departed. 

He arrived at his father's home July 18th, 1844. Soon after he went to New York, 
where he first heard of the martyrdom of the Prophet and the Patriarch. He continued 
preaching until March 17th, 1845, and then in response to a general call for the Elders 
in the field, he returned to Nauvoo. arriving there on the 7th of April. 

Three days later he received a patriarchal blessing under the hands of Father John 
Smith, who had succeeded the martyred Hyrum as Patriarch of the Church. About the 
same time he was ordained a Seventy and set apart as a member of the Tenth Quorum. 
The remainder of his time at Nauvoo was occupied in working on the Temple and the 
Nauvoo House and in making wagons to enable the Saints to move West. 

He left Nauvoo in the exodus, February 6, 1846, and proceeded with the main body 
of the exiles through rain, mud and frost to the Missouri river, enduring untold hardships 
on the way. In February, 1^47, he made a trip from Winter Quarters to Mount Pisgah 
for Elder Charles C. Rich, which he describes as the hardest journey he ever undertook. 
On returning to the Missouri, he was appointed one of the Pioneers to explore the Rocky 
Mountains, and left Winter Quarters on the 8th of April, westward bound. 

One day while passing through a stretch of hostile Indian country, President Young 
told the members of the company to keep close to camp and not scatter. Feed being 
scarce, some of the horses strayed out quite a distance and a number of the Pioneers 
accompanied them as guards. Suddenly a host of Indians swept down upon them, 
frightening the horses and causing considerable excitement among the men. Pioneer 
Atwood kept hold of a horse's lariat, and was dragged along at a furious rate. Every 
time he shouted "whoa," an Indian would thwack the horse, increasing its speed. Finally 
the Pioneer had to relax his grip and went tumbling head over heels among rocks and 
brush, skinning his face badly, but receiving no serious injury. The Indians drove off 
quite a number of the animals, but no one was killed. Our friend entered Salt Lake 
valley on the 24th of July, and later in the year returned with President Young to the 
Missouri river. 

In January, 1848, he went back to Nauvoo and gathered up a quantity of goods, 
returning with them in March to Winter Quarters. There he was introduced by Presi- 
dent Young to the lady who became his wife, Miss Relief Cram, whom he married April 
20th, of that year. He had for his wedding tour a second crossing of the plains, begin- 
ning this journey on May 19th, and ending it fo'ir months later to the day. He and his 
wife were members of President Young's company. 

February, 1850, found Millen Atwood in Utah county, fighting Indians. He was in 
the Provo battle, escaping without injury, and returned to Salt Lake City, bringing a 
wagon load of Indian prisoners. The next winter his father's household arrived from the 
East to make Utah their home. 

The next notable event in his life was a mission to Great Britain, upon which he 
started September 16th, 1852. He first labored in Scotland, and was then President, 
successively, of the Carlisle and Bradford conferences. Subsequently he became pastor of 
the district comprising the conferences of Wiltshire, Somersetshire and Landsend. 

Released to return home he sailed from Liverpool May 4th, 1856, and reached the 
Iowa camping ground on the 27th of June. He crossed the plains in one of the handcart 
companies of that season, leaving the frontier on the loth of July and reaching Salt Lake 
City on the 9th of November. His splendid courage, rare endurance and fatherly kind- 
ness to his fellow travelers during that terrible experience is still remembered and eu- 
logized by survivors of the same. 

In common with most of his fellow citizens he took part in the "Echo Canyon war," 
and was in the "move south" that followed. Afterwards he was a member for many 
years of the Salt Lake City police force one of the "old guard" that did so much to pre- 
serve order and protect life and property in those early troublous times. 

From March 9, 1851, to May 9, 1873 Millen Atwood was a member and one of the 
Presidency of the 6th Quorum of Seventy, an office to which he was set apart by Presi- 
dent Joseph Young. On the latter date he was ordained a High Priest and set apart by 
President Daniel H. Wells as a High councilor of the Salt Lake Stake. He acted in that 
calling until December 25, 1881, when he became Bishop of the Thirteenth Ward, being 
set apart by President Joseph F. Smith. From 1877 until called into the Bishopric he 
served as a home missionary of the Stake. 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 57 

Among other admirable qualities possessed by "Bishop Atwood was a rich vein of 
humor, which expressed itself in quaintest forms on all occasions. Some samples of it 
have been given during the course of this narrative. It was the manner as much as the 
matter of his sayings that made them humorous, and the former, of course, cannot be 
reproduced. Steadfast as a rock in his convictions, he once remarked in the hearing of 
the writer, "You can't kick some people out of the Church; they won't go; but others 
you can feed on pies, plum puddings and pigs, and they'll apostatize." Honest, upright, 
fearless and outspoken, he lived and died a man of unblemished integrity. The date of 
his death was December 17, 1890. 



JACOB WEILER. 

, thrifty and prosperous, possessed of fair intellectual gifts, and manifesting 
moral worth and integrity through all the stages of his career, the late Bishop 
(s> Weiler, while peaceful and conservative in his disposition, was independent and 
courageous, with a mind of his own and an opinion fearlessly expressed whenever 
occasion required. He was a prominent city and county official, was Bishop of the Third 
Ward for a period of nearly forty years, and died a Patriarch of the Salt Lake Stake 
of Zion. 

The son of Joseph Weiler and his wife Rose Anna Styers, Jacob was born in 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, March 14, 1808. His father was a well-to-do farmer, 
and farm-work was the son's favorite occupation. Milling and distilling were also among 
his early labors. He received but a moderate education, his boyhood and manhood being 
mostly spent upon the farm . 

In the year 1840 he embraced Mormonism, having previously become acquainted 
with the Prophet Joseph Smith. He was baptized in Chester County, and in 1841, with 
the first company of Latter-day Saints that left that part, went to Nauvoo. There he 
purchased a lot from the Prophet and remained until the Mormon exodus. 

Upon the Missouri river he was enrolled as one of the Pioneers who in 1847 crossed 
the plains and mountains to Salt Lake valley. Jacob Weiler, with Orson Pratt and 
Shadrach Roundy, entered the valley on the 23rd of July. He started to return with 
President Young to Winter Quarters, but meeting his family near South Pass (they were 
traveling in Edward Hunter's company of emigrants) he returned with them to the shores 
of the Great Salt Lake. The next morning after meeting his family, with characteristic 
prudence and foresight he put them upon rations, in order to eke out their store of 
provisions until a crop could be raised in their new-found home. 

They first lived in the Old Fort, but in the fall of 1848 moved out upon a lot in the 
southern part of the city. It was on Seventh South street, in the section now known as 
the Third Ward, of which Mr. Weiler afterwards became the Bishop. President Young 
gave him the privilege of exchanging the lot he had drawn for one nearer the center of 
town, but he replied that inasmuch as he was going to farm, he would prefer the location 
that had fallen to him. He was very successful in farming, having been reared to it 
from childhood, and he gave many of his brethren the benefit of his knowledge and 
experience in that line. President George Q. Cannon said at the funeral of Bishop Weiler 
that the deceased gave him his first instruction in agriculture. 

It is related that during a grasshopper scourge, when the pests had devoured the 
vegetation of the country and eaten up the Bishop's wheat and other small grain crops, 
he planted corn with the hoe, covering up in every hill from one to half a dozen grass- 
hoppers. As the result, he had the best crop of corn ever raised in this country, and for 
it was offered by a prominent merchant two and a half dollars a bushel for speculative 
purposes. The Bishop would not let him have it, but sold it out to poor people who could 
only buy a half bushel or a bushel at a time, and would only accept pay at the rate of 
two dollars a bushel. 

Jacob Weiler was ordained a High Priest and set apart as Bishop of the Third Ward 
in October, 1856. He served in that capacity until 1895 when, on account of his age and 
infirmities, he was honorably released from the Bishopric. He was then ordained a 
Patriarch undej the hands of President Wilford Woodruff. 

He had previously been upon two missions to the Eastern States, preaching and 
gathering genealogies of his ancestors; and had once started upon a mission to Europe, 



58 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

in company with Apostle Orson Hyde and others, but was;recalled fromiNew York, as 
the company was too large. 

In early days Mr. Weiler served as a Selectman of Salt Lake county for several years. 
In 1880 and 1882 he sat in the city council, representing the First Precinct. 

The venerable Patriarch left a patriarchal household. He had been three times 
married. His first wife, Maria Malin, he wedded August 12, 1830. His second wife was 
Elizabeth McElroy, and his third wife Harriet Emily Smith. His own children numbered 
seven, and besides these he had two adopted. children. His third son, Elijah Malin Weiler, 
like his deceased sire, has figured prominently as a city and county official. The date of his 
father's death was March 24, 1896. 



WILLIAM CLAYTON. 



fHE Claytons are of English origin, the head of the family in Utah and in Mormon 
history being a convert of the mission founded by Apostle Heber C. Kimball and 
his confreres at Preston, Lancashire, and other parts of England in 1837-8.' William 
Clayton was the son of Thomas Clayton, a school teacher, and was born at Pen- 
wortham, in Lancashire, July 17, 1814. His mother's name before marriage was Ann 
Critchlow. 

William received a good common school education. His mind was capacious, and 
he was energetic, practical and progressive. He was one of the presidency left to pre- 
side over the British Mission after the return of Apostles Kimball and Hyde to America 
and it was through his labors that Mormonism obtained a footing in the great manufact- 
uring town of Manchester, which soon rivalled Preston in the number of its converts, and 
ere long became the headquarters of the mission. Elder Clayton had charge of the work 
in Manchester until he emigrated to America in the year 1840. 

At Nauvoo, Illinois, whither he and Elder Theodore Turley conducted one of the 
earliest companies of the English Saints William Clayton became the trusted friend and 
private secretary of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It was he who wrote, at the Prophet's 
dictation, the revelation on Celestial Marriage, July 12, 1843. 

In the exodus from Illinois he was Clerk of the Camp of Israel, and in the Pioneer 
Company was one of two historians (Willard Richards being the other) specially 
appointed to record the incidents of the remarkable journey of the Pioneers across the 
great plains. To his carefully kept journals of that period history owes much. He pos- 
sessed considerable inventive genius, one of the evidences of which was the construction 
of an odometer (called by the Pioneers "roadometer") by means of which was registered 
from day to day the number of miles traveled by these pilgrims who became the founders 
of Utah. 

He was also gifted in music, and transmitted his ability in that and in other lines to 
his posterity. His favorite instrument was the violin. He was a member of "Ballou's 
Band," one of the earliest and most talented of Utah's musical organizations. 

In youth and early manhood, Mr. Clayton was of a jovial and lively turn, but as he 
advanced in years he became serious and even solemn in mien and deportment. Silent 
and secretive, he was a deep thinker, a clear writer and an impressive speaker. He read 
much and kept abreast of the leading questions of his time. 

In business he was straightforward, methodical, and the soul of punctuality. He 
kept his promises, and expected others to keep theirs. He had little use for a man who 
would lightly break his word, even by tardiness in keeping an appointment. He was 
seldom seen in public, though he attended meetings and was devoted to his religion. His 
office hours were from half past seven a. m. until six p. m.; after which he was not 
accessible to any ordinary demand upon his time. 

In the Utah Militia he was one of the corps of Topographical Engineers, acting in 
that capacity at the time of the "Echo Canyon War.'' At the inception of Z. C. M. I. 
he became Secretary of the mammoth concern, holding that position from October, 1868, 
until October, 1871. He was for many years Auditor of Public Accounts, both for the 
provisional State of Deseret and the Territory of Utah, and was also Territorial Recorder 
of Marks and Brands. These offices he held at the time of his death. He was for many 
years a notary public, and did a great deal of notarial work. At one time he possessed 
considerable property, but became poor, owing to unfortunate mining investments. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 59 

His family was patriarchal. He was the father of forty-one children. His wives 
were Ruth Moon, Margaret Moon, Alice Hardman, Diantha Farr, Augusta Braddock, 
Sarah Ann Walters, Maria Lyman and Ann Higgs. He died at his home in Salt Lake 
City, December 4, 1879. 



AARON FREEMAN FARR. 

PIONEER, colonizer, magistrate and missionary, the Hon. Aaron P. Farr has had a 
busy life, of which the foregoing are only a few of the prominent features. He 
was one of the earliest of our magistrates, was twice probate judge of Weber 
county, and afterwards county selectman, an alderman, and for many years treas- 
urer of Ogden city. He also sat as a member of the Territorial Legislature. At the age 
of eighty-two, in spite of the many toils and troubles through which he has passed, he is 
still hale and hearty. 

The sou of Winslow Farr and Olive Hovey Freeman, he was born October 31, 1818, 
'in the town of Waterford, Caledonia county, Vermont. There his early boyhood was 
passed. When about nine years old he moved with his father's family to Charleston, Or- 
leans county, settling on the Clyde river iu a dense wilderness, where he assisted in clear- 
ing a heavy timbered farm and building a home. It was a farm of a hundred acres, in 
addition to which his father owned two hundred acres of land covered with pine timber, 
and had a saw mill on the Clyde. Aaron received a common school education, necessarily 
limited, owing to his close occupation at home. Educated in the school of experience, he 
was prepared from boyhood for his future life as a pioneer. 

Nothing very important took place with him until Elders Lyman E. Johnson and 
Orson Pratt, in the year 1832, came preaching Mormonism in his neighborhood. Aaron 
at once believed, and with his father's household embraced the faith. He was baptized 
by Elder Johnson and confirmed by Elder Pratt. 

In the year 1837 he moved with his parents to Kirtland, Ohio, where he remained 
until the spring of 1838. He then started with his brother Lorin on foot for Far West, 
Missouri. Their purpose was to locate a new home for their parents. Soon after his ar- 
rival there, which was about the middle of June, Aaron was called by the Prophet Joseph 
Smith to accompany him and a few others into Daviess county to locate a settlement on 
Grand river. This led to the establishment of Adam-ondi-Ahman. The same month, in 
company with three others, he went to Fort Leavenworth to find employment, and re- 
mained there four months, chopping wood and making brick, returning to Far West in 
February. By this time the mob troubles were over, barring the exodus of the Saints 
from the state, which took place that winter. Spring found the Farr family at Lima, 
Illinois, where they rented a farm. A year later they moved to Nauvoo. Aaron superin- 
tended his father's farm, and was thus engaged until 1842, when he was called by the 
Prophet to take a mission through Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. He returned to Nauvoo 
about the middle of July, 1843, and remained there working upon the temple, improving 
the parental farm and sharing in the general experiences of his people. 

On January 16, 1844, Aaron F. Farr married Persis Atherton at the Mansion House, 
Nauvoo, the ceremony being performed by the Prophet. This was only a few months 
before his martyrdom. The Farrs accompanied President Brigham Young in the exodus 
of 1846, and camped with him upon the Missouri river. 

In February, 1847, Aaron was called to be one of the Pioneers, who were to precede 
the main body of the people farther West. His outfit consisted of . a mule team and 
wagon, with farming utensils, seeds and provisions for two persons. His traveling com- 
panion was Nathaniel Fairbanks. He left another outfit, consisting of one wagon, two 
yoke of oxen and two cows, for his family, who were to follow in June. 

The date of his departure from Winter Quarters was the 7th of April. While on the 
way up the Platte, his companion, Fairbanks, was bitten by a rattlesnake and came near 
losing his life. In ten minutes he lost the use of his limbs, and his foot and leg turned 
black to the knee. Mr. Farr and an associate carried him on their backs a mile and a 
half to camp, where his case was attended to, and with skillful nursing he recovered. 

At the crossing of Green river, President Young deemed it advisable to send back a 
small detachment to pilot the oncoming emigration through the Black Hills. Aaron Farr 
and five others were selected for this duty. Sending his team and outfit on to Salt Lake 



60 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

valley, he and his party returned and met the advance company of emigrants Daniel 
Spencer's hundred about two hundred miles below Fort Laramie. He was assigned a 
position with his wagon and family in Ira Eldredge's fifty, and turning west once more, 
traveled on to the valley, arriving here on the 20th of September. 

Immediately he prepared to make a home. He went to the canyon, got out logs, and 
soon erected a small house in the "middle fort." In the spring of 1848 he moved ten 
miles south, near Big Cottonwood, where he built the first log house. In the fall he re- 
turned to Salt Lake City and began building in the Seventeenth ward. There a portion 
of his family resided for many years. 

Previous to the organization of the State of Deseret Mr. Parr was appointed by 
President Young to act as a civil magistrate. As such he transacted, he claims, the first 
judicial business in Utah. He has in his possession the docket of the court, opening with 
the year 1850. That same year he went with George A. Smith to Iron county, and there 
raised a crop of grain, returning in the fall to Salt Lake City. 

At a special conference of the Church in 1852, Aaron Farr, with three other Elders 
Darwin Richardson, A. B. Lambson and Jesse Turpin was given a mission to the 
West India Islands. Arriving at Jamaica, they hired a hall and attempted to preach, but 
were mobbed and opposed on every hand. The population was mostly colored, and there 
was no police protection. The persecution was so violent that it was thought advisable 
to return to America. Accordingly, as soon as an American ship arrived at the islands, 
they took passage for New York, where they arrived on the 18th of February, 1853. 

Orson Pratt was then presiding over the Eastern States Mission, and Elder Farr 
was appointed by him to labor in the Northern states. This he did until the spring of 
1854, when he was appointed to succeed Horace S. Eldredge in the presidency of the St. 
Louis conference. He himself was soon succeeded by Milo Andrus. Released to return, 
he arrived home on the 31st of October. 

January 28, 1855, he entered into the order of plural marriage, his second wife, Lu- 
cretia Ball Thorp, being married to him by President Brigham Young at Salt Lake City. 
The following year found him at Fillmore, acting as a deputy marshal, in attendance 
upon the Supreme Court of the Territory. The same year he went to Los Vegas, Ari- 
zona, on a colonizing mission, from which he returned in the fall. 

March, 1857, witnessed his removal to Ogden, Weber county, which has ever since 
been his home. In the move following the ' Echo Canyon war," he camped with the 
main body of the people on the Provo Bottoms, where he remained until after the U. S. 
peace commissioners and the Mormon leaders had met and settled the pending difficulty. 

In January, 1859, he was elected by the Legislature probate judge of Weber county, 
which office he held until 1861, when he was succeeded by Hon. Francis A. Brown. In 
May, 1863, he succeeded Judge Brown in the same position, and from that time held the 
judgeship for Weber county until March, 1869, when he was succeeded by Hon. Franklin 
D. Richards. In the fall of that year he filled a short mission to the Eastern states, re- 
turning in the spring of 1870. In 1872 he represented Weber county in the lower house 
of the Legislature, and in 1873 served the county in the capacity of selectman. He was 
an alderman of Ogden city for a short time, to fill a vacancy in the council, and for many 
years held the office of city treasurer. This closed his public life. He next turned his 
attention to his private interests, such as farming, milling, and improving his city prop- 
erty. Judge Farr is the father of Hon. Aaron F. Farr, Jr., and Lucian Farr, of Logan, 
Cache county, and is father-in-law to Hon. Moses Thatcher of Salt Lake City. 



TRUMAN OSBORN ANGELL. 

'O be the architect of the Salt Lake Temple is glory enough for one human life ; 
I and this glory rests upon the late Truman O. Angell of Salt Lake City. To the 
*;f great task assigned him in connection with that splendid edifice he gave the best 
years of his existence, and from the day of its inception to the day of his death 
a period of thirty-four years it was present with him day and night, the darling project 
of his fondest dreams. What though the sublime ideas embodied in the sacred structure 
were admitted by him to have come from higher sources, he none the less was the 
artist who seized upon those ideas and rendered them practicable; and though another 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 61 

may have planned, it was he who executed the glorious work, [which, completed, stands as 
a monument to his memory. 

But Truman O. Angell has another title to fame. He was one of the Pioneers 
who in July, 1847, planted their feet upon the site of Salt Lake City, laid out the town, 
and saw their leader designate the spot where would be reared "the Temple of our God." 
He was brother-in-law to President Brigham Young, who married his sister, Mary Ann 
Angell, at Kirtlana, Ohio, in the year 1834. 

The son of James W. Angell and his wife Phebe Morton, Truman was born at North 
Providence, Rhode Island, June 5, 1810. Until twenty-one he resided at or near his 
birthplace, earning his living from his sixth until his eighteenth year by working upon a 
farm. His parents were very poor, and could give him but little education. Two winters 
at school embraced all his opportunities in that line. He was a natural architect, and 
shed tears of joy when at the age of seventeen the opportunity was given him to learn 
the trade of carpenter and joiner. 

In Janury, 1833, he became a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, and accompanied it during all its subsequent migrations, passing through many 
sufferings and privations, and finally forsaking civilization and plunging with his people 
into the western wilderness. The spring of 1847 found him enrolled in the Pioneer band 
and on his way from the Missouri river to Salt Lake valley. He settled in the pioneer 
city, and as stated had charge of the Temple as its architect from the beginning in April, 
1853, up to the day of his death, October, 16, 1887. 

Truman 0. Angell was three times married, being what is called in common parlance 
"a polygamist." Plural marriage was a principle of his religion, and as such was 
practiced by him conscientiously. The names of his wives were Polly Johnson, Susan E. 
Savage and Mary Ann Johnson, and his marriage dates, October 7, 1832, April 20, 1851, 
and June 17, 1855. His children numbered an even score, and of these thirteen are living. 






HORACE KIMBALL WHITNEY. 



'HE eldest son of Newel K. Whitney and his first wife Elizabeth Ann Smith, the 
J subject of this story was born at Kirtland, Geauga county, Ohio, July 25, 1823. 
* i His parents being well-to-do and desirous that their children should be educated, he 
was given every advantage of schooling that his time and environment afforded. 
He inherited and acquired a taste for learning that lasted throughout his life. In his 
boyhood he was quite a prodigy among his mates, owing to his scholarly attainments. 
"Ask Horace," became a proverb among those seeking for information upon almost 
any subject. He was known as "the walking dictionary." 

A mere child when his parents were converted to Mormonism in the autumn of 1830, 
he was only a lad when the Prophet Joseph Smith founded at Kirtland schools for the 
study of ancient languages and science. He was one of the first pupils enrolled, and by 
his quick apprehension soon acquired a proficient knowledge of Hebrew, Greek and 
Latin. He was also an expert mathematician. Later he cultivated music to a considerable 
degree, sang melodiously and played the flute like a master. His musical gifts stood 
him in good stead in after years, when he became a member of various bands and 
orchestras. 

As a youth he was very fond of athletic sports, especially swimming, at which he was 
strong and skillful. He is reputed to have saved the life of a playmate, a boy older than 
himself, who, caught in a snag or gnarl of roots at the bottom of a deep mill-pond, was 
drowning, when Horace dove after him, brought him to the surface and swam with him 
to the shore. His general intelligence, his fondness for sports, added to his genial nature, 
made him a favorite with the Prophet, who afterwards married his sister Sarah. 

Horace moved with his parents from Kirtland in the fall of 1838, when they started 
for Far West, Missouri, following the main body of the Latter-day Saints, but were 
intercepted by the news of the mob troubles and the pending expulsion of their people 
from that State. They spent the ensuing winter at Carrolton, Illinois. In order to help 
support the family Horace engaged as a school teacher in the district where he resided, 



62 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

and although only in his sixteenth year, passed a satisfactory examination and was accepted. 
He was several years under the statutory age, but being large and slightly bearded, 
seemed older. When the examining trustee queried, "I should say you were about 
twenty-one, Mr. Whitney," the youth replied, "You need'nt guess again," and the ex- 
amination closed. 

At Nauvoo he learned the printer's trade, being employed upon the ' Times and 
Seasons" as a compositor, and having as a fellow employee George Q, Cannon, who was 
several years younger than himself. Horace was one of the force of compositors who in 
1850 set the first type for the Deseret News at Salt Lake City. While still at Nauvoo he 
accompanied Amasa M. Lyman on a mission to the State of Tennessee. 

On the third day of February, 1846, Horace K. Whitney married Helen Mar 
Kimball, who had previously been sealed to the Prophet Joseph Smith. The marriage 
took place in the Nauvoo Temple. President Brigham Young officiating. In Utah he 
wedded two other wives, Lucy Bloxom and Mary Cravath. 

Horace was in the exodus of the Saints from Illinois, and on the Missouri he and 
his younger brother Orson were enrolled in the Pioneer Company, which after crossing 
the great plains, entered Salt Lake valley on the 24th of July, 1847. He returned to 
Winter Quarters for his family, and came again to the mountains in the autumn of 1848. 
He settled permanently at Salt Lake City. 

.His subsequent life was peaceful and comparatively uneventful. He was a Major of 
Topographical Engineers in the Nauvoo Legion, and while his family went south to 
Provo in the move of 1858, he remained as one of the guards at Salt Lake City while 
Johnston's army passed through the all but deserted town. A great lover of the drama, 
he was for many years a member of the Deseret Dramatic Association, botli at the Social 
Hall and the Salt Lake Theatre, playing various parts with recognized ability. After 
leaving the stage he was a flutist in the orchestra for several years. 

During almost his entire life in Utah he was a book-keeper in the office of President 
Brigham Young, a position held by him at the time of his death. In troublous times he 
united with his duties as clerk those of a guard over the President. He was an incessant 
reader in his later days, and was never so contented as when seated in his arm chair 
devouring the works of the great masters of literature, or applauding at the temple of 
Thespis the triumphs of histrionic and musical genius. He naturally shunned publicity, 
was sensitive, modest and retiring, and though a charming conversationalist, a facile 
writer, and highly gifted in various ways, was absolutely without ambition for official 
station. His one absence from Utah, after his arrival here in 1848, was in 1869-70, when 
he spent several months, including the winter, upon a mission in the Eastern States. 

Horace K. Whitney, an honest man, passed away at his home in the presence of his 
family, on the 22nd of November, 1884. At his funeral, held three days later. Apostle 
Wilford Woodruff and a number of other old-time associates united in paying high 
tribute to his character. He left two wives, and his living children at his death 
numbered sixteen. 



GEORGE WOODWARD. 

'HE son of George Woodward, Sr., and Jemima Shinn, the subject of this sketch 
) was born September 9, 1817, on his father's farm in Monmouth county, New Jersey. 
His parents were in confortable circumstances, and he received the education 
usually afforded farmers' boys in those days. At the age of seventeen, after obtain- 
ing his father's consent, he went to Philadelphia and learned the brick-laying trade, 
which he followed for several years. 

While living in Philadelphia he joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, September 7, 1840. In April, 1841, he left his father's home and started for 
Nauvoo, Illinois, arriving there on the first day of May. ' He labored at mason work from 
that time until the exodus of the Saints into the wilderness. He was well acquainted with 
the Prophet Joseph Smith and the other Mormon leaders, and was active in helping to 
protect the homes of the people from mob violence. 

He left Nauvoo July 10,1846, having one wagon, two yoke of oxen and a limited sup- 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 63 

ply of provisions as the sum of his earthly possessions. Crossing Iowa, he wintered on 
the Missouri River, and was there chosen one of the Pioneers to accompany President 
Brigham Young to the Rocky Mountains. 

He was enrolled as a member of the twelfth "Ten, 1 ' of which Morton Jacobs was 
captain. He drove the team that drew the cannon brought by the Pioneers to Salt Lake 
valley, aud on the plains served as a night guard. At Green River he was given the 
privilege, with several others, of returning to meet his family in the emigration that was 
following. Consequently he did not reach the Valley until September 25, two months 
and one day after the arrival of the main body of the Pioneers. 

Until October, 1861, Mr. Woodward and his wife lived at Salt Lake City. He then 
joined a company of men who were called to go south and make a new settlement. This 
company was led by George A. Smith and Erastus Snow. Halting near the junction of 
the Rio Virgen and Santa Clara Rivers, they laid out the city of St. George, where the 
Woodwards have since resided. Mrs. Woodward's maiden name was Thomazin Down- 
ing. They were married August 14, 1843, and have one child, a daughter Mary Wood- 
ward. 

Mr. Woodward has held no civic office, but has been more or less prominent ecclesias- 
tically and in a military way. He was a Seventy in 1844 and a High Priest in 1856, when 
he became counselor to Bishop E. F. Sheets of the Eighth Ward, Salt Lake City. In 
St. George he served as a Ward Teacher and a Home Missionary, and on July 2, 1882, 
was made a member of the High Council. In September, 1893, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors of the St. George Temple, in the building of which, as well 
as in the construction of the Manti, Salt Lake and Nauvoo temples, he aided materially. 
At Nauvoo he was a lieutenant in the Legion, and at Salt Lake City a captain of in- 
fantry, and went with his company to Echo Canyon in 1857. He was also a captain of 
infantry in the Iron military district, and saw service in the operations against the Indians 
from 1866 to 1869. The life of George Woodward is that of a frugal, honest and indus- 
trious man, one who has established a claim to the. respect and esteem of his contempor- 
aries and posterity. 



THE THREE PIONEER WOMEN. 

fHE three women enrolled among the Pioneers at Winter Quarters, and who accom- 
panied their husbands to Salt Lake valley in 1847, were Harriet Page Wheeler 
Young, wife of Lorenzo D. Young; Clara Decker Young, wife of Brigham Young; 
and Ellen Sanders Kimball, wife of Heber C. Kimball. A brief biography is here 
given of each of this triad of heroines, the first of whom was mother to the second, and 
mother also to one of the two children who accompanied the Pioneers on their journey. 
She properly takes precedence in this series of sketches. 



Harriet Page Wheeler Young, daughter of Oliver Wheeler and his wife Hannah 
Ashby, was a native of Hillsborough, Hillsborough county, New Hampshire, and was 
born September 7, 1803. She was the eldest of five children. The ancestors of the 
Wheeler family were from Wales, whence they emigrate'd to America five generations 
before Harriet was born, settling on Massachusetts Bay. 

A year or two after her birth her parents moved from Hillsborough, her father's 
birthplace, to Salein, Massachusetts, the birthplace of her mother. There Harriet was 
reared to womanhood. She was kept at school from five to ten years of age, after which 
she went to work in one of the Salem factories, where she learned to spin flax and wool, 
and became an expert. Her mother taught her to weave, and she was also an accom- 
plished milliner and an excellent cook. 

She early showed herself to be a woman of character. A young man of immoral 
habits once paid court to her. Learning of his evil tendencies, she forthwith broke off 
with him, refusing any longer to receive his visits. He persisted in his attentions, and to 
avoid him she temporarily left home and stayed at the house of a friend. Ascertaining 
her whereabouts, her suitor followed, in a half drunken condition, and finding that she 



64 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

was alone in the house, and being denied admittance, he attempted to force an entrance 
through the basement. Harriet, though somewhat alarmed, maintained coolness and 
presence of mind qualities for which she was noted and having no means of defense, 
sought safety in flight. Eunning upstairs, she passed through the attic, out upon the 
roof, jumped thence to another roof several feet below, thence to the ground, and scaling 
a high fence, ran breathless to the house of a neighbor, where she was safe from further 
intrusion. 

She is next heard of as the wife of Isaac Decker, of Phelps, New York, about four 
and a half miles from the Hill Cumorah, the repository of the famous golden plates. She 
had formed Mr. Decker's acquaintance while teaching school at this little town. At the 
time of her marriage she was seventeen years of age. Her three eldest children, Lucy, 
who (as well as Clara) married President Brigham Young; Charles, the well known 
"Charlie' 7 Decker of early times; and her name-sake daughter Harriet, who became 
Mrs. EphraimH. Hanks, were born at Phelps. Her fourth child, Clarissa Caroline (abbre- 
viated to Clara) and her fifth child, Fannie, who married Feramorz Little, were born at 
Freedom, Catteraugus county, in the same state. 

The Deckers had migrated to the state of Ohio and had settled at New Portage, in 
Portage county, when they united with the Latter-day Saints. Subsequently they re- 
moved to Franklin, a day's travel from Kirtland, the headquarters of the Mormon com- 
munity. Isaac Decker was a well to do farmer, but beggared himself in a vain attempt, 
made also by others equally devoted and self-sacrificing, to save the financial credit of 
of the Church at the time of the Kirtland bank failure. 

The homeless family in the latter part of 1837, moved to Kirtland. The Church was 
then on the eve of its exodus to Missouri. The Deckers desired to go, but were without 
means to undertake the journey, one of a thousand miles. They found a kind friend in 
Lorenzo D. Young, who selling his farm, fitted out several teams to convey himself and 
his family to Missouri. With characteristic generosity he gave one of his teams to Isaac 
Decker, and otherwise helped to prepare him for the journey, which they performed in 
company. 

They arrived at Far West in March, 1838, having traveled part way with the Prophet 
Joseph Smith, his brother Hyrum, and Lorenzo's brother Brigham, all refugees, fleeing 
from mob violence. The Decker family settled in Daviess county, but afterwards moved 
to Far West. After the fall of that city they fled to Quincy, Illinois, and next resided at 
Winchester, Scott county, in that state. There Harriet's son Isaac Perry was born. 

In 1841 they took up their abode at Nauvoo, where Harriet separated from Isaac 
Decker and married Lorenzo D. Young, March 9, 1843. Her first child by her second 
husband, a son named John Brigham, was born September 15, 1844, and died the same 
day. With her husband and children she crossed the frozen Mississippi in February, 
1846, and after camping for some weeks on Sugar Creek, Iowa, proceeded with the mi- 
grating Saints to the Missouri river. In the spring of 1847 she was permitted to join the 
Pioneer company and go with her husband to the mountains. With them went her little 
son, Isaac Perry Decker, and her husband's son, Lorenzo Sobieski Young. It is needless 
to say that Harriet and her sister Pioneers were "ministering angels'' during that long 
and wearisome journey, especially toward the close, when cases of sickness among the 
Pioneers were quite numerous. 

They entered Salt Lake valley on the 24th of July, in company with President Brig- 
ham Young. The emotions of our three heroines as they gazed upon the barren prospect 
a wilderness of sagebrush and sunflowers, of alkaline pools and saleratus beds, of ster- 
ile rocks and burning sands, where chirped the cricket, flitted the lizard and hissed the 
rattlesnake ran in diverse channels. The President's wife, Clara, was the most stoical 
of the three; the others were very despondent. Harriet's heart sank within her, brave 
as she was, and she was ready to burst into tears at the thought of passing the remainder 
of her days amid such surroundings. "Lorenzo," said she to her husband, "we have 
traveled fifteen hundred miles over prairies, deserts and mountains, but feeble as I am I 
would rather go a thousand miles farther than stay in such a desolate place." 

Her gloomy feelings may be partly accounted for from the fact that she was soon to 
become a mother. On the 20th of September, less than two months after her arrival with 
the Pioneers many of whom were now on the way back to Winter Quarters she gave 
birth to a son, the first white male child born in Salt Lake valley. He was named for his 
father, Lorenzo Dow Young, and was a bright little fellow, giving great promise. Five 
months later, however, he fell before the scythe of the universal reaper. 

The family first camped upon the south branch of City Creek, about where the Meth- 
odist church now stands, and then upon the north branch of that stream, near the spot 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 65 

now occupied by the Latter-day Saints' University. They next lived in the Fort on Pio- 
neer Square, but in December moved into a new log house built by Mr. Young near the 
site of the present Beehive house. The first tree planted in Salt Lake valley, and no 
doubt in all Utah, was embedded in-the soil of those premises by Harriet Page Wheeler 
Young. 

It was against the advice of their friends at the Fort about a mile away that the 
Youngs moved that early into their new domicile, the first house erected outside the en- 
closure. It was feared they would be molested by hostile Indians. An incident occurred 
that winter which must have convinced them that those apprehensions were not entirely 
groundless. 

Harriet Young, with her infant child, was sitting one day in her solitary home the 
rest of the family being away when a fierce, ill-looking savage, known throughout the 
region as "a bad Indian," came to the door and asked for "biscuit." Going to her hum- 
ble larder, she took from it two of three small biscuits all the bread she had and gave 
them to her dusky visitor. He accepted them, but asked for more. She then gave him 
the remaining one, but still he demanded more. She informed him that she had no more. 
Furious, he fitted an arrow to his bow and advanced, aiming at her heart, fiercely repeat- 
ing his demand. Cool and collected, the brave woman faced her swarthy foe, and for a 
moment thought her last hour and that of her helpless babe had come. Not yet. An 
idea strikes her. In the next room, securely fastened, is a large dog, a powerful mastiff, 
purchased by her husband on leaving the fort, and kept upon the premises for just such 
emergencies as the one now threatening. Making a sign to the savage, as of compliance 
with his request, she passed into the next room, and hastily untying the dog, cried, 
"seize him." Like lightning the mastiff darted through the doorway, and a shriek of 
terror, quickly followed by a howl of pain, as the sharp canine teeth met in the redskin's 
thigh, told how well the faithful brute comprehended his mistress' peril and his own duty 
in her defense. In all probability the prostrate and pleading Indian would never again 
have risen, had not our heroine, in whose generous heart pity for the vanquished wretch 
at once took the place of the just anger she had felt, after prudently relieving him of his 
bow and arrow, called off the dog and set the wounded Lamanite at libety. He was badly 
hurt, and cried bitterly. Mrs. Young magnanimously washed the wound, applied a large 
sticking plaster to the injured part, and sent him away a wiser if not a better Indian. 

Excepting a journey to the States in the spring of 1849, from which she returned the 
following summer, her life after the original arrival in the Valley, was passed amid the 
scenes and circumstances familiar to the early settlers of this region. The journey in 
question was taken in company with her husband and her son Isaac Perry Decker; Dr. 
John M. Bernhisel also crossing the plains at the same time on his way to Washington. 
The Youngs went to Missouri where they spent the winter, and in the spring started back 
to Utah. They were at Oregon, Upper Missouri, when another thrilling incident took place. 
To Cartersville, about sixty miles away, Mr. Young desired to send the sum of $300 to 
his brother Joseph, to assist him to emigrate. Too busy to go himself, he entrusted the 
errand to his wife, and she in a carriage drawn by two horses and accompanied by her 
little son, eight years old, set out for that place. On the way she had to cross a floating 
bridge over a deep, swift running stream, swollen by the spring floods. A part of the 
bridge was submerged, and the water covering it so muddy that the timbers were 
invisible. The result was that one of the forward wheels ran off, nearly capsizing the 
vehicle into the rushing current. It was a critical moment, but Mrs. Young was equal to 
it. Keeping firm hold of the lines, and preserving as usual her mental poise, she guided 
the team so skilfully that the wheel which had run off, regained the bridge, and they 
reached the shore in safety. 

Harriet Page Wheeler Young died at her home in Salt Lake City, September 22nd, 
1871. Her death was immediately due to a complication of disorders, but in a general 
way it was the breaking down of a system, naturally delicate, under the manifold cares 
and labors of nearly three score and ten eventful years. 



Clara Decker Young, the second of our three heroines, was the daughter, as stated, 
of the first. She was of the same sterling mettle as her noble mother, and even more 
heroic, as shown. She was born July 22nd, 1828; the.place of her birth has already been 
given. 

Always a delicate child, Clara, when not quite three years old, met with a fearful and 
well-nigh fatal accident. Her father was busy chopping wood one day, when the little 



66 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

one, who was nearly always at his heels, toddled out to the woodshed where he was work- 
ing. She drew near unobserved, and as he raised his ax to strike, ran right under it. Be- 
fore he could prevent, the blow descended, almost cleaving her skull. She fell, as the 
horrified parent supposed, dead. Half mad with grief he bore her to the house, where 
the stricken mother and family shared in his sorrow and despair. A young surgeon 
chanced to be living in the family, so that immediate aid was at hand, though all supposed 
life extinct. Seizing the forlorn hope that possibly the child might not be dead, but only 
stunned as it was discovered that the thick wadding of the little woolen hood she wore 
had partly broken the force of the blow and prevented the ax from penetrating to the 
brain the surgeon experimentally put a spoonful of liquor between her lips, whereupon 
she moved one finger. Every possible effort was then made to restore her, and with 
eventual success, though for six months she hovered between life and death, and was 
anxiously watched, night and day, the house meanwhile being kept almost deathly still. 
It was nearly a year before she spoke a loud word. The wound, which was a long gash 
running back near the middle of the head, was stitched, and finally it healed, though leav- 
ing a deep scar which remained to her dying day. 

Clara was about five years of age when her parents moved to the State of Ohio, and 
from that time until she was fifteen when she underwent another long spell of sickness, 
during which her life was many times despaired of her history in general is that of her 
mother, already related. Though delicate, she had inherited that mother's plucky spirit, 
with presence of mind and powers of patient endurance that never deserted her. 

Clara married when very young. She was not yet sixteen, when, at Nauvoo, Illinois, 
she gave her heart and hand to Brigham Young, the future leader of the Latter-day 
Saints, who was then President of the Twelve Apostles. The date of this marriage, which 
took place in the Temple, was May 8, 1843. The President had previously wedded her 
sister Lucy; both entering into the order of plural marriage. 

In the exodus from Illinois they accompanied their husband and the rest of his family 
from Nauvoo to Winter Quarters. When the Pioneer company was formed the President 
requested Clara to be his companion upon the journey. It being his wish, she consented, 
though her inclinations were all the other way. Having arrived in Salt Lake Valley, 
it thenceforth remained her home. 

"Aunt Clara," as she was called, resided for many years with most of the President's 
other families in the Lion House, and it was there, during the troublous times following 
the establishment of Camp Floyd by Johnston's army, that a thrilling experience befell 
her. She was sitting one evening in her apartments her immediate family being away, 
and the others in rooms remote from hers, when she was roused from reverie by a 
knock at the door opening into the long hall extending through the building. "Come 
in,'' said she, without lifting her eyes from the work engaging her hands. The door 
opened, and in walked what? She scarcely knew for a moment, so shocked was she by 
the appearance of the being that met her gaze; a man, tall, fierce-looking, his eyes 
glittering like stars, his hair unkempt and his clothing torn, who, shutting the door behind 
him, asked to see President Young. 

Clara, naturally enough, was alarmed, but mastering her feelings, and betraying no 
sign of fear, she quietly informed the horrible intruder that the President was not in. 

"Where is he?" demanded the maniac, for maniac the man was. "I think he went 
out with Brother So-and-So," naming some-one habitually upon the premises "but I'll 
see if I can find him for you. This way if you please; " and taking the light she led the 
way through the long intersecting halls to the office between the Lion and the Bee-Hive 
houses, where she knew a guard was stationed. The madman meekly followed, com- 
pletely under the spell of her cool self-possession. Reaching the door of a room adjoin- 
ing the President's office, she said to him, "There, if you'll step in and wait a few mo- 
ments, I'll inquire if he's here." He did as she desired, when she closed the door, and 
hastened to inform the guard. Upon returning with him to the room where she had left 
the unwelcome visitor it was found that he had flown. A thorough search of the 
premises failed to discover him, and Mrs. Young, greatly relieved by the thought that he 
had decamped, returned to her apartments. 

She had scarcely reseated herself, when there came another knock at the door. 
Thinking it was the guard this time, she again said "Come in;" when, to her horror, in 
walked the madman once more, the hideous grin on his countenance gory from a wound 
received in falling or in running against some object in the dark showing how much he 
admired his own cunning by whifth he had eluded pursuit. Before he could speak, 
however, or attack her, if such was his intent, the guard, who had been watching for him, 
suddenly entered, and the dangerous fellow was secured and taken away. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 67 

This was but one of several such attempts, undertaken by maniacs and others, to 
assult and murder the Mormon leader; but they all proved abortive. Brigham Young:, 
unlike Joseph Smith, was not destined to die by the hand of an assassin. 

Clara D. Young was a natural mother, and played the part of one, not only to her 
own offspring, but to the children of her sister -wife, Margaret Alley Young, who died 
five days after the birth of her son, Mahonri, since deceased, and when her daugther, 
Mrs. Eva Young Davis, was less than three years old. These motherless little ones were 
as dear to "Aunt Clara" as her own flesh and blood, and they repaid her with filial affec- 
tion equally tender. Of her own children two sons and three daughters the boys, Jedediah 
G. and Albert J., both died very young; but her girls Je.inette, Nabbie and Talula, re- 
mained to comfort her declining years and smoothe her pillow at the final hour of 
parting. 

Mention should be made also of her motherly care and training of a young Indian 
girl, rescued from a cruel death under the following circumstances. One of the customs 
in vogue among the savages found here by the early settlers was to kill, if they could not 
sell their prisoners, taken in war among themselves. During one of the early winters several 
Indian children were ransomed by some of the settlers to save them from being shot or 
tortured to death by their merciless captors. One of these was a girl rescued by Charlie 
Decker, who purchased her and placed her in his sister's care by whom she was reared 
to womanhood. ''Sally," as she was called, was a genuine savage, and it required all 
the patience and perseverance that "Aunt Clara" could command to correct her Indian 
manners and morals and rear her in the ways of civilization. She succeeded, however, 
admirably and the girl grew up a neat and accomplished housekeeper, the peer in these 
respects of any of her white sisters. She was also a devout Latter-day Saint. From a 
pure sense of duty she married, as a plural wife, Kanosh, a semi-civilized chief , with a 
view to carrying to his tribe the benefits of the religious and domestic training she had 
received. But the change from civilization to semi-savagery was too sudden and too 
great for her, and she soon died, sincerely mourned by all who knew her and esteemed 
her for her virtues. 

Clara Decker Young survived her two sister Pioneers a little over seventeen years. 
During that period she witnessed the death of her husband. The closing part of her own 
life was passed in the quietude and seclusion of her home just north of the Social Hall, 
whither she removed from the Lion house some time before her husband's demise. Her 
summons to rejoin him, her mother and her children in the spirit world, came on the 5th 
day of January, 1889, when she succumbed to heart-failure that heart which for sixty 
years had throbbed with love for humanity and had never failed. 



In the village or parish of Ten, Telemarken, Norway, was born in the year 1824 a 
little girl who in after years was known as Ellen Sanders Kimball. No part of this title 
was hers originally, her maiden name, Ellen Sanders, being bestowed upon her in 
America, probably for the reason that it was more easily pronounced than the Norwegian 
name with which she was christened as an infant in her far off native land. 

She was the daughter of Ysten and Aasa Sondrason, and her own full name was 
Aagaata Ysten Dater Bake, which by interpretation is Aagaata, Ysten 's daughter, of the 
Bake farm. She was the third born of the household, there being in all seven children, 
five girls and two boys, namely, Caroline, Margaret, Ellen, Helga, Sondra, Aasa and Ole. 
Helga's name was Anglicised to Harriet, and Ole was surnamed George. 

Ellen's father was a farmer, and though not wealthy, was considered prosperous in 
that country, where the sum of two thousand dollars, which would have covered the value 
of his earthly possessions, was deemed at that time, among folk of his class, quite a 
fortune. In what way Ellen's childhood was passed, must be left to the reader's imagi- 
nation. As a farmer's daughter, among the mountains of Norway, her life was doubt- 
less frugal and peaceful, and her habits industrious and thrifty. She possessed a kind, 
sympathetic heart, and a very hospitable nature, but was not always of a happy disposi- 
tion,. Her moods were often extremes; sometimes merry, sometimes melancholly. She 
had an intelligent mind, and her spirit was brave and true. 

In the early part 'of 1837, when Ellen was about thirteen years old, her parents, 
with a view to improving their temporal condition and providing more liberally for the 
future of their children, resolved to emigrate to America. The farm was sold and the 
family fitted out for the journey. Leaving home, they proceeded to Skeen, or Dramen, 
and embarked for Gottenborg, Sweden, where they arrived in the early part of June. 



68 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

There they took passage on board a Swedish brig, laden with iron and bound for New 

Among the passengers, likewise emigrating with his parents to the New World, was 
a lad named Canute Peterson, the same who recently died, President of the Sanpete 
Stake of Zion. He was about the age of Ellen, both having been born the same year. If 
young Peterson possessed the same genial qualities that characterized the man in 
after life, which there is no reason to doubt, he probably did much for the homeless emi- 
grants, his countrymen, in whiling away the tedium of the long voyage over the ocean. 
The Hogan family, relatives of the Sondrasons, came in the same ship. The company, 
after several weeks upon the sea, landed at New York about the middle of August. 

At Chicago, to which point they proceeded, Ellen with her parents and the rest of the 
family separated from the Petersons and Hogans, who remained in Illinois, and went to 
the State of Indiana, where her father took up land, built a house, plowed and put in 
crops. He was a generous man, so much so that he had retained but little of the means 
realized from the sale of his possessions in Norway. After paying the passage of him- 
self and his family over the ocean, he had quite a sum of money left, but had loaned or 
given away the greater part of it to poor people whom he met on the way. He had a 
stout heart and a strong arm, however, and went to work with a will to found a new home 
in the land of his adoption. 

About a year after they landed in America, Ellen's mother sickened and died. Her 
elder sister Margaret had died some time before. Some three weeks after her mother's 
death, her father, who was sick at the same time, also succumbed and passed away. Thus 
thick and fast misfortunes fell upon them. The orphaned children, left among strangers, 
soon lost what remained of their father's property, and a year or two after his death, they 
removed from Indiana to Illinois, making their way to La Salle county, where dwelt 
their relatives and others speaking their native tongue. There the homeless children 
separated, the girls finding employment as hired helps in families, and the boys securing 
labor suited to their tender years. They were seven or eight miles from the town of 
Ottawa, where Ellen lived in service for a while. 

Up to this time neither she nor her kindred had heard of Mormonism, or if hearing 
of it, had formed any definite idea concerning the new religion, which had swept over 
several of the States and had been brought to the attention of the Government at Wash- 
ington. Nauvoo, the gathering place of the Saints, was about one hundred and eighty 
miles from La Salle. 

Sometime in the year 1842 Elder George P. Dykes and a fellow missionary named 
Hendric-kson, from Nauvoo, came into La Salle county preaching the Gospel. In the 
spring or summer of the same year Ellen joined the Latter-day Church, being baptized, 
with her brother Sondra, by an Elder named Duall. Her sister Harriet joined several 
months later. A branch was raised up in La Salle, numbering nearly one hundred souls; 
Ole Hyer being its president, and young Canute Peterson a member. Subsequently 
Apostles Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and Parley P. Pratt visited the place to orga- 
nize a Stake of Zion, to be called "New Norway." Some surveys were made, and the 
project was then abandoned. 

In October, 1844, Ellen Sanders, with her sister Harriet, her little brother Sondra 
and Canute Peterson, went to Nauvoo, arriving in that city thenceforth, until the Mor- 
mon exodus, the home of the two sisters a day or two before the general conference of 
the Church. Sondra returned to La Salle with his employer, Jacob Anderson, who had 
brought the party in his team to the city of the martyred Seer. Ellen and Harriet con- 
tinued to "live out," the former first dwelling in the family of Charles C. Rich, and after- 
wards in the family of Heber C. Kimball, of which, on the 7th of January, 1846, she 
became a permanent member. She and her sister Harriet were both married to Apostle 
Kimball in the Temple, by President Brigham Young. This was just before the exodus, 
which began in February. 

At the organization of the Pioneer company on the Missouri river, Ellen Kimball was 
permitted to accompany her husband upon the westward journey, for the hardships of 
which the toils and trials of her early life had well inured her. She was poorly prepared, 
however, for the scene of desolation into which she was suddenly ushered when on July 
24th, 1847, she gazed for the first time upon the barren valley of the desert-laving Inland 
Sea. 

During the absence of her husband, who on August 26th of that year set out upon 
the return journey to the Missouri River, to bring the rest of his family to the Valley, 
Mrs. Kimball dwelt in the fort erected by the Pioneers. Subsequently she had a home on 
City Creek. While living in the Fort her first child was born, a son named Samuel, who 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 6!) 

died within a year. Of the four children born to her subsequently, the eldest two, Joseph 
S. and Augusta, were twins, who died in their youth; the remaining two, Jedediah and 
Rosalia, still live. 

In 1869, the year after the death of her husband, Mrs. Kimball removed with many 
others of his family, to Meadowville, in Bear Lake Valley, where she lived with her 
children. She still owned property in Salt Lake City, and several times visited her friends 
here from her new home in the North. In the summer or fall of 1871 she returned for the 
last time to the Valley which she had been one of the first to enter nearly a quarter of a 
century before. She came to consult a physician regarding a dropsical affection that was 
troubling her. Temporary relief was obtained, but she suffered a relapse, and repairing 
to the home of her brother, Sondra Sanders, in South Cottonwood, on the 22nd of Novem- 
ber she breathed her last. 



FIRST IMMIGRANTS. 



PARLEY PARKER PRATT. 

' MONG the earliest colonizers of the Rocky Mountain region was Mormonism's poet- 
Apostle, Parley P. Pratt. He with Apostle John Taylor led the first immigration 
that followed in the wake of the Pioneers from the Missouri River to Salt Lake 
valley. Were it not for this circumstance, his proper place in this volume would 
be among orators and men of letters; for he was one of the greatest speakers and writers 
that Mormonism has produced. An early convert to the faith of the Latter-day Saints, 
he came into the fold at a time when the infant and persecuted cause had need of such a 
champion to present its claims and defend its position, and for more than a quarter of a 
century he stood in the front rank of its ablest and most eloquent expounders. One of 
its original Twelve Apostles, from first to last he was a zealous and tireless worker in its 
interests. 

Parley P. Pratt was the third son of Jared and Charity Pratt, of Burlington, Otsego 
county, New York, where he was born April 12, 1807. His father was a farmer, but not 
a prosperous one ; also a school teacher and an instructor in vocal music. A man of 
excellent morals, religiously inclined, but belonging to no church, by example and precept 
he instilled into the minds of his children veneration for God, the Savior and the holy 
scriptures. Parley received a common school education, supplemented by extensive 
reading. A book was his favorite and almost constant companion. At home, in the 
intervals of farm labor, under the careful tuition of his pious and virtuous mother, he 
familiarized himself with the Bible, and at school mastered the four fundamental 
branches of learning. His natural gifts and close application enabled him to make rapid 
progress, insomuch that his teacher would often point him out as an example to his fellow 
students. 

Leaving school when about sixteen, he resumed his life of toil. He and his brother 
William purchased a farm in the woods near Oswego, on Lake Ontario, but adversity 
pursued them, and failing to make the second payment on the land, they lost it. Parley 
now joined the Baptist church, and in October, 1826, started for northern Ohio, where he 
bargained for a piece of forest land and began to build a home. The next summer he 
returned to New York state, and on the 9th of September, at Canaan, Columbia county, 
then the home of his parents, he married the girl that he loved Thankful Halsey. The 
following spring found the young couple settled in a log dwelling in the midst of a small 
clearing on the forest-fringed shores of Lake Erie. 

About this time Parley P. Pratt formed the acquaintance of Sidney Rigdon, a minis- 
ter of the Reformed Baptists, or Campbellites, who came into his neighborhood from the 
State of Pennsylvania. Parley was much impressed with his doctrines, and after hearing 
him preach several times, he and his wife became members of Mr. Rigdon's congregation. 

In August, 1830, he resolved to devote himself to the ministry. Selling out at a 
sacrifice, he and his wife, abandoning their home in the wilderness, traveled eastward 
to his native state. Stopping to preach near Rochester while his wife continued 
the journey homeward Parley stayed over night at the house of an old Baptist deacon 
named Hamlin, and there for the first time saw the Book of Mormon, which he perused 
with the deepest interest. 

He immediately resolved to visit Manchester and have an interview with Joseph 
Smith, Jr., the translator of the record. He found that the young prophet had removed 
to Pennsylvania, but met his brother, Hyrum Smith, who kindly received him and accom- 
panied him to Fayette, the birthplace of the Mormon church, where, being fully con- 
verted, he was baptized by Oliver Cowdery, September 1, 1830. 

Having been ordained an Elder, he re-visited his old home in Canaan, and there con- 
verted and baptized his younger brother, Orson. He then returned to Manchester, and 
met for the first time the Prophet Joseph Smith. History is indebted to Parley P. Pratt 
for the following pen portrait of the founder of Mormonism in his maturer years : 

"President Joseph Smith was in person tall and well built, strong and active; of a 
light complexion, light hair, blue eyes, very little beard, and of an expression peculiar to 
himself, on which the eye naturallv rested with interest, and was never weary of behold- 



74 HISTOEY OF UTAH. 

ing. His countenance was ever mild, affable, beaming with intelligence and benevo- 
lence, mingled with a look of interest and an unconscious smile, or cheerfulness, and 
entirely free from all restraint or affectation of gravity; and there was something con- 
nected with the serene and steady penetrating glance of his eye, as if he would probe 
the deepest abyss of the human heart, gaze into eternity, penetrate the heavens, and 
comprehend all worlds. 

" He possessed a noble boldness and independence of character; his manner was 
easy and familiar; his rebuke terrible as the lion; his benevolence as unbounded as the 
ocean; his intelligence universal, and his language abounding in original eloquence 
peculiar to himself not polished not studied not smooth and softened by education 
and refined by art; but flowing forth in its own native simplicity, and profusely abound- 
ing in variety of subject and manner. He interested and edified, while at the same time 
he amused and entertained his audience ; and none listened to him that were ever weary 
of his discourse ; I have even known him to retain a congregation of willing and anxious 
listeners for many hours together, in the midst of cold or sunshine, rain or wind, while 
they were laughing at one moment and weeping the next. Even his most bitter enemies 
were generally overcome if he could once get their ears. 

"I have known him when chained and surrounded with armed murderers and assas- 
sins, who were heaping upon him every possible insult and abuse, rise up in the majesty 
of a son of God and rebuke them in the name of Jesus Christ, till they quailed before 
him, dropped their weapons, and on their knees begged his pardon and ceased their 
abuse. 

"In short, in him the characters of a Daniel and a Cyrus were wonderfully blended. 
The gifts, wisdom and devotion of a Daniel were united with the boldness, courage, tem- 
perance, perseverance and generosity of a Cyrus. And had he been spared a martyr's 
fate till mature manhood and age, he was certainly endued with powers and ability to 
have revolutionized the world in many respects and to have transmitted to posterity a 
name associated with more brilliant and glorious acts than has yet fallen to the lot of 
mortals. As it is, his works will live to endless ages, and unnumbered millions yet 
unborn will mention his name with honor, as a noble instrument in the hands of God, 
who during his short and youthful career laid the foundation of that kingdom spoken of 
by Daniel the Prophet, which should break in pieces all other kingdoms and stand 
forever.'' 

Late in October, 1830, Parley P. Pratt, in company with Oliver Cowdery, Peter 
Whitmer, Jr., and Ziba Peterson, set out from Fayette upon a mission to the Lamanites, 
or American Indians the first mission undertaken by Elders of the Church outside the 
region where Mormonism originated. They started afoot, and after visiting the Catter- 
augus Indians near Buffalo, New York, proceeded on to Kirtland, Ohio, where they con- 
verted and baptized in three weeks one hundred and twenty-seven souls. Among these 
were Sidney Eigdon, Parley's former pastor,. to whom he was the first to present the 
Book of Mormon. Ordaining him and others to the Priesthood, the four Elders, accom 
panied by Frederick G. Williams, trudged on westward, preaching and baptizing at 
every opportunity. Near the mouth of Black River Parley was arrested on a trivial 
charge and held till morning, when he escaped and rejoined his companions. At San- 
dusky they spent several days with another Indian tribe the Wyandots and then by 
way of Cincinnati, on steamboat and afoot, reached St. Louis. It was now mid-winter. 
Traversing the bleak and storm-swept prairies, they arrived at Independence, Jackson 
county, Missouri, on the extreme frontier of the nation. 

Elders Cowdery and Pratt, crossing the border into Indian Territory, preached to 
the Shawnees and Delawares and presented to the aged sachem of those tribes the Book 
of Mormon. They converted Mr. Pool, the government blacksmith for the Indians, who 
served them as interpreter, and were on the point of converting many of the red men, 
when, through the influence of Christian missionaries with government agents, they 
were compelled to quit the Territory. Their mission to the Lamanites was not very fruit- 
ful of results, but they accomplished one purpose of their errand, in planting their feet 
upon the spot afterwards designated as the site of the city of Zion. 

The early part of the following summer found Parley P. Pratt back at Kirtland, 
where he reported to the Prophet and the Church, which now had its headquarters there, 
the labors of himself and his brethren in Missouri. September of the same year wit- 
nessed his return to that State, in company with his brother Orson. By that time the 
Prophet and many other Elders, who had traveled two by two to "the land of Zion,'' had 
been there, held a conference, organized a stake, and after consecrating ground for the 
building of a city and a temple, had returned to the East. Early in 1832 Parley rejoined 



HISTORY OF UTAH 75 

his wife at Kirtland, and the following summer moved with her to Missouri. During the 
next twelve months he was busy laboring in the ministry, cultivating the soil and teach- 
ing a school of Elders, numbering some sixty members, who met in the open air under 
the tall trees in a retired part of the wilderness. In the fall of 1833 arose the persecu- 
tion by which the Mormon colony was expelled from Jackson county. Parley P. Pratt 
was in the very thick of the fray, defending himself and his friends, as best he could, 
from mob violence, and seeking earnestly but vainly for redress of grievances. At one 
time he was brutally assaulted by one of the mob, who with clubbed musket dealt him a 
terrific blow from behind, nearly splitting his skull. Most of the refugees fled into Clay 
county. 

Parley P. Pratt and Lyman Wight, having carried to Kirtland a report of the Jack- 
son county troubles, were commissioned by the Prophet to proceed eastward, collect 
means and raise recruits for Zion's Camp, which in May, 1834, set out for Missouri, "to 
redeem Zion.'' He accompanied the expedition, but was chiefly engaged as a recruiting 
officer, visiting branches of the church along the way, gathering men and means and fall- 
ing in with the camp at various points. He and Orson Hyde, by request of the Prophet, 
called upon Governor Daniel Dunklin, at Jefferson City, Missouri, asking him to send a 
sufficient military force to reinstate the persecuted people and protect them in the pos- 
session of their homes in Jackson county. The governor acknowledged the justice of 
the demand, but frankly replied that he did not dare execute the laws in that respect, for 
fear of deluging the State in civil war. After the disbandment of the "Camp," Parley 
returned to his home in Clay county. In October he and his wife set out for Kirtland, 
but tarried through the winter at New Portage, about fift3' miles from that place. 

At Kirtland, on February 21, 1835, Parley P. Pratt was ordained one of the Twelve 
Apostles, under the hands of Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer. While 
waiting for his fellow Apostles to complete their preparations for a mission to the East, he 
visited the neighboring town of Mentor, where he attempted to hold an open air meeting 
from the steps of a Campbellite church; but a mob of about fifty men, headed by a brass 
band, interrupted him, pelted him with eggs and forced him to retire. Returning from 
his eastern mission in August of the same year, he took up permanent residence at Kirt- 
land, where, during the following winter, he attended the Hebrew school opened in the 
unfinished temple. 

Up to this time Parley P. Pratt was childless, and his wife an invalid, showing 
symptoms of consumption. In debt for his expenses through the winter and for the 
purchase of a new home, he was in doubt, as spring approached and the Elders pre- 
pared to go forth upon missions, as to whether it was his duty to do likewise, or stay at 
home and endeavor to sustain his family and pay his debts. One evening, after he had 
retired, and was pondering upon his future course, there came a knock at his door. He 
arose and opened it, when in walked Heber C. Kirnball and others. They blessed him 
and his wife and the Apostle Heber prophesied that she should be healed from that hour 
and bear a son whose name should be Parley. The prospective sire was told to go forth 
into the ministry, taking no thought for his debts or the necessaries of life, for the Lord 
would supply him with means for all purposes. He was to go to the city of Toronto, in 
Upper Canada, where he would find a people prepared to receive his message; he should 
organize the Church among them, and he was promised that from things growing out of 
this mission Mormonism would spread into England and cause a great work to be done in 
that land. 

The Apostle Parley believed and acted promptly. He started upon his mission in com- 
pany with a Canadian brother named Nickerson, who paid his traveling expenses as far 
as Hamilton, on Lake Ontario, where they parted. Having preached two or three times 
in that town, the Apostle pushed on to Toronto, carrying a letter of introduction to John 
Taylor of that place, from a merchant in Hamilton, who had accompanied the voluntary 
offer of the letter with a gift of ten dollars, to enable the bearer to reach his destination. 
Mr. and Mrs. Taylor received him kindly, though the former was rather reserved at first 
and gave him no direct encouragement. By others he was absolutely refused hospitality 
and denied permission to preach in any of their churches or homes. He was about to 
leave the city, thinking his friend Heber must have made a mistake in pointing out such 
a hard-hearted place as a promising field for converts, when he chanced to meet at Mrs. 
Taylor's a friend of hers, Mrs. Walton, a widow, who offered to entertain him and allow 
him to hold meetings in her house. The result was the introduction of the Apostle to a 
society of religious people who were seeking for spiritual light independent of . the 
churches to which they belonged. Many of these he converted, including the widow 
Walton and her household, John Taylor and wife, Joseph Fielding and his two sisters, 



76 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

one of whom became the wife of Hyrum Smith, the Patriarch of the Church, and mother 
of Joseph P. Smith, its present President. Upon a subsequent visit to Toronto, Parley 
was aided by his fellow Apostle, Orson Hyde. The work spread rapidly, and in various 
parts branches were built up, over which John Taylor, ordained an Elder, was left to 
preside. 

Not long after Apostle Pratt's second return from Canada his first-born child, a son 
whom he named Parley, was born at Kirtland, March 25, 1837, within a year of the 
date of Heber C. Kimball's prophecy, another section of which was fulfilled when Joseph 
Fielding, Isaac Russell, John Goodson and John Snider, Canadian Elders and Priests, 
were selected to accompany Apostles Kimball and Hyde and Elder Willard Richards to 
England, to lay the foundations of the British Mission. It was a letter written by 
Joseph Fielding to his brother, the Rev. James Fielding of Preston, England, that paved 
the way for the first preaching by these missionaries in that land. The Canadian 
Saints also assisted their father in the Gospel to meet his financial obligations. 

A sad sequel to so much success was the death of Parley's wife, who to the great 
grief of her husband passed into the spirit life about three hours after the birth of her 
child of promise. She had been healed of her seven years' illness, according to the Apos- 
tle's prediction, but literally gave her life for her child, launching with almost her latest 
breath his frail bark upon the troubled sea of mortality. Placing the motherless babe in 
the care of a kind neighbor who had just lost her infant, the sad-hearted sire sought relief 
in the consoling labors of the ministry. 

Home again after a short mission to Canada, he found himself involved in the whelm- 
ing tide of discord and dissension then sweeping over the Church at Kirtland. Sorely 
tried and tempted (and who that has not been shall judge him?)even this man of mighty 
faith murmured, but by a heroic effort overcame himself, repented and was forgiven. 
The candor with which he confesses his faults in the record that he has left, when he could 
easily have omitted all reference to them, gives an insight into the nobility of his character, 
in striking contrast to the conduct of some, who, too proud or too politic to acknowledge 
their own defects, are prone to point out their neighbor's imperfections, seen dimly through 
the "beam" in their own eyes, blinded perhaps by gazing too intently at "spots upon the 
sun." 

Parley P. Pratt's next mission was to the city of New York, where he arrived late in 
July, 1837. He took lodgings and began to preach and write, producing at this time his 
evangelic work "The Voice of Warning" and publishing the first edition of over four 
thousand copies. At first he found the metropolis a hard and unfruitful field. Six months 
he and Elijah Fordham, a resident Elder/'preached, advertised, printed, published, testi- 
fied, visited, talked, prayed and wept, in vain.'' Only six souls were baptized. But they 
continued their labor, and finally broke the ice and found smooth sailing. A chairmaker 
fitted up a large room and gave the Elders the use of it to preach in; a Methodist clergy- 
man invited them to his home for a similar purpose, subsequently joining the Church ; and 
the Apostle, by invitation of the Freeththinkers, delivered a course of lectures in Tam- 
many Hall. He soon had fifteen preaching places in the city, all filled to overflowing. 
Many were baptized and branches of the Church were formed in New York, Brooklyn, 
Jersey City and other places. 

In April, 1838, Apostle Pratt migrated once more to Missouri. He had previously 
married Mary Ann Frost Stearns, widow of Nathan Stearns, who had a daughter four 
years old. He was active in building up the Church in Caldwell and adjoining counties, 
and when the mob troubles arose was one of tho most conspicuous targets for Missourian 
animosity. He was at the battle of Crooked River, fighting side by side with Captain 
David W. Patten, when that hero fell, and was afterwards one of the defenders of Far 
West and one of the Mormon leaders betrayed by Colonel Hinckle into the hands of 
General Lucas, the commander of the state forces. Without a hearing he and his friends, 
Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight, George Robinson and Amasa 
M. Lyman were sentenced to be shot, but the execution of the murderous decree was pre- 
vented by Brigadier- General Doniphan, one of the Missourian officers, who denounced it 
as cold-blooded murder, and threatened to withdraw his troops from the scene. After a 
painful parting with his family, in the presence of armed guards his wife sick in bed 
with a three months infant the Apostle and his fellow prisoners were paraded by General 
Wilson through Jackson county, and then sent to Richmond, Ray county, where they 
were put in chains under a strong guard commanded by Colonel Sterling Price. From this 
heartless wretch and his horde of armed ruffians the helpless captives suffered every in- 
dignity. Describing a memorable incident of their confinement, Parley says: 

"In one of those tedious nights, we had lain as if in sleep till the hour of midnight had 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 77 

passed and our ears and hearts had been pained while we listened for hours to the obscene 
jests, the horrid oaths, the dreadful blasphemies and filthy language of our guards, 
Colonel Price at their head, as they recounted to each other their deeds of rapine, murder, 
robbery, etc., which they had committed among the Mormons, while at Far West and 
vicinity. They even boasted of defiling by force wives, daughters, virgins, and of shoot- 
ing or dashing out the brains of men, women and children. 

"I had listened until I became so disgusted, shocked, horrified and so filled with the 
spirit of indignant justice that I could scarcely refrain from rising upon my feet and rebuk- 
the guards; but had said nothing to Joseph or any one else, although I lay next to him 
and knew he was awake. On a sudden he arose to his feet and spoke in a voice of thunder, 
or as the roaringlion, uttering as near as I can recollect the following words: 

"SILENCE, ye fiends of the infernal pit! In the name of Jesus Christ I rebuke you 
and command you to be still; I will not live another minute and hear such language. 
Cease such talk, or you or I die THIS INSTANT! '' 

"He ceased to speak. He stood erect in terrible majesty, chained, and without a 
weapon; calm, unruffled and dignified as an angel, he looked upon the quailing guards, 
whose weapons were lowered or dropped to the ground, whose knees smote together, and 
who, shrinking into a corner or crouching at his feet, begged his pardon and remained quiet 
till a change of guards. 

"I have seen the ministers of justice, clothed in majesterial robes, and criminals 
arraigned before them, while life was suspended on a breath, in the courts of England: I 
have witnessed a congress in solemn session, to give laws to nations; I have tried to con- 
ceive of kings, of royal courts, of thrones and crowns; and of emperors assembled to de- 
cide the fate of kingdoms; but dignity and majesty have I seen but once, as it stood in 
chains at midnight in a dungeon, in an obscure village of Missouri." 

The Prophet and a few friends were committed to Liberty jail, Clay county, on a 
charge of treason, while Apostle Pratt and four others were confined in Richmond jail, 
Ray county, accused of murder. The basis of this charge was their participation in 
the battle of Crooked River. Eight months of dreary imprisonment followed, and then, 
on July 4th, 1839, Parley P. Pratt, with Morris Phelps and King Follett, made a daring 
and successful break for liberty. 

The Apostle, who was the last of the imprisoned leaders to escape from captivity, 
almost immediately set out with the majority of his quorum for foreign lands. At Pres- 
ton, England, April 15, 1840, he was appointed editor and publisher of the Millennial 
Star and associated with Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball on a Church publishing 
committee; also with Brigham Young and John Taylor upon a committee to compile a 
hymn book for the Latter-day Saints. The first number of the Star was issued in May of 
that year. On its cover appeared Parley P. Pratt's well known hymn "The morning 
breaks, the shadows flee,'' written expressly for the introduction of the periodical. The 
hymn book subsequently published, contained nearly fifty original hymns and songs com- 
posed by him for that work. While editing and publishing the Star, he preached to vast 
congregations in and around Manchester, then the headquarters of the mission. During 
the summer he returned to America for his family, it having been decided that he should 
remain to preside after the other Apostles had departed. He continued to preside, to 
edit, the Star and superintend the emigration until October, 1842, when he appointed 
Thomas Ward his successor, with Lorenzo Snow and Hyrum Clark as associates and 
sailed for America, reaching Nauvoo by way of New' Orleans, early in February, 1843. 

In common with most of the Twelve, he was absent from home at the time of the 
murder of the Prophet and the Patriarch. Filled with premonitions of evil, he was 
returning to Nauvoo, when, from some passengers who came aboard his steamer at a land- 
ing in Wisconsin, fifty or sixty miles from Chicago, he heard of the awful crime. He 
was the first of the absent apostles to return, and with Willard Richards and John Taylor 
succeeded in preventing premature action in the choosing of a successor to the martyred 
Seer. He accepted Brigham Young, in lieu of Sidney Rigdon, as the rightful leader of 
the Church. 

From December, 1844, until August, 1845, in company with Ezra T. Benson and 
another Elder he was in New York City, setting in order the branches there, which had been 
led astray by William Smith, Samuel Brannan and others, most of whom were afterwards 
excommunicated. The following February he was one of the leaders of the exodus from 
Illinois; he assisted to found Garden Grove, discovered and named Mount Pisgah, and 
after reaching the Missouri River was appointed upon a mission to England, with Orson 
Hyde and John Taylor. 

The three Apostles set out for Europe in the summer of 1846. At Fort Leavenworth 



78 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

they were generously aided by the members of the Mormon Battalion, who had drawn 
their first pay from the government. The soldiers also made up a purse of five or six 
thousand dollars for their families at Council Bluffs. Parley returned and delivered this 
money to President Young, and then followed in the wake of Apostles Hyde and Taylor. 
He landed at Liverpool on the 14th of October, accompanied by Franklin D. and Samuel 
W. Richards. Having executed their errand which was to regulate the affairs of the 
British mission, demoralized through the operations of the "Joint Stock Company" the 
three Apostles returned to America. 

Parley P. Pratt reached the Missouri river on the 8th of April, 1847, just before the 
departure of President Young and the Pioneers for the West. They expressed an earnest 
wish for him to accompany them, but his circumstances seemed to forbid, and they did not 
press the point. He followed in the first emigration, which he helped to organize, met 
the returning Pioneers on the Sweetwater, and arrived in Salt Lake Valley late in Sep- 
tember. 

Passing by his early hardships and privations, the founding of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment of Deseret, whose constitution he helped to frame; the exploring expedition led 
by him into Southern Utah in the winter of 1849-50, with his prior and subsequent ser- 
vices in the Legislature, we come to his first Pacific mission, upon which he started 
March 16, 1851. He was accompanied by John Murdock, Rufus Allen, Francis A. Ham- 
mond and others, and traveled in a company that was going with Charles C. Rich and 
Amasa M. Lyman to Southern California. The crossing of the southern desert he de- 
scribes as the hardest experience of his life. At San Francisco he preached, baptized a 
number of persons, and on July 20th organized the San Francisco Branch, over which he 
presided, holding at the same time the presidency of all the islands and coasts of the 
Pacific. 

He began at this time his literary master-piece the "Key to Theology," but before it 
was completed, sailed on the 5th of September for South America, landing at Valparaiso, 
Chile, on the 8th of November. His wife Phebe and Elder Rufus Allen accompanied him. 
They resided for about a month at Quillota, a'small town thirty-six miles from the port of 
landing, devoting their time to studying the language, laws, customs, history and religion 
of the country. Their means being exhausted, they were compelled to return to California, 
without having mastered the language sufficiently to preach the gospel in Spanish 
America. 

Apostle Pratt returned to Salt Lake City on the 18th of October, 1852. The follow- 
ing two winters he sat in the Council branch of the Legislative Assembly. In the in- 
tervals of these and his local ministerial labors, he served as a Univerisity Regent, studied 
and wrote much and taught the Spanish language. 

The 5th of May, 1854, found him again on his way to California. During this mis- 
sion he prepared his autobiography, assisted by Elder George Q. Cannon. He also wrote 
for the press, refuting slanders upon Utah and her people, and boldly challenged to de- 
bate the ablest lawyers and clergymen in the country. Summoned home in 1855, he 
was at Fillmore the following winter, acting as chaplain, of the legislative Council, and 
read to the joint assembly, by request, his fine address on "Marriage and Morals in Utah." 
In the constitutional convention held the next spring he sat as a delegate of Salt Lake 
county. 

On the llth of September, 1856, Parley P. Pratt started upon his last mission the 
one from which he never returned. Upon leaving Salt Lake City, his home, he was in- 
structed by the First Presidency to travel and preach as the Spirit impelled, to assist 
Apostle John Taylor in New York by writing for "The Mormon,'' to render similar aid to 
Apostle Erastus Snow at St. Louis, if the publication of "The Luminary' 1 were resumed, 
and to return to Utah the following season. Agreeable to these instructions he proceeded 
to St. Louis, where he tarried for about a month, and then went to New York, remain- 
ing there and in the vicinity until February, 1857, when he started westward, arriving at 
St. Louis on the night of the 23rd. After laboring there for a time, he left for the State 
of Arkansas, and almost the next definite news concerning him was the terrible tidings of 
his assassination. 

He was murdered by Hector H. McLean near Van Buren, Arkansas, May 13th, 1857. 
The bloody deed was in fulfillment of a threat made previously. It seems that Apostle 
Pratt while in San Francisco had made the acquaintance of the McLeans, a Southern 
family, and that Mrs. McLean, a refined and educated lady, who had become a Latter-day 
Saint while the Apostle was in South America, had subsequently visited him and his wife, 
much to the displeasure of her husband, a savagely jealous man, who, though he had 
consented to her joining the Church, had made her life a burden on account of it, 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 79 

especially when he was drinking heavily. After suffering much ill treatment from him 
being brutally thrust into the street one night and compelled to take lodgings at a hotel, 
which outrage was supplemented by another more cruel still, the stealing of her children, 
who were put on board a ship without her knowledge and sent to New Orleans she re- 
fused to longer live with McLean or to regard him as her husband. Having followed her 
children to the home of her parents, who were rigid Presbyterians, and prevented her 
from associating with her little ones, except in the presence of others (fearing she would 
make "Mormons" of them) she finally came to Utah, arriving here in September, 1855. 
She taught school for several months, and on the anniversary of her arrival at Salt 
Lake, set out for the East, with several other ladies, traveling in the same company with 
Apostle Pratt and other missionaries. Her purpose in going was to recover her children, 
and in this she was assisted indirectly by the Apostle. 

,She succeeded in securing the children, took them to Houston, Texas, and thence 
proceeded northward with some emigrants toward a point where she could fall in with 
the regular emigration for Utah. Near Port Gibson, Indian Territory, she was over- 
taken by the enraged McLean, who again tore her children from her and had her arrested 
on a charge of larceny the theft of the clothing worn by the little ones. McLean also pro- 
cured the arrest of Apostle Pratt and others, as parties to the alleged theft; though an- 
other account states that the Apostle was charged with abducting the children and alien- 
ating from McLean the affections of his wife. The prisoners were taken to Van Buren, 
examined before a United States court, and discharged, nothing being found against 
them. 

The Apostle, after his acquittal, mounted a horse and started northward, and ten 
minutes later was followed by McLean and several confederates. Overtaking the object 
of their pursuit, they began firing at him, six bullets passing harmlessly through the skirts 
of his coat. By that time one of the pursuers, whose horse was the fleetest, had headed 
the victim, who, thrown into close contact with McLean, was stabbed by him repeatedly 
with a bowie knife in the left side. The assassin savagely turned the knife in each 
ghastly wound as he inflicted it. The murdered man, who was unarmed, fell from his 
horse, and while lying upon the ground was shot through the breast by his blood-thirsty 
assailant, with a pistol snatched from the hand of an accomplice. He lived two and a 
half hours, bearing testimony almost with his dying breath to the truth of Mormonism 
and the divine mission of Joseph Smith. After lying by the roadside for some time, he 
was carried into a neighboring house, and there breathed his last. The body was cared 
for by friends, and buried about a mile from the scene of the tragedy. 

Parley P. Pratt entered into the patriarchal order of marriage while at Nauvoo. His 
family was large, and his direct descendants are now quite numerous. His eldest son and 
namesake died a few years since at Salt Lake City. Among his living sons are Moroni 
L., a member of the High Council in Utah Stake; Nephi, President of the North-western 
States Mission; Helaman, one of the Presidency of Juarez Stake, Mexico; Moroni W., a 
Bishop in Idaho, and Mathoni W., a salesman of Z. C. M. I. Among the more noted of 
the daughters are Mrs. Olivia Driggs, Mrs. Agatha Ridges, Mrs. Malona Eldredge, Mrs. 
Belinda Musser (deceased,) Mrs. Cornelia Driggs, (deceased,) Mrs. Mary Young, Mrs. 
Evelyn Woods, Mrs. Phebe Holdaway, Mrs. Lucy Russell, Mrs. Etta Russell and Mrs. 
Isabelle Eleanor Robinson. 

Up to the period of his untimely death, Parley P. Pratt had probably traveled more 
miles, preached more sermons and published more original literature in behalf of Mor- 
monism than any other of its numerous missionaries. His wonderfully successful work, 
the "Voice of Warning,'' which has passed through many editions and been printed in 
various languages, has alone converted thousands to the faith, while his poetic and 
philosophic" Key to Theology'' has delighted multitudes in almost every clime. He had the 
true genius of the poet, and if like many another son of the Muses he was somewhat lack- 
ing in culture, it was due, not to indolence or indifference on his part, but to lowly cir- 
cumstances and limited educational opportunities. Had he lived longer and been given 
the necessary leisure, he might have produced a great poem; as it is, he was the composer 
of some beautiful hymns, while scattered through his prose writings are fragments of verse 
that would do honor to any bard. As a preacher he perhaps had no equal in the Church ; 
not even his mighty brother Orson nor the eloquent Sidney Rigdon approaching him in 
this respect. He suffered much for his religion's sake, was poor all his life, owing largely 
to his incessant labors and sacrifices in its cause, and passed away leaving an imperish- 
able name as a heritage to a numerous and noble posterity. 



JOHN TAYLOR. 

XiP HE foremost man in Utah after the death of Brigham Young was John Taylor, who 
Q\ succeeded him as President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He 
^T was by birth an Englishman; Milnthorpe, near Lake Windemere, in the county of 
Westmoreland, the place, and November 1, 1808. the date of his nativity. The 
son of James Taylor, a government exciseman, and his wife Agnes, a descendant of 
Richard Whittington, famous in song and story as Lord Mayor of London, young Taylor 
at the age of fourteen became a cooper's apprentice in Liverpool, and subsequently 
learned the turner's trade at Penrith in Cumberland. His first schooling was at the vil- 
lage of Hale, Westmoreland, where his parents lived on a small estate bequeathed to the 
head of the house by an uncle. They were members of the Church of England, as was 
their son, who had been baptized into that church in his infancy. When about sixteen, 
yielding to the conviction that the Methodists had more light than the Established 
Church, he joined them and became a local preacher of that persuasion. 

About the year 1830 he emigrated to America, following his parents, who were then 
residing at Toronto in Upper Canada. There he connected himself with the local Metho- 
dist society. Among the members of that body was Miss Leonora Cannon, daughter of 
Captain George Cannon, of Peel, Isle of Man, and aunt to George Q. Cannon, the future 
Apostle. She had come to America as companion to the wife of a Mr. Mason, private 
secretary of Lord Aylmer, Governor-General of Canada. John Taylor was her class 
leader; an attachment sprang up between them and in the year 1833 they were married. 
Mrs. Taylor was a refined and intelligent woman, well educated, witty, and withal beau- 
tiful. Her husband had had fewer opportunities, but he was an extensive reader and had 
acquired a rich fund of general information. He was a close student of the Bible, well 
versed in history, an able writer, an eloquent speaker and a skilled debater. Dignified in 
mien, stalwart in frame, he was courageous, independent, firm as a rock, of blameless 
life and unwavering integrity. When not filled with serious thoughts, he was brimming 
with jovial good nature. 

Mr. Taylor had not been long in Toronto when he united himself with a number of 
scholarly gentlemen, sincere seekers after religious truth, who were fasting, praying and 
poring over the scriptures, in the hope of receiving fresh light to guide them. The 
result of their earnest quest was a conviction that something better than was offered 
by modern Christianity, with which they were all dissatisfied, had been or was about to 
be revealed for the salvation of mankind. 

Such was John Taylor's frame of mind, when, early in the year 1830, Parley P. 
Pratt, one of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of 'Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
came to the city of Toronto, introducing Mormonism in that part. Prejudiced against 
the Mormons from the many wild tales and rumors afloat concerning them, Mr. Taylor 
received their representative with some reserve, and cautiously compared his teachings 
with the doctrines of the Bible. Finding to his astonishment that they were the same he 
gradually overcame his prejudice, and he and his wife were baptized as Latter-day Saints 
May 9, 1836. Ordained an Elder by Apostle Pratt, he was shortly afterwards set apart 
by him and Apostle Hyde to preside over the branches of the Church in Upper Canada. 
In March, 1837, he visited Kirtland, where he first met the Prophet Joseph Smith, 
and was his guest while sojourning there. It was a period of disaffection among leading 
men of the Church and feelings of intense bitterness prevailed. He attended a meeting 
in the Temple, at which Warren Parrish made a violent attack upon the character of the 
Prophet. Elder Taylor defended the absent leader, and endeavored to pour oil upon the 
troubled waters. Soon after his return to Canada the apostate element at Kirtland made 
an attempt to supersede him in the presidency of the Canadian branches, for which pur- 
pose they sent Dr. Sampson Avard, a High Priest, to Toronto, to preside. Unsuspicious 
of trickery, and accepting Avard's letter of appointment which was signed by his 
quorum as sufficient, Elder Taylor gave way, but was subsequently visited by the 
Prophet, who, after reprimanding Elder Avard for his act of usurpation and chiding 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 81 

Elder Taylor for submitting to it, ordained the latter a High Priest and re-appointed him 
to preside. The date of this ordination was August 31, 1837. 

The following winter he removed to Kirtland, proceeding thence in the general exo- 
dus of the Saints to Missouri. Near Columbus, Ohio, he awed into respectful silence, 
and by his tact and eloquence wrung courteous treatment from a mob which had come 
into a meeting where he was speaking for the purpose of tarring and feathering him. At 
DeWitt, Carroll county, Missouri, he and his party, numbering twenty-four, were con- 
fronted by an armed mob of one hundred and fifty, led by Abbott Hancock and Sashiel 
Woods, the former a Baptist, the latter a Presbyterian minister, who afler some parley- 
ing retired and permitted them to continue on to Far West. He was a witness to the 
outrages perpetrated by the Missourians upon the new settlers, and a participant in the 
scenes of peril and disaster ending in the imprisonment of the Prophet and other leaders 
and the expulsion of the Mormon community from the State. That he bravely and -m- 
flinchingly bore his part of the general burden of sorrow and trial we may be sure. 
John Taylor knew no fear, and shirked no responsibility or sacrifice that his duty 
entailed. 

As early as the fall of 1837 he had been told by the Prophet that he would be chosen 
an Apostle, and at a conference in Par West, October, 1838, it was voted that he fill the 
vacancy in the quorum of the Twelve occasioned by the apostasy of John S. Boynton. 
This was agreeable to a revelation given in July of that year. The High Council at Far 
West took similar action on the 19th of December, and on that day John Taylor was or- 
dained an Apostle under the hands of Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball. 

He was among the defenders of Adam-Ondi-Ahman and Far West, and after the im- 
prisonment of the First Presidency he visited them several times in Liberty jail. He 
was one of a committee appointed to memorialize the Missouri Legislature for redress of 
grievances, and was also appointed with Bishop Edward Partridge to draft a similar peti- 
tion to the General Government. He assisted President Young to superintend the exodus 
of the Saints from Missouri, and was with him and others of the Twelve when they made 
their famous ride from Quincy to Far West, prior to starting upon their mission to Great 
Britain. 

Leaving his family quartered in some old log barracks at Montrose, Iowa, Apostle 
Taylor started upon this mission August 8, 1839. At Nauvoo he was joined by Wilford 
Woodruff, and these two were the first of the Twelve to sail. Elder Theodore Turley 
accompanied them. They embarked at New York on the 10th of December and landed at 
Liverpool on the llth of January, 1840. At a council held in Preston with Elder Wil- 
lard Richards and others in charge of the British Mission, it was decided that Apostle 
Taylor should labor in Liverpool, with Elder Joseph Fielding to assist him. They imme- 
diately began operations in that city, where they drew their first converts, ten in num- 
ber, from a congregation raised up by the Rev. Timothy R. Matthews, a brother-in-law 
to Elder Fielding and formerly a Church of England minister, who had once contem- 
plated being a Latter-day Saint, and was now making proselytes by preaching Mormon 
doctrines. Apostle Taylor was still in Liverpool when President Brigham Young, with 
Apostles Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, George A. Smith and Elder 
Reuben Hedlock arrived from America. He was clerk of the council at Preston when 
Willard Richards was ordained to the Apostleship, and was appointed one of a committee 
to select hymns and compile a hymn book for the Latter-day Saints. The choice was a 
happy one, since John Taylor, as well as Parley P. Pratt, his associate in that work, was 
poetic in his tendencies. 

Returning by appointment to Liverpool, he ordained a number of Elders and Priests 
and set them to preaching in the public parks, on the streets, and wherever they could 
find hearers. In July he passed over to Ireland, and preached in the court house at 
Newry in County Down. This was the introduction of Mormonism in the Emerald Isle. 
The first person baptized there was Thomas Tate. The Apostle next took steamer to 
Glasgow, and after preaching to the Saints in that city, returned to Liverpool and deliv- 
ered a course of lectures at the Music Hall in Bold Street. This hall became a regular 
place of meeting for the Saints. On the 16th of September, with Elders Hiram Clark 
and William Mitchell, he sailed for the Isle of Man, arriving at Douglas next day. There 
he delivered a course of lectures, held public discussions with and published pamphlets in 
reply to various clergymen who had attacked him, stirred up things in general among the 
religious people of the island, baptized a goodly number, organized a branch, and then 
went back to Liverpool. The remainder of his time while in Europe was spent in 
preaching and in the emigrational department of the mission. He returned to America 
with President Young and other Apostles, arriving at Nauvoo July 1, 1841. 



82 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Shortly after his return he was taught the principle of plural marriage by th 
Prophet Joseph Smith, who told him if it were not practiced the kingdom of God could 
not go one step farther. At Nauvoo he married three wives, and subsequently several 
more. He was a member of the city council, one of the Regents of the University, Judge 
Advocate with the rank of Colonel in the Nauvoo Legion, associate editor and afterwards 
chief editor of the "Times and Seasons." He was also editor and proprietor of the 
"Nauvoo Neighbor," in the columns of which paper, in February, 1844, he nominated 
Joseph Smith for the Presidency of the United States. 

His connection with the press at Nauvoo explains his presence there and at Carthage 
during the events leading up to and including the murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith; 
all the other Apostles, excepting Willard Richards, the Church Historian, being absent, 
electioneering in the interest of the Prophet, at the time of his assassination. Prior to 
the tragedy, in the midst of the troubles threatening Nauvoo, after the destruction of the 
"Expositor" press and the placing of the city under martial law, John Taylor and John 
M. Bernhisel went to Carthage and presented to Governor Ford the true state of affairs. 
They received from him the most solemn assurances that if the Prophet and his friends 
would come unarmed to Carthage to be tried, their lives should be protected. He 
pledged his faith and the faith of the State for their safety. 

When Joseph and Hyrum, on the 24th of June, set out for Carthage, to surrender 
themselves as the Governor had proposed, John Taylor was one of those who accompan- 
ied them, and when they were thrust into jail he and Willard Richards voluntarily shared 
their imprisonment. In the afternoon of the fatal 27th, while the four friends sat con- 
versing, Apostle Taylor, outraged by the treatment they had received, said, "Brother 
Joseph, if you will permit it and say the word, I will have you out of this prison in five 
hours, if the jail has to come down to do it." His idea was to go to Nauvoo and return 
with a sufficient force to liberate his friends. But the Prophet would not sanction such a 
step. The Apostle thn sang a hymn to raise their drooping spirits, and soon after the 
jail was assaulted by the mob who shot to death the Prophet and the Patriarch. 

In the midst of the melee our Apostle stood at the door with a heavy walking stick, 
beating down the muskets of the assassins that were belching deadly volleys into the 
room. After Joseph and Hyrum were dead, he himself was struck by a ball in the left 
thigh, while preparing to leap from the window whence the Prophet had fallen. Another 
missile, from the outside, striking his watch, threw him back into the room, and this was 
all that prevented him from descending upon the bayonets of the mob. In his wounded 
state he dragged himself under a bedstead that stood near, and while doing so received 
three other wounds, one a little below the left knee, one in his left hip, and another in the 
left fore-arm and hand. The Prophet's fall from the window drew the murderers to the 
yard below, which incident saved the lives of John Taylor and Willard Richards, the lat- 
ter the only one of the four prisoners who escaped unharmed. As soon as practicable 
Apostle Taylor, who had been carried by Doctor Richards for safety into the cell of the 
prison, was removed to Hamilton's hotel in Carthage, and subsequently to Nauvoo. 

Accompanied by his family he left that city in the exodus, February 16, 1846. The 
17th of June found him at Council Bluffs, from which point, the same summer, he with 
Parley P. Pratt and Orson Hyde started for Liverpool, to set in order the affairs of the 
British Mission, which had been more or less demoralized by the malodorous "Joint 
Stock'' operations of its presidency Reuben Hedlock, Thomas Ward and John Banks. 
Apostle Taylor arrived at Liverpool on the 3rd of October. He and his associates fully 
accomplished their purpose, excommunicating Elder Hedlock (who had fled at their ap- 
proach, refusing to meet with them) and dealing more leniently with the other offenders. 
On the 7th of February. 1847, the three Apostles sailed for America. Orson Hyde landed 
at New York, but the others, coming by way of New Orleans and St. Louis, reached 
Winter Quarters soon after the Pioneers left that place to make their camp on the Elk 
Horn. 

President Young and other leaders returned to meet Apostles Pratt and Taylor and 
receive from them, not only a report of their mission, but from the latter about two thous- 
and dollars in gold, sent by the British Saints to aid the Church in its migration into the 
wilderness. Apostle Taylor also brought with him a set of surveying instruments, with 
which Orson Pratt, a few months later, laid out Salt Lake City. 

After the departure of President Young and the Pioneers, in April, Parley P. Pratt 
and John Taylor exercised a general superintendency over affairs at Winter Quarters, 
and with Isaac Morley and Newel K. Whitney organized the immigration that crossed 
the plains that season. It was about the 21st of June when these Apostles, with six hun- 
dred wagons and upwards of fifteen hundred souls, began the journey from the Elk Horn. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 83 

John Taylor's division met and feasted the returning Pioneers at the upper crossing of 
the Sweetwater, and continuing westward entered Salt Lake valley on the 5th of October. 
During the following two years he shared the hard experiences common to the lot of the 
first settlers of this region. 

In 1849 he was called to head a mission to France, and in company with Lorenzo 
Snow, Erastus Snow and Franklin D. Richards, who were on their way to Italy, Den- 
mark and England, respectively, he set out on the 19th of October to re-cross the plains. 
Other missionaries were also in the company. John Taylor, with Curtis E. Bolton and 
John Pack, sailed from New York May 27, 1850, and after a brief stay in England 
crossed over to France. At Boulogne-sur-Mer, where he arrived on the 18th of June, he 
delivered a course of lectures, wrote letters to the press and held a public discussion with 
three reverend gentlemen, C. W. Cleeve. James Robertson and Phillip Cater. He then 
visited Paris, where he studied French, preached, baptized a few souls, organized a 
branch and made arrangements for translating the Book of Mormon into the Gallic 
tongue. In May, 1851, he began publishing a monthly periodical, "Etoile du Deseret." 
He was assisted in the work of translation by Elder Bolton and by Louis Bertrand and 
other French converts. Branches were also organized in Havre, Calais, Boulogne and 
other places. During the summer he went to Hamburg with Elder George P. Dykes and 
others, where he superintended the translation of the Book of Mormon into German, pub- 
lished "Zion's Panier," raised up a branch, and then returned to Paris, arriving a few 
days after the overthrow of the French Republic by Louis Napoleon's famous coup d' etat. 
Having held a farewell conference with the French Saints, he went back to England and 
sailed for home, arriving at Salt Lake City August 20, 1852. He brought with him the 
machinery for a beet sugar plant, manufactured in Liverpool at a cost of twelve thousand 
five hundred dollars; also the busts of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, prepared under his per- 
sonal direction by one of the first artists of England. 

Two years were spent in Utah, and then came a call to preside over the Eastern 
States Mission, to supervise the emigration and publish a paper in the interest of the 
Mormon cause. Resigning as a member-elect of the Legislature, our Apostle, accom- 
panied by his son, George J. Taylor, and by Elders Jeter Clinton, Nathaniel H. Felt, 
Alexander Robbins and Angus M. Cannon, set out in the fall of 1854 for New York City. 
There the first number of his paper, "The Mormon," was issued February 17, 1855. It 
defended the principle and practice of plural marriage, opposed secession, and advocated 
the construction of a railroad to the Pacific coast. The editor had several interviews at 
Washington with President Franklin Pierce, and in the summer of 1856, in company 
with George A. Smith, presented at the seat of government Utah's prayer for statehood. 
At the outbreak of the ' Utah War" in 18J7, he returned home, leaving "The Mormon" 
in charge of William I. Appleby and T. B. H. Stenhouse, who continued its publication 
until the 19th of September. 

Apostle Taylor reached Salt Lake City on the 7th of August. All was excitement, 
owing to the reported coming Jof Johnston's army. In a discourse delivered early in 
September, just after the arrival of Captain Van Vliet, who preceded the army and was 
present at the meeting, the Apostle said, addressing the congregation: "Would you if 
necessary, brethren, put the torch to your buildings and lav them in ashes, and wander 
houseless in these mountains?'' 

President Young : "Try the vote." 

Apostle Taylor: "All you that are willing to set fire to your property and lay it in 
ashes rather than submit to their military rule and oppression, manifest it by raising your 
hands.'' 

There was a unanimous response from the four thousand people present. 

Apostle Taylor: "I know what your feelings are. We have been persecuted and 
robbed long enough, and in the name of Israel's God we will be free.'' 

The congregation responded with a loud and fervent Amen, and President Young 
added: "I say amen all the time to that." It was after this that the correspondence, 
partly published in our first volume, occurred between Apostle Taylor and Captain Marcy. 
In the subsequent adjustment of difficulties, the "Champion of Liberty" played a promi- 
nent part. 

From 1857 to 1876, John Taylor was a member of the Utah Legislature, and for the 
first five sessions of that period Speaker of the House. From 1868 to 1870 he was Pro- 
bate Judge of Utah county. In 1869 he held his celebrated controversy with Vice-Presi- 
dent Colfax through the columns of the New York press, and from 1871 to 1875 he pub- 
lished a series of letters in the "Deseret News," reviewingthe situation in Utah, denounc- 
ing Territorial government as un-American and oppressive, but warning the peopl* 



84 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

against violent resistance to Judge McKean's high-handed and exasperating course. In 
1877 he was elected Territorial Superintendent of Schools, and served as such for several 
years. 

The next important event in his history was his elevation to the leadership of the 
Church, to which he virtually succeeded at the death of President Young, August 29, 
1877. He had been for some years President of the Twelve Apostles. He continued to 
act in that capacity until October, 1880, when the First Presidency was again organized, 
with John Taylor, George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith as its personnel. Meantime 
the Church in 1880 celebrated its jubilee. 

In the latter part of December, 1881, President Taylor moved into the Gardo House, 
a stately and beautiful mansion built by President Young and owned by the Church, the 
use of which as a family residence had been voted to him at the April conference of 1879. 
His first act after taking up his abode there was to give a New Year's reception to his 
friends and the general public, about two thousand of whom, Mormons and Gentiles, 
called upon him, tendered their congratulations and partook of his hospitality. 

It was the calm before the storm. Two months later came the enactment of the Ed- 
munds law, supplementing the anti-polygamy act of 1862, which in January, 1879, after 
remaining a dead letter for seventeen years, was declared constitutional by the Supreme 
Court of the United States. The Edmunds law, like its predecessor, made punishable by 
fine and imprisonment the marryiug of plural wives, but went further than the other stat- 
ute, in that it not only inflicted heavier penalties for that offense, but also made punish- 
able, as unlawful cohabitation, the living with plural wives; in fact, the mere acknowl- 
edgement of a plural wife, even if married prior to the enactment of the anti-polygamy 
laws, was construed and punished by the Federal courts as "unlawful cohabitation." 
The "Crusade," as it was called, began almost simultaneously in Utah, Idaho and Ari- 
zona, wherever the Latter-day Saints had settlements. During its continuance, in March, 
1887, the Edmunds act was supplemented by the Edmunds-Tucker law, under which 
most of the property of the Mormon Church was forfeited and escheated to the govern- 
ment. 

Upon the sufferings inflicted during that time of trouble, no citizen of Utah loves to 
dwell. From 1884 to 1890 the Territory was raked as with a sharp-toothed harrow, and 
the Church made to weep bitter and even bloody tears. Hordes of deputy marshals, 
turned loose upon the helpless community, hunted their victims polygamists and their 
families with all the assiduity of sleuth-hounds. Men and women were agonized to an 
extent almost unbearable. One man a Mormon citizen of repute was shot and killed 
by an over-zealous deputy, who, indicted and tried for man-slaughter, was acquitted in 
the District court. Delicate women, fleeing from arrest, often in the night time, died 
from terror, exposure and exhaustion, or suffered injuries from which they never recov- 
ered. The exchecquer of the Federal courts was swollen to repletion from fines collected 
in polygamous cases, and the penitentiaries were crowded with convicts for conscience sake. 
Nearly a thousand convictions under the anti-polygamy statutes testify to the rigor of 
the crusade and the sincerity of the Mormon people in this crucial test of their integrity. 
Scarcely a man, and not one woman for women and children were imprisoned also 
weakened under the terrible strain brought to bear by the iron hand of the Government, 
and purchased immunity from persecution by a "promise to obey.'' One of the First 
Presidency (George Q. Cannon), two of the Apostles (Lorenzo Snow and Francis M. 
Lyman), and hundreds of other Elders among the most reputable men in the commun- 
ity were fined and imprisoned, and nearly all the Church leaders were driven into exile. 
The settlements of the Saints in Mexico and Canada were greatly strengthened by emi- 
grations from Utah and Arizona during this period. 

President Taylor's last appearance in public was on Sunday, February 1, 1885, when 
he preached his final discourse in the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City. He had just returned 
from Mexico and California, after a tour through the settlements of the Saints in Ari- 
zona, which were among the first to be harassed by the crusade. That night he went 
into retirement and was never again seen in life except by a few trusted friends, most of 
them his body guards or the companions of his exile. He died July 25, 1887, at the home 
of Thomas F. Rouche, in Kaysville, Davis county, Utah, a victim of the crusade, a mar- 
tyr to his religious convictions. His funeral was held four days later, at the Tabernacle 
in Salt Lake City. 

President Taylor was the father of a large family. Among his living sons are 
George J. Taylor, a High Councilor of the Salt Lake Stake; John W. Taylor, one of the 
Twelve Apostles; Moses W. Taylor, President of Summit Stake; Frank Y. Taylor, 
President of Granite Stake, and Thomas E. Taylor, Bishop's counselor in the Fourteenth 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 85 

Ward, Salt Lake City. There are others more or less prominent in business. Among 
his daughters are Mrs. Alonzo E. Hyde, Mrs. L. John Nuttall, Mrs. Rodney C. Badger, 
Mrs. Daniel Harrington and Mrs. John M. Whittaker. 



CHARLES COULSON RICH. 

GENERAL CHARLES C. RICH, who led one of the first companies that followed the 
Pioneers to Salt Lake valley, and who became the founder of Rich county, which 
was named for him by the Legislature, was born August 21, 1809, in Campbell 
county, Kentucky. He was the only son of Joseph Rich and his wife Nancy 0. 
Neal. He came of a pioneer ancestry, his grandfather, Thomas Rich, who married Ann 
Pool, settling in Kentucky when there were very few white people there. His fathers 
early playmates were Indian boys. 

Charles was reared in Indiana, to which State his parents removed when he was quite 
young. They -engaged in farming. He went to school and helped on the farm until he 
was twenty years of age, when he began to think of starting out in life for himself. He 
had learned the cooper's trade, but never followed it. His parents, who were well-to-do 
people for those times, could not endure the thought of their only son leaving home, and 
to please them he continued to abide there. In addition to his farm labors he taught a 
country school, having previously received as good an education as the time and place 
could afford. Reserved and studious in disposition, his inquiring mind was ever anxious 
to know the why and wherefore of things. In case of anything new he demanded to know 
before accepting it. He was very fond of athletic sports, liked fine horses and cattle, 
and true to his Kentucky instincts enjoyed a good horserace, though he never did any 
betting. He was cool-headed and courageous, and grew up a man of sterling worth and 
integrity. 

Religiously inclined from childhood, when he first heard of Mormonism, which was in 
the year 1831, he began to investigate it. This was in Tazewell county, Illinois, whither 
the family had removed the year previous. After due deliberation he was converted, and 
on April 1st, 1832, became a member of the Mormon Church. Early the next month he 
started for Kirtland, Ohio, to visit the Prophet Joseph Smith, and while on the way, in 
Fountain county, Indiana, he was ordained to the office of an Elder, May 16th. He arrived 
at Kirtland about the middle of June, and there met the Prophet and his associates, with 
whom he formed a lasting friendship. 

During the next few years he traveled as a missionary through the States of Kentucky, 
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois; also making two trips to Missouri, with Lyman Wight, to buy 
and enter land for the Church. In 1834 he was a member of Zion's Camp, holding the 
position of captain of ten, and was identified with that organization until its disbandment. 
He was ordained a High Priest in the Kirtland Temple, April 12, 1836, by Hyrum Smith 
and John Smith, and at Far West, Missouri, in Augut, 1837, was ordained President 
of the High Priests' quorum, under the hands of William W. Phelps and John Whitmer. 
During his residence at Far West, on the llth of February, 1838, he married Sarah D. 
Pea, who for fifty-five years was a faithful companion, the sharer of his joys and sorrows 
through life. She bore to him nine children. 

During the persecutions in Caldwell and Daviess counties, Charles C. Rich was 
elected captain of fifty, and was at the battle of Crooked River, next in command to 
David W. Patten, who was slain. After he fell, Captain Rich carried matters to a suc- 
cessful issue, gaining a complete victory over the mob force led by the Methodist priest 
Bogart. Upon returning to Far West, Captain Rich went out to meet the State forces 
sent against the city by Governor Boggs. He had in charge two of their number as prison- 
ers, and carried a flag of truce. Bogart came out to meet him; he told the men to pass, 
and then, Rich turning to leave, the mob leader fired upon him, twenty feet away. 
In consequence of these troubles Captain Rich (who was one of those charged with murder 
for being present at the Crooked River battle) was forced to flee into Illinois, where his 
wife rejoined him in February, 1839. They resided at Quincy until September of that 
year, and then moved to Nauvoo. 

There, in October, 1839, Charles C. Rich was chosen a member of the High Council, 






86 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

and in March, 1841, was appointed counselor to the President of the Stake. He was 
successively commissioned by the Governor of Illinois, Captain, Brevet-Colonel, Colonel 
and Brigadier-General in the Nauvoo Legion, and during the year 1843 was employed 
much in public business, civil and military. He had charge of the finances connected 
with the building of the arsenal, and was intimately associated with Lieutenant-General 
Joseph Smith. When Major-General Wilson Law^ was suspended and about to be court- 
martialed, General Rich was ordered to take command of the Legion. This was in April, 
1844. The following September Governor Ford commissioned him as Major-General. 
Meantime had occured the murder of Generals Joseph and Hyrum Smith, who were slain 
while Charles C. Rich, with George A. Smith, was electioneering for the Prophet in the 
state of Michigan. He was a member of the Masonic Lodge of Nauvoo, an Alderman of 
the city, and prominentlj identified with all public matters and move ments in his vicin- 
ity. Prior to leaving Nauvoo he entered into the order of celestial marriage. 

In the Mormon exodus from Illinois he with his family and a company of ten 
men crossed the Mississippi on the ice, February 13, 1846, and after many hardships and 
much sickness arrived at Mount Pisgah, Iowa. There he was appointed one of the pres- 
idency of the stake, William Huntington and Ezra T. Benson being his associates. The 
death of Father Huntington and the call of Elder Benson to the Apostleship left him in 
sole charge at Mount Pisgah. During an epidemic of chills and fever, fatal to many, he 
fell sick and was bed-ridden for over two months, but havingirecovered he moved on to 
Council Bluffs, where he arrived in March, 1847. Soon after the Pioneers started for the 
Rocky Mountains, he went back to Nauvoo on business, and returned to the Bluffs on the 
21st day of May, bringing his parents with him. On the 14th of June he left Winter 
Quarters, bound for Salt Lake valley. 

General Rich was in command of what was known as the "Artillery Company," 
which, with the other companies that crossed the plains that season, was organized on the 
Elk Horn. These companies, five in number, commanded respectively by Charles C. 
Rich, Daniel Spencer, Edward Hunter, Jedediah M. Grant and Abraham 0. Smoot, with 
John Young in immediate general command, and Apostles Parley P. Pratt and John 
Taylor exercising supervision over the whole, started from that point on or about the 21st 
of June. General Rich had two pieces of cannon, a powder wagon, and a boat on runn- 
ing-gears, over which was hung a large brass bell, used to summon the people to prayers 
and to sound the alarm when danger threatened. He was outfitted with wagons, oxen, 
horses, cows, sheep, farming implements, etc. His 'family and teamsters numbered 
seventeen souls. The artillery company, after meeting President Young and the return- 
ing Pioneers at Pacific Springs hurried on westward, General Rich's aged mother being 
very sick and anxious to see Salt Lake Valley before she died. They arrived here on the 3rd 
of October, and two days later she expired, this being the first death of an adult among 
the earliest settlers. She was buried beside Jedediah M. Grant's wife, who had died in 
the mountains and whose remains were brought to the valley for interment. 

The day that General Rich arrived the first stake organization in the Rocky Moun- 
tain region went into effect. The personnel of the stake presidency was John Smith, 
Charles C. Rich and John Young, the first named uncle to the Prophet Joseph Smith, the 
last named brother to President Brigham Young. A year later, when Father Smith was 
released, owing to his duties as Patriarch of the Church, Charles C. Rich became Presi- 
dent of the Stake, with John Young and Erastus Snow as his counselors. 

The 12th of February, 1849, witnessed his call to the Apostleship and his ordination 
as a member of the quorum of the Twelve. He sat in the constitutional convention which 
met on the 8th, 9th and 10th of the following month and adopted the Constitution of the 
State of Deseret, which he had helped to frame. He next organized, under the direction 
of the General Assembly, the militia, which retained the old title of "Nauvoo Legion.'' 
He was assisted in this labor by Daniel H. Wells, the future commander of the Legion. 

The fall of the same year found Apostle Rich on his way to California, to fulfil a mis- 
sion to which he had been called in conjunction with Apostle Amasa M. Lyman. Accom- 
panied by Francis M. Pomeroy, George Q. Cannon, James S. Brown and others, he left 
Salt Lake City on the 8th of October, taking the southern route, and nearly perishing on 
the desert for want of water, providentially supplied by a rain, some of which he and his 
party secured by digging holes in the sand. He finally reached San Francisco in safety. 
Having joined Apostle Lyman and assisted him in organizing a branch of the Church and 
looking out a place in which to colonize Mormon converts coming from the Pacific Islands, 
Apostle Rich returned home, this time taking the northern route, and arriving at Salt 
Lake City November 12, 1850. 

A winter in the Legislature as a member of the Council, was followed by another mis- 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 87 

sion to California, upon which he started with Amasa M. Lyman early in March, 1851. A 
portion of his family accompanied him, also many other colonists. On the 22nd of Sep- 
tember, the same year, the two Apostles purchased for the Church the Ranch of San 
Bernardino, in Southern California, containing an area of twenty square miles. It was 
a Mexican land grant, and the price paid for it to the Spanish grantees was $77,500. 
The colonists built homes, stores, mills and made a prosperous settlement, having a city 
government with Charles C. Rich as Mayor, elected November 30, 1855. 

The outbreak of the Utah war brought him back to Salt Lake City, where he arrived 
in June, 1857. At the request of Governor Young, he went with General Wells to Echo 
canyon, whence he returned to accompany the general move south in the spring of 1858. 
Having settled his family at Prove, he came back to act as one of the council who met 
the peace commissioners sent to Utah by the President of the United States. The trouble 
being over, he brought his family home and began working on his farm. The following 
winter he represented Davis county in the Legislature. 

In the spring of 1860 Apostle Rich was appointed one of the Presidency of the Euro- 
pean Mission, his associates being Amasa M. Lyman and George Q. Cannon. Accom- 
panied by his eldest son, Joseph C., and by Apostle Lyman, with his son, Francis M., he 
left Salt Lake City on the 1st of May, sailed from New York on the 14th of July, and 
landed at Liverpool thirteen days later. Apostle Cannon joined them in the fall. After 
traveling over Europe in the interest of the Church, Presidents Rich and Lyman were re- 
leased to return in the spring of 1862. The former, having visited his relatives in Ken- 
tucky and Indiana, and assisted to organize the season's emigration on the frontier, 
arrived home on the 18th of September. 

Next came, in the spring of 1863, his call to settle Bear Lake Valley. Forthwith 
he moved a portion of his family thither, his aged father accompanying him and dying at 
the town of Paris at the age of eighty-one. The Apostle made new homes for his family, 
erected a grist-mill, a saw-mill, and took the lead in building up a prosperous line of settle- 
ments. During several sessions he represented Rich and Cache counties in the legisla- 
ture. In order to reach Salt Lake City, where the Assembly met, he crossed the moun- 
tains on snow-shoes, making several such trips, which, on account of his weight, tried his 
endurance severely. He held various offices of public trust, and presided over Bear Lake 
Stake until released at the time of the general reorganization. 

In the summer of 1872 he and his son Joseph attended the Rich family reunion at 
Truro. Cape Cod, Massachusetts; a notable gathering, at which were present two thous- 
and people from all parts of the world, fifteen hundred of the name of Rich, and the rest 
related by marriage. President Rich, as has been stated, practiced plural marriage. 
He was the father of fifty children, twenty-nine sons and twenty-one daughters. The best 
known of these are Mrs. Sarah Jane Rich Miller, of Salt Lake City; Hon. Joseph C. Rich, 
of Paris, Idaho; Elder William L. Rich, of the Presidency of Bear Lake State; Messrs. 
Sam Rich and George Q. Rich, attorneys-at-law, Logan, Utah; Doctors Rich and Rich, 
of Ogden; and Elder Ben E. Rich, of Rexburg, Idaho, now presiding over the Southern 
States Mission. 

President Charles C. Rich died at his home in Paris, Bear Lake County, Idaho, No- 
vember 17, 1883. His death was due to a paralytic stroke, sustained three years previ- 
ous. After receiving this stroke, which rendered him helpless, he was ordered bv his 
physician to Salt Lake City, where he remained through the winter, returning to Bear 
Lake in February, 1881. He improved some but did not regain the use of his limbs. In 
October, 1882, he again visited Salt Lake, attending the General Conference one day. 
Returning home, he remained there until his final summons sounded. 



DANIEL SPENCER. 

"~i. "''HE pioneer of the noted Spencer family, both in the settlement of Utah and in the 
I|j >) acceptance of Mormonism, was Daniel Spencer, a native of West Stockbridge, 
^!^ Berkshire county, Massachusetts. He was the son of Daniel Spencer and Chloe 
Wilson, and was one of eleven children born to that worthy pair. The father 
was a Revolutionary soldier, who enlisted in the Continental army at the age of sixteen, 



88 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

and remained with it until the British surrender at Yorktown, which he witnessed. His 
ancestors were English. Gerard Spencer, the earliest known settler of this branch of 
the family in America, was the founder of Hadam, Connecticut, and a member of the 
State Assembly. Daniel and Chloe Spencer were exemplary and highly esteemed mem- 
bers of the Baptist church. They were only in moderate circumstances, but placed 
within the reach of their children every available advantage for education. Their son 
Daniel, who was successively Mayor of Nauvoo. a member of the Utah Legislature, one 
of the Presidency of the British Mission, and died President of the Salt Lake Stake of 
Zion, was born July 20, 1794. 

"During my childhood," says he, "the young and growing family of my father left 
no surplus means over and above their kind and generous support. They sent me to the 
district school during the winter months until I was -about eleven years of age. I ob- 
tained a fair, common school education. At twelve years of age I was set to freighting 
marble with teams to Hudson, distant about thirty miles. At the age of fourteen I was 
placed in charge of my father's farm, and was accorded much praise for my successful 
management.'' 

His desire, however, was to become a merchant, and at the age of nineteen he prom- 
ised his father that if he would let him begin life on his own account, he would present 
him with the first hundred dollars he could save. His father consented, and Daniel hired 
out to one Joseph Cone, of Harrowiston, Litchfleld county, Connecticut, who sent him 
with team and wagon loaded with merchandise to sell in North and South Carolina. He 
worked for Mr. Cone two years, and then began business for himself. Soon he had sev- 
eral of his brothers engaged with him, merchandising in the Carolinas and in Georgia 
and Alabama. They spent the winters south and the summers in the New England 
States. Daniel made quite an amount of money and did much more for his father than 
he had promised him. About the year 1820 he entered into the mercantile business in 
his native town, having as silent partners Charles and Bilson Boynton. His salary as 
manager, together with profits, he turned into the general store, intending in time to be- 
come sole proprietor. This partnership existed until after Mr. Spencer embraced Mor- 
monism. Not long after that the Boyntons went into bankruptcy, and by taking advan- 
tage of the bankrupt act, caused Mr. Spencer to lose heavily. 

On the 21st of January, 1823, Daniel Spencer married Sophronia E. Pomeroy, 
daughter of General Grove Pomeroy, ex-member of the State Assembly of Massachusetts. 
By her he had one son, Claudius Victor, now a prominent citizen of Salt Lake City. She 
died October 5, 1833, and about two years later he married Sarah Lester Van Schoonoven, 
who bore him two sons that died early, and two daughters, Amanda and Mary Leone. 
This wife died at Nauvoo. 

"In my early years," says Daniel Spencer. "I had entertained great reverence for 
God and had sought him often in secret prayer, but could not unite with any of the 
churches. Nevertheless, at one time there came to me the conviction that baptism by im- 
mersion was essential, and I journeyed about forty miles to my brother Orson's, who was 
a Close Communion Baptist minister, and he buried me in the water in the likeness'of the 
burial and resurrection of Christ; but I refused to take membership in the Baptist 
church. My son Claudius was baptized by him at the same time. 

"During the winter of 1838 I met a Mormon Elder on the street of our town, who 
said he had been trying through the day to get a place where he could preach. He was 
poorly clad, his extremities were frost-bitten, and altogether he was a peculiar looking 
minister. Being chairman of the school board, I told him he could have the school house 
to preach in, and I sent Edwin Morgan to light and warm the room. When Morgan 
reached the house he found parties inside who had locked him out and refused him ad- 
mission. When he reported this I told him to take an ax, and if the parties did not open 
the door to chop it up and warm the room with it. I took pains to spread notice of the 
meeting, and sent my little son to invite the Presbyterian minister, Nathan Shaw, to go 
with me to hear the Elder. His answer was, 'Tell your father I would as soon go to hear 
the devil.' The meeting was largely attended by members of the different churches, but 
at the close, when the Elder stated that he was a stranger, thirteen hundred miles from 
home, without purse or scrip, and asked if any one would keep him over night for 
Christ's and the Gospel's sake, not an answer came from any church member. After a 
painful silence, I stepped into the open aisle and invited him home with me. I refused 
to discuss Mormonism with him, and next morning I took him to my store and clothed 
him comfortably. 

"In about a month he came again. I obtained for him the Presbyterian meeting 
house and entertained him as before. On leaving he left some books; these I read and 



HISTORY OF UTAH 89 

soon became interested, to the extent that I closed my store and gave my whole attention 
to comparing the claims of the Mormons with the Bible. One forenoon, while reading the 
Book of Mormon, the conviction came to me with great power that Mormonism was true, 
and involuntarily I exclaimed, 'My God, it is true, but it will cost me friends and kindred, 
and all that I have on earth. 

"A few days after this I sent notice to the entire townspeople that at noon of a cer- 
tain day I should be baptized by the Mormon Elder Stephen Burnham. A vast concourse 
came to see the ice broken in the river and the ordinance performed. After I was con- 
firmed, I spoke to the people in anew language, which, knowing me as they did, created a 
profound sensation. I was ordained an Elder, and did much preaching in Berkshire 
county. After my baptism, my good father and mother and my good Baptist brother 
Orson told me in an interview that they did not wish any further association with me 
until I gave up my awful delusion. However, in time I performed the same ordinance 
for my brother as a Mormon Elder that he once performed for me as a Baptist Elder, and 
1 had the pleasure of gathering father and mother to Nauvoo.'' 

The Spencer record goes on to tell how Elders Franklin D. Richards and Stephen Burn- 
bam, on the 19th of April, 1840, organized a branch of the Church at West Stockbridge, con- 
sisting of thirty members, among whom were a merchant named Crandall and his wife, 
who was a sister to Senator Roscoe Conkling. Without exception the standing of the 
members in society was of the best. The branch included the Saints in the adjoining 
town of Richmond, the home of the Richards family. 

Mr. Spencer had accumulated considerable property, much of it in real estate. As 
a general impression prevailed that all Mormons must gather to Nauvoo, his neighbors 
thought that by combining to withhold offers they could get his property very cheap. He 
thwarted their purpose, which he had shrewdly divined, by purchasing new properties, 
including a heavily timbered farm, with shares in a saw mill, leaving it to be inferred 
that he was not going to Nauvoo. Having regained, by this tactical course, his former 
business footing, he succeded in disposing of most of his property at its full value, and 
then started for Nauvoo, taking with him a stock of broadcloths and satinets. He was 
accompanied by his family, by his brother Hyrum Spencer, Daniel Hendricks and their 
families, and was followed by the predictions of many well meaning friends to the effect 
that he would lose all his worldly possessions. They promised, moreover, that if he would 
write back that he wished to return, they would raise means for his deliverance. He 
prospered, he says, in spite of being mobbed, plundered and driven, far more than those 
who gave him this friendly warning. 

At Nauvoo he entered government land, built a substantial, two story brick house in 
the city, and with his brother Hyrum fenced and improved a farm of one hundred and 
sixty acres six miles out of town. In 1842 he went upon a mission to Canada, and in 
1843 upon a mission to the Indians. During the latter year he was elected a member of 
the city council of Nauvoo. In February, 1844, he was selected as one of an exploring 
expedition, organized by the Prophet Joseph Smith to seek a new home for his persecuted 
people beyond the Rocky Mountains. The departure of this expedition was prevented 
by the death of the Prophet, and the carrying out of the plan on a more extended scale 
fell to the lot of President Brigham Young and the Utah Pioneers. Soon after the trag- 
edy at Carthage Daniel Spencer was chosen by vote of the city council Mayor of Nauvoo, 
succeeding the martyred Seer in that position, which he held until the repeal of the 
Nauvoo charter. 

Returning from a mission to Massachusetts, he joined the exodus of the Saints, 
crossed the Mississippi on the ice, and sought refuge with his people in the wilds of 
snow-covered Iowa. There, by the hardships and exposures encountered, he lost some 
of his dearest relatives and friends, among them his wife Mary, whom he had married at 
Nauvoo. 

"I wish here,'' says Elder Spencer, "to make affectionate and honorable mention of 
my brother Hyrum, whose life before association with our people, and his devotion and 
loyalty after joining them, were worthy of the highest praise. He was as brave in spirit 
as he was powerful in physique. He left Nauvoo with the first out-going Saints as cap- 
tain of fifty in the company organized under my presidency. During the journey from 
Nauvoo to Garden Grove he organized the labor force of the camp, and took contracts 
from the settlers bordering our route of travel, to chop timber, split rails, etc., thereby 
procuring sustenance for the camp and acquiring other much needed means for the feeble 
and ailing. The next morning after his arrival at Garden Grove he voluntarily started 
back to Nauvoo. Through great efforts he succeeded in emigrating several poor families, 
and also sold some of the property left by the three Spencer brothers, taking payment in 



90 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

stock cattle. Immediately trumped up writs and attachments were issued to hold the 
property until the mob which was gathering should come into Nauvoo. By almost super- 
human exertions he escaped with the cattle and means crossing the Mississippi sixty miles 
above Nauvoo, while the sheriff and posse were waiting to intercept him forty miles be- 
low the city and all but reached the camp of the Saints at Mount Pisgah; though he did 
so as a martyr, his exposures, anxieties and labors having killed him. He died some 
miles east of the settlement, and the body was brought there for burial." 

Following the Indian trail across Iowa, camping much of the time in close proximity 
to Indians and herding cattle on their grounds, Daniel Spencer and his fellow fugitives 
reached Council Bluffs. During the winter of 1846-7 he acted as a bishop on the Missouri 
river, and fitted out three of the Pioneers, Francis Boggs, Elijah Newman and Levi Ken- 
dall, letting them have two yoke of oxen, with wagon, provisions, farming tools, seed 
grain, etc. "If their testimony be true,' 1 says he, "these oxen drew the plow that turned 
the first sod in Salt Lake valley." 

After the Pioneers had departed, Daniel Spencer's company of one hundred wagons 
was re-organized, and in June, 1847, they left the Elk Horn for the Rocky Mountains. 
They followed the trail of the Pioneers, and were the first company to arrive after them 
in the valley of the Great Salt Lake. The date of his arrival was the 23rd of September. 

Daniel Spencer settled at Salt Lake City, dwelling on the corner where the Miller 
hotel now stands. He engaged in farming and various industries, and gathered around 
him considerable property, though prior to that he passed through many hardships and 
privations. Referring to the cricket plague of 1848, and to certain cynical statements to 
the effect that the gulls came to the rescue of the settlers by instinct, and not by provi- 
dential interposition, he says: "I ask how that instinct brought them in just the forty- 
eight hours to save the settlement, and I venture the assertion that an honest person can- 
not be found who witnessed that occurrence and has lived to the present, but will testify 
that there was a ratio of a thousand gulls then to one hundred seen here by our peo- 
ple before or since." Daniel Spencer formed a partnership with Jacob Gates, 
Jesse C. Little, and his son Claudius V. Spencer, in opening a ranch in Rush valley, 
from which they were unjustly ousted by soldiers from Camp Floyd, in March, 1859. On 
that occasion his nephew, Howard O. Spencer, was brutally assaulted by Sergeant Ralph 
Pike, as related elsewhere. 

At the re-organization of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion, February 13, 1849, Daniel 
Spencer became its President, with David Fullmer and Willard Snow as his counselors. 
At that time he was a member of the High Council, having held that position since Octo- 
ber 3, 1847. He was President of the Stake for nineteen years, during which period 
his decisions were invariably sustained when passed upon by the First Presidency. He 
was a prominent member of the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, and transacted 
much of its business. From 1852 to 1856 he was in Europe, serving from May 14, 1853, 
until March 15, 1856, as first counselor to the President of the British Mission. On the 
last named date he sailed for America to act as agent in the United States to forward the 
Mormon emigration to Utah. He arrived home on the 4th day of October. 

The following winter found him in the Legislature, a member of the House of Rep- 
resentatives. He had previously been a member of the House in Utah's first legislative 
assembly. In the sessions of 1861-2, 1862-3 and 1864-5 he was a member of the Coun- 
cil. His first public service in Salt Lake valley, in a secular way, was in 1848, when he 
was appointed Roadmaster. He was also one of the original members of the Board of 
Regents of the University of Deseret. 

Daniel Spencer stood at the nead of a numerous household. After the death of his 
wife Mary he married his brother Hyrum's widow, Emily Thompson Spencer, by whom 
he had two sons, Jared and John D., and four daughters, Aurelia, Sophia, Emma and 
Josephine. His wife Sarah Jane Grey bore him three sons, Orson, Mark and Grove, and 
one daughter, Sophronia. His wife Elizabeth Funnell had four daughters, Georgiana, 
Chloe, Elizabeth and Cordelia, and one son, Henry W. By his wife Mary Jane Cutcliffe 
he had three daughters, Lydia, Alvira and Amelia, and one son. Samuel G. President 
Spencer died at his home in Salt Lake City December 8, 1868, leaving to his posterity the 
prestige of an honored name and the inspiration of a life filled with noble deeds, crowned 
with faith, humility and self-sacrifice. 



EDWARD HUNTER. 

fHE name of Bishop Hunter is a household word in Utah, where the memory of his 
words and deeds is as fresh as the springtime grasses and flowers that grow above 
his grave. He led one of the first companies of immigrants that settled Salt Lake 
valley, and for thirty-two years was the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The second son and seventh child of Edward and Hannah Hunter, he was born in 
Newtown Township, Delaware county, Pennsylvania, June 22, 1793. His paternal 
ancestors were from the North of England, and on his mother's side lie was of Welsh 
extraction. John Hunter, his great-grandfather, passed over to Ireland some time in the 
seventeeth century and served as a lieutenant of cavalry under William of Orange at 
the Battle of the Boyne, where he was wounded. He afterwards came to America and 
settled in Delaware county, Pennsylvania, about twelve miles from Philadelphia. Edward 
Hunter, Esq., the Bishop's father, was justice of the peace in Delaware county for forty 
years. On his mother's side three generations back was Robert Owen of North Wales, 
a man of wealth and character, a firm sympathizer with Cromwell and the Protectorate, 
who on the restoration of Charles the Second, refused to take the oath of allegiance, and 
was imprisoned for five years. After his release he emigrated to America and purchased 
property near the "City of Brotherly Love." Like the founder of that city, Robert 
Owen was a quaker. His son George sat in the State Legislature and held various 
positions of public trust. 

It was the intention of Edward's father to give him a thorough scholastic training. 
The boy, however, expressed a preference for farm life, and his choice was humored, 
though he was prevailed upon to acquire a trade, and became proficient as a tanner and 
currier. He subsequently attended school and mastered the science of surveying. 
Finally he went into business in Philadelphia with a merchant named Bomount. 

When he was twenty-two years of age his father died. Edward was offered his 
position as justice of the peace, but declined it on account of his youth. He was also 
tendered the Federal candidacy for, and certain election to, the Pennsylvania Legislature, 
but would not accept it as he was a Democrat and chose to remain one. He served seven 
years as a cavalry volunteer and three years as a county commissioner of Delaware 
county, receiving at the election a higher vote than any other officer on the ticket. After 
farming in Delaware county for four or five years he removed to Chester county, where 
he purchased a fine farm of five hundred acres, well stocked and cultivated. He there 
married Ann Standley, the youngest daughter of Jacob and Martha Standley, an honest, 
capable family of that vicinity. He was then about forty years of age. 

He had always desired to serve God acceptably, but following the counsel of his 
father, had connected himself with no religious sect. He held sacred the right of all 
men to worship according to the dictates of conscience. His father told him that 
the American form of government was too good for a wicked world, and that its bles- 
sings of liberty would not be appreciated or the rights it guarantees respected. He was 
asked to grant the privilege to have erected on his land a building for educational pur- 
poses and in which public meetings might be held. He agreed to give the land for ninety- 
nine years and to help build the house, provided all persons and persuasions might meet 
in it to worship God. This was particularly set forth in the articles of agreement, and 
the building was erected. It was known as the West Mantmeal Seminary. Mr. Hunter 
was successful in business, and was respected and looked up to by his neighbors and the 
people for many miles around as a man of character and integrity. da on-lr.q 

Such were the circumstances surrounding him when in the spring of 1839 he heard 1 
of a strange sect called Mormons, some of whose preachers, traveling through that 
region, had learned of the West Nantmeal Seminary and had taken steps to procure 'th^ 
hall for meetings. Immediately a tumult was raised, and it was declared by some of thfel 
leading residents that it would not do to have the Mormons therej "Why not?-" me/nired! 
Mr. Hunter. "Oh, they are such a terrible people," was theirep'ly. "Why terrible?" he 
asked. "Why why stammered the accusers Dr. Davis says they are a terrible'people, 
a very dangerous people, and that it will not do to let thetni preach: ;thereiW 1 1 'fOiiy 'itat's 



92 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

it," said the honest, independent land-owner, his Democratic blood beginning to boil. 
"When I gave the lease for that land, and helped to build that house, it was particularly 
agreed and stated in the lease that people of every religion should have the privilege of 
meeting there to worship God, Now, those Mormons are going to have their rights, or else 
the lease is out and I'll take the Seminary.'' This determined speech brought the bigots 
to their senses, and no further objeeton was raised. 

Soon after this Mr. Hunter, hearing that a Mormon Elder was to preach at a place called 
Locust Grove, afewmiles away, mounted his horse and rode to the meeting for the express 
purpose of seeing that the stranger was not imposed upon. The Elder's name was Elijah H. 
Davis. "He was a humble young man," says the Bishop, "the first one that I was im- 
pressed was sent of God. Robert Johnson, one of the trustees, after requesting the 
Elder to speak on the atonement, interrupted him and ordered him to stop. I sprang up and 
said, 'He is a stranger and shall have justice. We will hear him, and then hear you.' 
There were many present opposed to the Mormons, but I resolved that Mr. Davis should 
be protected, if I had to meet the rabble on their own ground. I kept my eye on them and 
determined to stand by him at the risk of person and property. I had friends, though 
Mr. Davis had none. Mr. J. Johnson, brother to Robert, came to me as I was going out 
and apologized for the latter's conduct." Though soon converted, Mr. Hunter was 
not immediately baptized, but his house, from that time forth, was a home for all Mormon 
Elders traveling in the vicinity. 

During the winter of 1839-40 he was visited by the Prophet Joseph Smith, who was 
on his way back from Washington, after presenting to President Van Buren and to 
Congress the memorial of the Latter-day Saints, setting forth the wrongs they had suffered 
in Missouri and asking for redress of grievances. The Prophet preached at the Seminary 
and spent several days with Mr. Hunter before proceeding westward. The latter accom- 
panied his visitor to Downingtown, the nearest railroad station, where he was to take the 
train for Philadelphia. While waiting for the train, they called on the Hon. Joshua 
Hunt, a State Senator, who received them very hospitably. 

Edward Hunter became a Latterday Saint on the 8th of October, 1840, being baptized 
by Apostle Orson Hyde, who was on his way to Palestine. Soon afterwards he re- 
ceived a visit from the Prophet's brother, Hyrum Smith, the Patriarch of the Church. 
He attended conference at Philadelphia and subscribed liberally towards the building of 
the Nauvoo House and Temple. At a subsequent visit of the Patriarch's, as they were 
walking along the banks of the Brandywine, Mr. Hunter (the conversation being upon 
the subject of departed spirits) inquired concerning his children who were dead, particu- 
larly a little boy, George Washington Hunter, an excellent child to whom he was much 
attached. The Patriarch replied: "Your son will act as an angel to you not your 
guardian angel, but an auxiliary angel, to assist you in extreme trials." A year and a 
half later, in an hour of deep depression, the little boy appeared to his father in vision. 
Said the latter, "He was more perfect than in natural life the same blue eyes, curly 
hair, fair complexion and a most beautiful appearance. I felt disposed to keep him, and 
offered inducements for him to remain. He then said in his old familiar voice, 'George 
has many friends in heaven.' " 

In June, 1842, Edward Hunter removed with his family to Nauvoo, taking with him 
seven thousand dollars in money and four or five thousand dollars in goods of different 
kinds, and placing all in the hands of the Prophet to be used for the general advancement 
of the cause. He had visited Nauvoo the previous September, purchasing a farm and 
several town lots, and on returning to Pennsylvania had sold two of his farms there and 
invested considerable means in merchandise. He paid out thousands of dollars to im- 
prove his property in and around Nauvoo and furnished many persons with employment. 
According to Joseph's own words, he assisted him in one year to the extent of fifteen 
thousand dollars. He gave so much to the Church that finally the Prophet told him he 
had done enough and to reserve the residue of his means for his own use. 

About a year after his removal to Nauvoo he was arrested with several others on a 
trumped-up charge of treason and taken to Carthage for trial. No one appeared against 
them, and they were set at liberty. He was at the trial of the Prophet in Springfield 
when Judge Pope declared, after the verdict of acquittal had been rendered, that the 
Mormon leader should not be tormented any longer by such vexatious prosecutions. 
During those troublous times, when the Prophet's life was sought, he was hid up for long 
periods in Edward Hunter's house, and during one of these seasons of retirement he 
voiced under that faithful friend's roof the latter part of the revelation upon baptism for 
the dead. 

Edward Hunter was one of the City Council of Nauvoo which authorized the abate- 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 93 

ment of the "Expositor," and, at the Prophet's request, he went to Springfield with two 
others to represent to Governor Ford matters in their proper light, and ask him to use his 
influence to allay the excitement and hostility that had set in like a flood against the 
Mormons. Joseph's parting words to him were, "You have known me for several years; 
say to the Governor under oath everything good and bad you know of me." The Mor- 
mon messengers did not see the Governor, who had gone to Carthage, but they delivered 
their message to his wife. 

The next that Edward Hunter saw of the Prophet and his brother Hyrum was their 
dead bodies when they were brought from Carthage to Nauvoo for burial. Says he: 
"We formed two lines to receive them. I was placed at the extreme right, to wheel in 
after the bodies and march to the mansion. As we passed the Temple there were crowds 
of mourners there, lamenting the great loss of our Prophet and our Patriarch. The scene 
was enough to melt the soul of man. Colonel Brewer, a United States officer, myself and 
others took Brother Joseph's body into the Mansion House. When we went to the wagon 
to get the corpse, Colonel Brewer taking up the Prophet's coat and hat, which were cov- 
ered with blood and dirt, said, 'Mr. Hunter, vengeance) and death await the perpetrators 
of this deed.' At midnight Brothers D. Huntington, G. Goldsmith, William Huntington 
and myself carried the body of Joseph from the Mansion House to the Nauvoo House, and 
put him and Hyrum in one grave. Their death was hard to bear. Our hope was almost 
gone." 

Soon after the Prophet's death, Edward Hunter was ordained a High Priest and set 
apart as Bishop of the Fifth Ward of Nauvoo. He was ordained by Brigham Young, 
Heber C. Kimball and Newel K. Whitney, the first named being mouth. He was Bishop 
of that Ward for about two years, and until he left Nauvoo in the spring or summer of 
1846 to join the main body of the Saints at Winter Quarters. He was delayed by sickness 
for several weeks in Iowa. By the exodus he sustained a loss in property of about fifty 
thousand dollars. He spent the winter of 1846-7, while suffering much from sickness in 
his family, preparing and fitting out for the West. He was appointed Captain of one 
hundred wagons and followed in the wake of the Pioneers, six or eight weeks after their 
departure, arriving in Salt Lake Valley September 29, 1847. 

In the fall of 1849 Bishop Hunter was sent by the First Presidency back to the Mis- 
souri River to superintend the emigration of the poor, agreeable to the plan instituted by 
the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, of which he was the accredited agent. He 
took with him funds to the amount of five thousand dollars, to be used for the purpose 
indicated. He returned to Salt Lake City early in October, 1850. 

A few days previous the death of one of his dearest friends had taken place Bishop 
Newel K. Whitney. Bishop Hunter, who had presided for sometime over the Thirteenth 
Ward, succeeded Bishop Whitney as the Presiding Bishop of the Church, April, 1851. 
For a year or more Presidents Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball, who had acted as 
counselors to his predecessor, continued to act in that capacity to him. Afterwards 
Leonard W. Hardy and Jesse C. Little were his counselors. Later on, Robert T. Burton 
took the place vacated by Bishop Little. On the 6th of April, 1853, when the corner- 
stones of the Salt Lake Temple were laid, Bishop Hunter and others representing the 
Presidency of the Aaronic Priesthood, laid the South-west cornerstone, and standing 
thereon he delivered the oration. 

It would require a volume to tell all that could be told of the life and character of this 
good and noble man. Honest, straight-forward, candid even to bluntness, his heart 
overflowed with kindness and he enjoyed the love and confidence of all who knew him. 
Childlike and humble, he was nevertheless shrewd and discerning, and though eccentric 
and sometimes brusque in manner, charitable and open-handed to all, even to tramps and 
vagrants. These he would quote in his humorous way: "Hunting work, hunting work, 
yes, yes, but I guess they don't want to find it very bad. Feed 'em, brethren, feed 'em, 
musn't let 'em starve." He was a great exhorter to faithfulness. His familiar injunc- 
tion, "pay your tithing and be blessed," has passed into a proverb. 

Bishop Hunter was the husband of four wives, namely, Ann Standley, Laura Shimer, 
Susannah Waim and Henrietta Spencer. He was the father of thirteen children, nine of 
whom, six sons and three daughters, at last accounts were living. Among his sons the 
best known are Rodolph E., William W., Oscar F., Edward W. and Daniel W. Their 
venerable father passed away October 16, 1883, at his home in Salt Lake City. Among 
those who visited him during his last illness were President John Taylor and Apostle 
Erastus Snow. His final words were similar to those uttered by the martyred Prophet as 
he fell dead in Carthage jail, "Oh Lord, my God!" 



JEDEDIAH MORGAN GRANT. 

j"T was said at the funeral of Jedediah M. Grant that he was capable of living as long and 
T ' learning as much in twenty-five years as most men could in a hundred. The speaker 
4* was President Brigham Young, who in the death of the man thus eulogized had lost a 
beloved friend and wise counselor, his associate in the First Presidency of the Church ; a 
man who had literally worn out his life and apparently perished before his time as the 
result .of his zealous and incessant labors in the interests of the cause to whieh his life 
was consecrated. It is a matter of profound regret that such men, whose examples 
and precepts were an inspiration and an incentive to thousands, should pass into the 
spirit world, taking with them the volume of their lives and depriving posterity of the 
pleasure and profit of perusing the precious pages. This man kept no journal, but that 
the omission was not due to indolence or apathy on his part need not be told to any one 
who knew him. It was not in him to neglect a duty, to shirk a responsibility, or underdo 
any task that might be placed upon him. He was probably too busy in the midst of his 
multifarious public tasks to note down his numerous acts and sayings which also he may 
have undervalued and he did not anticipate, any more than the community which 
mourned his untimely death, the sudden termination of his useful career. From various 
sources the biographer gleans the following items of the personal experience of this 
remarkable man, one of the most original and most interesting characters in Mormon 
history. 

Jedediah M. Grant, son of Joshua and Thalia Grant, was born at Windsor, Brnome 
county, New York, on the 2lst of February, 1816. He was therefore but a lad of four- 
teen when the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized in the neighboring 
town of Fayette. It was from Broome county that Joseph Knight came, who rendered 
such timely assistance to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery while they were translating, 
at Harmony, Pennsylvania, the golden plates of the Book of Mormon. It was there that 
Mormonism made many of its earliest converts. Whether or not Jedediah M. Grant came 
in contact with it at that period, we are uninformed. He was baptized March 21, 1883, 
by John F. Boynton, afterwards one of the Twelve Apostles. 

The next spring we find him enrolled as a member of Zion's Camp, on his way from 
Northern Ohio to Western Missouri, and we may be sure that throughout that perilous 
pilgrimage he played a brave and manly part, returning with honor, his integrity un- 
shaken, his soul weighed in the balance and not found wanting. This indeed proved to 
be one of the main purposes of that famous expedition, whose avowed object was "the 
redemption of Zion;" for out of the ranks of the survivors of Zion's Camp were chosen 
the Twelve Apostles and the Seventies, or assistant Apostles, the first known in the 
Church. One of the latter was Jedediah M. Grant, who was ordained under the hands of 
the Prophet Joseph Smith and others at Kirtland, Ohio, February 28, 1835. He became 
a member of the First Quorum of Seventy, which included such men as Joseph Young, 
Zerubbabel Svow, George A. Smith, Amasa M. Lyman, Almon W. Babbitt, and others 
who became prominent in Utah. 

Soon after receiving this ordination he performed his first preaching mission, in com- 
pany with Elder Harvey Stanley. Having spent the summer laboring in the ministry, he 
returned to Kirtland and worked during the winter upon the Temple, and after attending 
the dedication of the sacred house, went upon another mission. This time he traveled 
Alone, and between April, 1836, and March, 1837, visited many places in his native State, 
preaching to multitudes and baptizing twenty-three persons, among them his brother 
Austin. At Fallsburg he raised up a branch of the Church. 

On June 6, 1837, he set out from Kirtland upon his first mission to the South, a field 
in which was acquired most of his missionary fame. By way of New York, Pennsylvania 
and other States, he passed into North Carolina, where he made a prolonged stay, labor- 
ing assiduously and with success, preaching in chapels, public buildings, private homes, 
and at times in the open-air by the roadside, wherever opportunity offered. Though not 
an educated man, he was wonderfully bright and intelligent, a natural logician, with a 
thorough knowledge of the scriptures, a ready and forceful delivery, and a most original 
and effective way of presenting and driving home an argument. Shrewd and quick- 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 95 

witted, he saw in a moment the weakness of an opponent's position, and like lightning 
attacked and demolished it. His style for all that he was practical was poetic, full of 
fire and replete with imagery. Withal, though of sound judgment, prudent and far- 
sighted, he was perfectly fearless, daring, dashing just the man to please the chivalrous 
and fiery Southerners. In a series of discussions with Methodist ministers he gave great 
sport to the Carolinians and gained much repute as a scriptorian and debater. Having 
made many friends and some converts, he returned to Ohio in time to participate in the 
general removal of the Saints to Missouri. 

Leaving Kirtland on the 9th of October, he arrived at Far West on the 12th of 
November, 1838, having visited on the way his brother, George D. Grant, who was a fel- 
low prisoner with the Prophet in Richmond jail. In the exodus from Missouri he accom- 
panied his father's family to Knox county, Illinois, where he remained several months, 
laboring in the ministry, prior to visiting, in May, 1839, the future home of his people at 
Commerce, Hancock county, Illinois. 

The peeled and scattered Saints were just beginning to gather at that place, where 
arose the city of Nauvoo, when Jedediah M. Grant started upon his second mission to the 
Southern States, to which he was called at a conference held in Quincy on the 1st of June. 
His field of labor comprised Virginia and North Carolina, and among the Elders who ac- 
companied him was his brother Joshua. He made his headquarters at Burke's Garden, 
Tazewell county, Virginia, where a branch numbering some sixty members soon sprang 
up. Prom that point radiated under his direction the energies and activities of a corps of 
efficient subordinates, until a wide and extensive field was occupied. Among the friends 
made by him at that place was Colonel Peter Litz, a man of considerable wealth and in- 
fluence, who permitted him to hold meetings at his home. At one of them, held in the 
orchard on a Sabbath day, Miss Floyd, sister to Hon. John B. Floyd, afterwards 
Secretary of War, who had driven up in her carriage to where she might hear the speaker, 
alighted and came forward at the close of the meeting, introduced herself and proffered 
her friendship to Elder Grant. It seems that this lady, as intelligent and well 
informed as she was broad-minded and liberal, had been induced to go and hear the 
"Mormon Elder" by reading in her Bible that morning Paul's admonition, "Prove all 
things; hold fast that which is good." To her amazement Elder Grant preached from 
this very text, and so powerfully as to win Miss Floyd's admiration and lasting good-will. 
She was a Catholic in religion, but ghe remarked to him, while entertaining him at her 
hospitable home, that she was fully persuaded that if Catholicism was not true, Mormon- 
ism was; Mormonism, in her esteem, standing next to Catholicism. 

Many are the interesting anecdotes related of Jedediah M. Grant the Lorenzo Dow 
of that region whose fearless advocacy of truth and right, and daring denunciation of 
falsehood and wrong, with his ready speech, quick wit, incisive logic and adroit handling 
of his subjects, won him many friends and admirers, made numerous converts, and set 
the whole country in an uproar. The late T. B. Lewis, who traveled long afterwards as 
a missionary through Virginia and North Carolina, brought home several good stories 
told of him by old-time residents of those parts. One of these we give entire : 

"In the early part of Elder Grant's ministry he gained quite a reputation as a ready 
speaker, frequently responding to invitations to preach upon subjects or texts that might 
be selected by his hearers at the time of beginning his meeting. It became a matter of 
wonder with many as to how and when he prepared his sermons. In reply to their 
queries, he informed them that he never prepared his sermons as other ministers did. 
'Of course,' said he, 'I read and store my mind with a knowledge of Gospel truths, but 
I never study up a sermon.' They did not believe he told the truth, for they thought it 
impossible for a man to preach such sermons without careful preparation. So in order to 
prove it, a number of persons decided to put him to the test. They asked him if he would 
preach at a certain time and place from a text selected by them, which they would give 
him on his arrival at the place of meeting, thus allowing him no time to prepare. To 
gratify them he consented. The place selected was Jeffersonville, the seat of Tazewell 
county, at that time the home of John B. Floyd (subsequently Secretary of War), and 
many other prominent men. The room chosen was in the courthouse. At the hour ap- 
pointed the place was packed, Mr. Floyd and a number of lawyers and ministers being 
present and occupying front seats. Elder Grant came in, walked to the stand and 
opened the meeting as usual. At the close of the second hymn a clerk stepped forward 
and handed him a paper. He unfolded it and found it to be blank. Without any mark 
of surprise, he held it up before the audience and said: 

"My friends, I am here according to agreement to preach from such a text as these 
gentlemen might select for me. I have it here in my hand. I don't wish you to become 



96 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

offended at me, for I am under promise to preach from the text selected; if any one is to 
blame, you must blame those who selected it. I knew nothing of what text they would 
choose, but of all texts this is my favorite one. You see the paper is blank (at the same 
time holding it up to view). You sectarians down there believe that out of nothing God 
created all things, and now you wish me to create a sermon from nothing, for this paper 
is blank. You believe in a God that has neither body, parts nor passions. Such a God 
I conceive to be a perfect blank, just as my text is. You believe in a church without 
prophets, apostles, evangelists, etc. Such a church would be a perfect blank, as com- 
pared with the Church of Christ, and this agrees with my text. You have located your 
heaven beyond the bounds of time and space. It exists nowhere; consequently your 
heaven is blank, like unto my text.' Thus he went on, until he had torn to pieces all the 
tenets of faith professed by his hearers, and then proclaimed the principles of the Gospel 
in power. He wound up by asking 'Have I stuck to the text, and does that satisfy you?' 

"As soon as he sat down Mr. Floyd jumped up and said: 'Mr. Grant, if you are not 
a lawyer you ought to be one.' Then turning to the people he added, 'Gentlemen, you 
have listened to a wonderful discourse, and with amazement. Now take a look at Mr. 
Grant's clothes; look at his coat, his elbows are almost out. and his knees are almost 
through; let us take up a collection.' As he sat down another eminent lawyer, Joseph 
Stras, Esq., still living in Jeffersonville, arose and said, 'I am good for one sleeve in a 
coat and one leg in a pair of pants for Mr. Grant.' The Presiding Elder of the M. E. 
Church, South, was requested to pass the hat around, but replied that he would not take 
up a collection for a Mormon preacher. 'Yes, you will,' said Mr. Floyd. 'Pass itaround,' 
said Mr. Stras, and the cry was taken up and repeated by the audience, until for the sake 
of peace the minister had to yield. He marched around with a hat in his hand, receiving con- 
tributions, which resulted in a collection sufficient to purchase a fine suit of clothes, a 
horse, saddle and bridle for Elder Grant, and not one contributor a member of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; though some subsequently joined." 

At another time, according to Mr. Lewis, Elder Grant was challenged by an eminent 
minister named Baldwin, to a discussion. He promptly took up the gauntlet, the pre- 
liminaries were arranged, and in the presence of an immense throng, which crowded the 
fine, large church of the challenging party, the discussion took place. Just before it 
began, Elder Grant arose and said: "Mr. Baldwin, before we proceed any further may 
I ask you a question?" "Certainly," answered Baldwin. "Who stands at the head of 
your church in South-west Virginia?" "I do, sir, I do," quickly and austerely replied 
the one addressed. "All right," said Grant, "I wanted to know that I had -i worthy foe." 
A smile rippled over the audience, Mr. Baldwin looked confused, and then fell into the 
trap laid for him. "Mr. Grant," said he, "I would like to ask who stands at the head of 
your church in South-west Virginia?" "Jesus Christ, sir," was the prompt reply, which 
had the effect of a Lyddite bomb in scattering the ideas of the reverend gentleman, giving 
the Elder an advantage at the outset, which he continued to press to the end. 

Another anecdote is to the effect that while he was filling an appointment in a log 
schoolhouse, in an out of the way locality, two young fellows planked themselves down 
on a bench immediately in front of him and began playing cards while he was speaking. 
Noticing their conduct, which was beginning to disturb the meeting, Elder Grant stopped 
short in his discourse, leaned over the pulpit, pointed his long finger at the two 
hoodlums and fixing his eagle eye upon them, said': "Look here, young men, if the 
Holy Ghost in the toe of my boot gets into the seat of your pants, you'll go out of this 
house a heap sight quicker than you came in." There was no more card playing in 
that meeting. "I can see the devil in your eyes,'' an irate matron once said to him. "I 
didn't know that my eyes were a looking-glass," was the ready retort. 

He concluded his labors in the South some time in 1842, and after a series of pro- 
tracted meetings at Burke's Garden, lasting five days, during which in the intervals of 
preaching he and his co-laborers were kept busy baptizing converts, he set out for Nauvoo, 
followed by the blessings and good wishes of the warm-hearted Virginians, who shed 
tears at his departure. 

From June, 1843, to March, 1844, he presided over the Saints in the city of Phila- 
delphia, and on May 9th of the latter year started from Nauvoo with Wilford Woodruff 
and George A. Smith on the memorable political tour which began just prior to the 
Prophet's martyrdom. Recalled suddenly to Nauvoo, he chanced to be there at the time 
of the Carthage jail tragedy, and was sent to carry the awful news to the Apostles and 
Elders in the East. He was also requested to resume his former position in Philadelphia. 

Just prior to starting on this mission, July 2nd, 1844, he married Miss Caroline Van 
Dyke, Bishop Newel K. Whitney performing the ceremony. His wife accompanied him 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 97 

to Philadelphia. While there he published a series of effective letters aerainst the claims 
put forth by Sidney Rigdon as the would-be successor to the Prophet. He returned to 
Nauvoo in May, 1845, and on December 2nd of that year was set apart as one of the First 
Seven Presidents of Seventies, under the hands of Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, 
Parley P. Pratt and other Apostles. 

In the exodus of the following February he was among the first to cross the Missis- 
sippi aud start for the West. From Winter Quarters in the winter of 1846-7, he went 
East on a short mission, at which time he purchased the materials for the "mammoth 
flag" of local fame. He went as far as Philadelphia, transacting important Church busi- 
ness, and returned in June, 1847, in time to cross the plains with that season's emigration. 
He was captain of the Third Hundred, and under him were Joseph B. Noble and Willard 
Snow as captains of fifties. On the Sweetwater, early in September, he reported to 
President Young his recent mission and the state of public feeling in the East on the 
Mormon question. At this point Captain Grant lost many of his cattle, killed by drinking 
the alkali water abounding there. But this was not the worst of his misfortunes. He 
had previously buried a little daughter by the wayside, and now, as he approached the 
end of the long and toilsome journey, his wife died. Agreeable to her request, her re- 
mains were brought into Salt Lake Valley for burial, arriving here early in October. 

In May, 1849, when the local militia was organized, Jedediah M. Grant was elected 
Brigadier-General of the First Brigade. This was the cavalry cohort, the other, com- 
posed of infantry, being commanded by Brigadier-General Horace S. Eldredge. Daniel 
H. Wells was Major-General of the Legion, but when, in October, 1852, he became 
Lieutenant-General, Jedediah M. Grant was promoted to the Major-Generalship, and 
held that office until his death. He was a most efficient officer, courageous, energetic and 
just. It is said of him that in difficulties with the Indians, he was not only wise and 
tactful, but was as jealous of their rights as he was of the safety of the white settlers. 

In the fall of 1849 he went East on business and was captain of the company of mis- 
sionaries who traveled with him, including Apostles John Taylor, Lorenzo Snow, Erastus 
Snow, Franklin D. Richards, Bishop Edward Hunter and others, most of them on their 
way to Europe. While nooning on the Platte River, one cold wintry day, they were 
charged upon by a large party of Cheyennes, who, gaudily attired in war-paint and 
feathers, were on their way to attack a hostile band of the Crows. General Grant acted 
with his usual promptness and decision, immediately forming his men into line to meet 
the expected onslaught. The Indians, whose purpose was plunder rather than bloodshed, 
after vainly endeavoring to break the intrepid line, or flank it, were brought to a dead 
halt in front, about a rod and a half away. Some parleying ensued between the Indian 
chiefs and the leading Elders, and then, after the passing of gifts and an interchange of 
courtesies, the erstwhile belligerent savages shook hands with and allowed the mission- 
aries to proceed on their way. General Grant returned to Utah in charge of a train of 
merchandise. 

Jedediah M. Grant was the first Mayor of Salt Lake City, holding the office from 
January, 1851, when the city was incorporated, first by appointment of the Governor and 
legislature, and from April of that year by election under the municipal charter. He was 
a capable, energetic Mayor, just and impartial, and occupied the position by continuous 
election as long as he lived. 

He was also elected a member of the first legislative assembly of the Territory, but 
resigned immediately after taking his seat in the Council, iu order to go East upon a 
special mission and co-operate with Utah's Delegate, Dr. John M. Bernhisel, in counter- 
acting the efforts of the runaway judges, Brocchus and Brandebury, who with Secretary 
Harris were seeking to spread false reports concerning the people of Utah (See chapter 23, 
volume 1). Mayor Grant's letters on the absconding officials, addressed to Editor James 
Gordon Bennett, the elder, and published in the New York Herald, form a series of the 
raciest epistles that ever emanated from a Utah pen. They were afterwards printed in 
pamphlet form and circulated widely through the East, creating considerable of a sensa- 
tion. They completely spiked the guns of the would-be defamers of the Territory, 
breaking the back of their report before it was presented to the public. 

Returning to Utah in 1852, Mayor Grant was again elected to the legislature, and 
was chosen Speaker of the House of Representatives, a position filled by him also at the 
three subsequent annual sessions. He was an excellent presiding officer, his quick per- 
ception, sound practical judgment and high sense of right, enabling him to render 
valuable assistance to his fellow law-makers. 

At the death of Willard Richards in 1854, Jedediah M. Grant succeeded him as second 
counselor to President Young in the First Presidency of the Church. In this capacity he 



98 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

performed his great and final work as the main promoter of the famous "Reformation," 
a great spiritual revival that swept like a mighty tidal wave over the Church from 
the fall of 1856 into the summer following. All the leading authorities engaged in it, but 
the principal worker was President Grant, who labored so zealously, arduously and in- 
cessantly in its interest that he strove beyond his strength and broke down his constitution. 
He died December 1, 1856, in the forty-first year of his age. His death was deeply 
lamented by the whole community, and by none more profoundly than by Presidents 
Young and Kimball, his immediate associates. "Oh for another Jeddie! '' was a frequent 
expression on the lips of President Young in after years; a simple and pathetic plaint 
that spoke volumes. 

President Grant left several families, but his children were not particularly numer- 
ous. They numbered ten in all. Four of his wives each bore one child, a son, named 
respectively George S., Joshua F., Brigham F., and Heber J., the three last named living 
and well known citizens of the State. He was the father also of Jedediah M. Grant and 
Mrs. Henrietta Marshall, both of Randolph, Rich county, and of Joseph Hyrnm Grant, 
one of the Presidency of Davis Stake. His most distinguished son is Apostle Heber 
J. Grant, the founder of the Japanese Mission, whose versatile abilities, energetic action, 
frank, ready, off-hand address and various excellent qualities, are reminiscent of his illus- 
trious sire. From a passing allusion in Mayor Grant's letters to the New York Herald, 
we learn that his father's paternal grandfather came from Scotland, while his later ances- 
tors were all New Bnglanders of the oldest stock, two of them fighting for independence 
in the War of the Revolution. 



ABRAHAM OWEN SMOOT. 

J^v MONG the stalwarts who stood shoulder to shoulder with Brigham Young and his 
HST compeers in the founding of this commonwealth, no man made a better record than 
y he whose honored name gives caption to this article. A settler of Salt Lake valley 
in 1847, when he led one of the first companies of immigrants hither, he crossed 
and recrossed the great plains many times in the public interest, and was one of the most 
active spirits in building up the country and promoting the welfare of its people. He was 
the second Mayor of Salt Lake City, and afterwards Mayor of Provo, serving simultane- 
ously for many years as a member of the Territorial legislature. At the time of his death 
he was a Patriarch of the Church, and for twenty-seven years had been President of the 
Utah Stake of Zion. 

Untrained, so far as scholastic culture went, he was possessed of gifts that made him 
equal to all emergencies, and as colonizer, financier, civic officer and legislator, as well 
as missionary, Bishop and Stake President, he made his mark and wrote success upon all 
his varied undertakings. He ranked with the best and strongest men of the community 
in ability, in wisdom and in force of character. He frequently sat in council with the 
General Authorities of the Church, or was consulted by them when matters of moment 
were considered affecting the welfare of the community; and this not only while he 
resided in Salt Lake, but after his removal to Provo. 

Large of frame, with strong features, one of the most prominent of which was a pair 
of piercing black eyes set beneath bushy beetling brows ; while utterly devoid of osten- 
tation, there was a dignity to his presence, a rugged grandeur to his physique that made him 
a striking personality wherever he appeared. When he spoke men listened, "every word 
seemed to weigh a pound," and a natural impediment in his speech (a defect that vanished 
as he warmed to his theme) but added force and impress! veness to his delivery; like a 
boulder in the bed of a mountain stream. Always practical and generally serious, he 
could be mirthful in season, and sentiment as well as humor bubbled up from the recesses 
of his soul like a sparkling spring on a rocky, weather- scarred mountain side. Shrewd 
but honest in his dealings, and earnest in his convictions, no man was firmer in main- 
taining what he felt to be right, or more fearless in denouncing what he believed to 
be wrong. 

Abraham 0. Smoot was a native American, of the old chivalrous Southern stock. 
He was born at Owenton, Owen county, Kentucky, February 17, 1815. His ancestors 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 99 

were Scotch, Irish and English, and were among the early settlers of Virginia, whence 
his parents migrated to Kentucky about the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
Colonel Owen, his mother's cousin, for whom he was named, was killed at the battle of 
Tippecanoe. His great grandmother, Edith Jackson, was related to the ancestors of 
"Stonewall 1 ' Jackson. His father, George W. Smoot, was a physician and an attorney, 
and his mother, Ann Hewlett Smoot, a remarkably bright and capable woman, combining 
with her intelligence unusual strength of character. The eldest child, Nancy Beal, 
married John Freeman; the eldest son, William, was a physician, and the second son, 
Reed, a farmer; Martisia, the second daughter, became Mrs. Samuel Smith, mother to 
Mrs. Emma Woodruff of Salt Lake City. Then followed Abraham Owen and his three 
sisters, Jemima, Sophia and Cinderella. 

The boy "Owen" was about seven years old when he moved with the family into 
South-western Kentucky. Six years later they crossed into Tennessee, settling on Blood 
River. Young Smoot grew up a farmer and backwoodsman. He received little schooling, 
but was shrewd, apt and self-reliant, well fitted in various ways for his future career as 
a colonizer. His father died in 1828. and his mother married again . The name of her second 
husband was Levi Taylor. Most of the family embraced Mormonism, which was preached 
in that part by David W. Patten, Wilford Woodruff and others. A. 0. Smoot was 
baptized by Warren Parrish, March 22, 1835. 

Soon after his baptism he was made a Deacon, and on February 26, 1836, Wilford 
Woodruff ordained him an Elder. He now entered the ministry, traveling, preaching 
and baptizing in the surrounding counties, both of Tennessee and Kentucky. At different 
times he had as his companions Apostle Patten, Elder Woodruff and other prominent 
missionaries. On October 13th of that year, in company with Wilford Woodruff, he 
started for Kirtland, Ohio, preaching and visiting by the way. Near Louisville he called 
upon some of his relatives, the Smoots and Rowletts, and then visited his birth-place. 
Prior to leaving Kentucky he cast his first vote for a President of the United States, 
Martin Van Buren, who was elected. He reached Kirtland on the 25th of November. 

During his stay there he was kindly entertained by Warren Parrish, who had been 
the means of bringing him into the Church. On the day of his arrival he visited the 
Temple, where he met for the first time the Prophet Joseph Smith. He had a view of 
the famous mummies which the Prophet had purchased, and of the papyrus found with 
them, from which was translated the Book of Abraham. Sunday, November 27th, he 
spoke in the Temple, reporting his labors in the South. Eai'ly in December he started 
to attend the Temple school, but about this time began to feel the rigor of the northern 
climate and fell sick. Several weeks elapsed before he again stood upon his feet, a well 
man. It was while he was at Kirtland that the spirit of disaffection arose which carried 
away some of the leading Elders, Warren Parrish included. Efforts were made to induce 
Elder Smoot to join them, but with characteristic firmness he repelled every overture of 
the apostates. 

By the advice of the Prophet and for the benefit of his health, he left Kirtland 
January 25, 1837, for his old home in the South. The day before his departure he 
was blessed by Father Joseph Smith, the Patriarch of the Church. He arrived at Blood 
River on the 16th of February, and there found Apostle David W. Patten. Elder Henry 
G. Sherwood had recently arrived from Kirtland to take charge of the branches in 
Kentucky and Tennessee. After resting a few days Elder Smoot assisted his step-father 
and the family to load up and start for Western Missouri, where the Latter-day Saints 
were gathering. He piloted his relatives thither, preaching with Elder Sherwood en route. 
Passing through St. Louis, he arrived at Far West on the 2nd of June. His mother's 
family settled at Ambrosia, in Daviess county. 

About the beginning of the year 1838 he went upon a five months mission through 
Southern Missouri and into Arkansas, where he preached the funeral sermon of Major John 
P. Houston, brother to the famous Sam Houston, and aided some of his relatives, the 
Rowletts, to move to Far West. He next assisted Surveyor Ripley in laying off the town 
of Adam-Ondi-Ahman. While thus engaged he came upon the ruins of an ancient altar, 
the same afterwards declared by the Prophet to be the identical altar upon which Adam 
offered sacrifices after being driven out of Eden. The sacred garden, the Prophet said, 
was in Jackson county. 

When Caldwell and Daviess counties were invaded by the Missourian mobs, and 
peace was changed to war and desolation, A. 0. Smoot girded on his arms and went 
forth to the field of strife in defense of his people. He was in several skirmishes with 
the enemy, and at the surrender of Far West became a prisoner in the hands of the State 
forces. While yet a captive, confined to the limits of the fallen city, he married 



100 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Margaret Thompson McMeans Atkinson, a widow with one child: a woman of noble 
presence and noble character, who will be remembered and revered as 'Ma" Smoot. 
Her only child, the son of her first husband, Charles Atkinson, bears the name of William 
C. A. Smoot, and was one of the Utah Pioneers. The date of her second marriage was 
November 11, 1838. 

After the expulsion from Missouri the newly wedded pair dwelt for a season in some 
old barracks at Montrose, Iowa, and subsequently settled at Zarahemla, a place founded 
by the Prophet in that vicinity. In the Stake organization established there A. 0. Smoot 
was a membep of the High Council. Soon he was called to take a mission to South 
Carolina. 

Accompanied by his wife he started upon this mission August 25, 1841, pro- 
ceeding southward in a light one-horse vehicle. At Post Oak Springs, Roan county, 
Tennessee, they tarried certain days with Mrs. Smoot's brother, Andrew McMeans, and 
were there joined by her mother, Esther McMeans, from Alabama, whom Elder Smoot 
baptized. He continued laboring in that vicinity until February, when he parted with his 
wife (who returned to Nauvoo, with her mother) and set out for South Carolina. Near 
Chesterville he visited "Ma" Smoot's birthplace, an incident which he mentions very 
feelingly. "To think" says he, "that I stood on the ground so often pressed by the 
innocent footsteps of the prattling child in whom I had found a kind and affectionate 
companion and faithful friend, but who was now separated far from me, gave me feelings 
of no ordinary kind." On the evening of April 5th, 1842, in a hired hall on Queen Street, 
he preached the first Mormon sermon ever heard in the city of Charleston. L. M. Davis 
was his fellow missionary. Unable to awaken any interest in Mormonism, they left 
Charleston, Elder Davis sailing on April 9th for Boston, and Elder Smoot starting on 
the 14th to return the way he came. He reached Nauvoo three months later to the day. 
During the ensuing fall and winter he presided, by appointment of the Prophet, over 
a branch of the Church at Keokuk, Iowa. 

A. 0. Smoot was one of those who in May, 1844, Joseph Smith then being a 
Presidential candidate went forth to present the Prophet's views on the Powers and 
Policy of the Federal Government. At Dresden, Weakley county, Tennessee, he 
addressed a meeting in the court house, which was fired upon and pelted with brick- 
bats while he was speaking. Subsequently he and other Elders from Nauvoo, while 
attempting to hold a conference in the same building, were expelled by the rabble, 
incited by a Mr. Cardwell and a Dr. Bell, who proclaimed them to be "Abolitionists." 
The basis of the charge was that section of the Prophet's political views referring to the 
purchase of the slaves and their emancipation by the General Government. Elder Smoot 
had distributed many copies of the pamphlet and was negotiating for the issuance of a new 
edition, when he was threatened with the anti- Abolition law; he therefore deemed it 
wise to desist and await further instructions from Nauvoo. At Williamsport, Maury 
county, early in July, he heard the terrible tidings of the Prophet's murder. He at 
once returned to Illinois. 

In November of the same year he was given a mission by President Young and 
the Apostles to preside over the Saints in the Southern States, with headquarters in 
Fayette county, Alabama. His wife, with her child and mother accompanied him, the 
boy being left at Eagle Creek, Tennessee, to attend school. This mission ended in the 
spring of 1845. He afterwards made several trips to the South, collecting means to as- 
sist the Church in the pending exodus, and preparing the scattered Saints for that event. 
When at home he served on the Nauvoo police force. During the winter of 1845-6 he 
officiated in the Temple. 

One of the wives sealed to him during this period was Emily Hill Harris, like his 
first wife a widow and a native of South Carolina. She was a woman of natural refine- 
ment and of many excellent qualities. Reared in the South, she had joined the Church 
while on a visit to her sister, Mrs. Mary Hill Crismon, at Macedonia, near Nauvoo, in 
1843. By her first husband, Zachariah Harris, she had two children William J. Harris, 
now of Provo, and the late Mrs. ArtimisiaMaxfield, of South Cottonwood. By her second 
husband, whom she married January 18, 1846, she had four Albert, Margaret T. (Mrs. 
W. H. Dusenberry) Emily and Zina Beal (Mrs. O. F. Whitney). 

Mr. Smoot was sic-k with chills and fever when the exodus from Nauvoo began, but 
he soon joined the companies moving westward. His wives Margaret and Emily accom- 
panied him. His sisters also emigrated, but his mother, his brother Reed (who was never 
a Mormon) and other relatives remained in Illinois. His brother William was dead. At 
Winter Quarters he joined the regular emigration of 1847 and was captain of the division 
known as the fourth hundred, having under him as captains of fifties George B. Wallace 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 101 

and Samuel Russell. His company left the Elkhorn early in July and entered Salt Lake 
valley in the latter part of September, being the second of the four companies to 
arrive. 

In the first Stake organization in Salt Lake Valley, A. 0. Smoot was a member of the 
High Council. He held this position from October, 1847, until February, 1849, when he 
was called to be the Bishop of the Fifteenth Ward. He had previously served as a justice 
of the peace, adjudicating, he claimed, the first difficulty that arose between members of 
the infant colony. When the gold seekers began to arrive, on their way to California, 
Justice Smoot settled many cases for them, involving in some instances thousands of 
dollars. Some of the litigants were experienced lawyers, but they invariably respected 
the sound, common-sense decisions of the sturdy Mormon magistrate. 

In the fall of 1849 he went with Jedediah M. Grant to the frontier, and returned the 
nexf year, bringing a train of merchandise for Livingston & Kincaid. About that time 
he was appointed to preside over Little Cottonwood Ward, and was given charge of the 
Church farm in that locality. In the autumn of 1851 he was sent to Europe, and landed 
at Liverpool New Year's day, 1852. The same season he conducted across the ocean and 
the plains the first company emigrating from foreign lands under the auspices of the Per- 
petual Emigrating Fund Company. Having safely delivered his charge, he immediately 
returned to Green River and South Pass to meet and help in another company that was 
bringing sugar machinery to Utah. Bishop Smoot was then placed in charge of Sugar 
House Ward, so named for the sugar works established there. He managed the Church 
farm (afterwards President Young's Forest Farm) and raised beets for the manufacture 
of sugar. He made several trips to the States, assisting in emigrational matters, pur- 
chasing goods and supplies, and transacting other business for the Church. 

In May, 1855, he married Diana Eldredge, daughter of Ira Eldredge of Salt Lake 
City; and in February, 1856, he wedded his last wife, 'Anna Kerstina Morrison, a native of 
Brekka, Norway. The names of these estimable ladies, with those of his other wives, 
are synonyms for virtue and integrity. Mrs. Diana Smoot became the mother of thirteen 
children, including Hon. A. 0. Smoot, Mrs. David Beebe, Mrs. J. W. Bean, Mrs. M. H. 
Hardy, Mrs. George Robison, Mrs. Thomas Pierpont, and Messrs. Parley, Alma and 
Wilford Smoot. Mrs. Anna Smoot was the mother of seven, her third-born, Reed Smoot. 
being now an Apostle, and her youngest child, Ida Smoot Dusenberry, one of the general 
presidency of the Relief Society. Her other living children are Mrs. George S. Taylor, 
Mrs. Myron Newell, Mrs. C. A. Glazier, and her sons George and Brigham. 

A. 0. Smoot had been Alderman of the Fifth Precinct of Salt Lake City four years 
when, in February, 1857, he was first elected to the Mayoralty; prior to which he had 
served by appointment several months of the unexpired term of his deceased predecessor 
Mayor Grant. One of his first acts as Mayor was to bring to par value the city scrip, 
which had been selling at less than fifty cents on the dollar. From 1856 to 1866 his 
history is the history of Salt Lake City, whose affairs he managed wisely and well during 
a very important period, one calling for the exercise of courage, firmness, coolness and 
sound judgment, qualities possessed by him in a high degree. It was he who brought to 
Utah in 1857 the first news of the coming of the government troops, he having gone East 
in June of that year to carry the mails for the newly organized "Y. X. Company," which 
had established stations between Salt Lake and Independence, Missouri. How he rode 
night and day to bring the war tidings, which he delivered to Governor Young and his 
associates while they were celebrating the 24th of July at the head of Big Cottonwood 
canyon, is told in the first volume of this history. During the Echo Canyon campaign he 
was kept at home by his duties in the Mayoralty, and in the move that followed he took 
his family to Pond Town, now Salem, whence he returned, after peace was declared, to 
Salt Lake. 

In February, 1868, he moved to Provo, being sent by President Young to preside 
over the Utah Stake of Zion. His wife Emily and her family accompanied him, and sub- 
sequently the rest of his household joined him there. A few days after his arrival he was 
elected Mayor of Provo, and by re-election was continued in that office for twelve years. 
He was also a member for the same period of the Council branch of the legislature, repre- 
senting Utah and Wasatch counties. 

He was barely established in his new home when the great co-operative movement 
began, for the consolidation of Mormon mercantile interests. Provo had the first co- 
operative store under the new system, and it was A. 0. Smoot and other enterprising 
spirits who started it. He was its president. This was several months before the parent 
institution at Salt Lake City opened its doors. Subsequently he and others built the 
Provo Woolen Mills, which, backed by his capital and influence, and under the efficient 



102 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

management of his sen Reed, have achieved a splendid success. He had built at Salt 
Lake City in 1867, with his partners Bishop John Sharp and General Robert T. Burton, 
the Wasatch Woolen Mills, in which he owned a third interest for nearly thirty years. He 
was ever an ardent advocate of home industries. At home or abroad, in public or in 
private, his stalwart frame was invariably clothed in home-spun. He instituted the Provo 
Lumber Manufacturing and Building Company, and was one of the founders of the First 
National Bank of that city. In short, he was the leader in every movement for the devel- 
opment of Utah county, and for more than a quarter of a century the financial backbone 
and head of spiritual and temporal affairs in that section. He owned farms, city lots, 
cattle, sheep, mercantile and bank stock; erected, occupied and rented various business 
blocks, and was accounted a wealthy man. 

His wealth, however, was not accumulated by a life devoted to the pursuit of riches. 
While an excellent manager, a capable man of affairs, as a public servant he labored 
without pay. For his ten years of faithful and efficient service as Mayor of Salt Lake 
City, when he frequently worked from six o'clock in the morning until ten and eleven at 
night, imperiling health and life for the common weal, he accepted not a dollar of com- 
pensation: and the same is true of his career as Mayor of Provo. At the same time, to 
worthy enterprises and to the poor he gave most liberally. When the Brigham Young 
Academy was threatened with ruin a debt of more than a hundred thousand dollars 
hanging over it for the erection of a new building to succeed one destroyed by fire it 
was A. 0. Smoot who came to the rescue of the institution, the success of which he 
deemed a sacred legacy left him by its illustrious founder. For the debts of the Academy 
he made himself personally liable, and for years before the Church was able to assume 
the heavy burden, he bore it alone, at a time, too, when there seemed absolutely no hope 
of relief. If one thing more than another shortened the life of President Smoot it was 
the weight of care voluntarily assumed by him in behalf of that worthy but then strug- 
gling institution. Over its doorway should be written three names Brigham Young, 
Abraham O. Smoot and Karl G. Maeser. President Smoot's losses in connection with 
the Academy, and the general collapse following "the boom" of 1888-9, greatly reduced 
the sum of his temporal possessions, and at his death his estate was so involved that the 
executors, with the consent of the heirs, who had received next to nothing of their in- 
heritance, finally sold the property to pay its debts. 

During the long period of President Smoot's residence at Provo he left Utah but 
twice, and then for purposes of change and recreation. In 1880 he went to the Sandwich 
Islands, accompanied by his son Reed, and later in that decade he visited his old Kentucky 
home. While upon the latter trip he met at St. Louis an old seedy, broken-down in- 
dividual, who sought him out at his hotel and introduced himself as W. W. Drummond, 
the same who as a Federal Judge in Utah had caused the sending of Johnston's army to 
the Territory in 1857. 

President Smoot's native hospitality was abundantly shown throughout his life. He 
virtually kept open house, welcoming beneath his roof and around his table thousands 
of travelers who passed his way. It was in these and in many other directions, that the 
graces of motherly kindness and unselfishness were manifested conspicuously by his 
devoted partners. His wives Margaret, Emily and Anna preceded him into the spirit 
world. His wife Diana is still living. Full of years and ripe in wisdom, the venerable 
Patriarch, on March (i, 1895, passed to his eternal rest. 



PERRIGRINE SESSIONS. 

/*Y"\ ATERIALS are not at hand for an extended biography of this veteran, who was 

A! L ne ^ tne ear ^ est settlers of Salt Lake valley, and was the Pioneer of Davis 

v county. He was a Captain of Fifty in Daniel Spencer's Hundred, and arrived 

upon the shores of the Great Salt Lake precisely two months after the advent of 

President Young and the Pioneer company. He helped to colonize Carson valley, but soon 

returned to Davis county, where he resided during the greater part of his life of nearly 

four score years. 

Perrigrine Sessions was a native of Newry, Oxford county, State of Maine, and was 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 103 

born June 15, 1814. His parents were David and Patty Sessions; the father a well-to-do 
farmer and stock raiser, possessing also a grist-mill, a saw-mill and other machinery. 
The son received a good education, but spent all the years of his boyhood and early man- 
hood upon the home farm, which he seldom left except to market products, which had to 
be taken to Portland, sixty miles away. He was a natural farmer and stock raiser, and 
these pursuits, with milling 1 , completely occupied his time. He lived with his father until 
the latter's death in 1849, and was always his partner in business, the two holding their 
property in common. 

Just when the Sessions family became connected with Mormonism, the writer of this 
sketch is not informed. They left the State of Maine in June, 1837, and journeyed by 
way of the intervening States and Lake Erie to Kirtland, Ohio, where they joined the 
main body of their co-religionists. Perrigrine Sessions was then a married man, having 
wedded Julia Killgore September 31, 1834. 

A few years later the family took up their residence at Nauvoo, Illinois, where they 
remained until the exodus. Mr. Sessions was a member of the Nauvoo police force, and 
one of the body guard of the Prophet Joseph Smith. From Winter Quarters, on the 
Missouri River, he and his family crossed the plains to Salt Lake valley in the emigra- 
tion of 1847. 

Four days after his arrival at the Pioneer settlement, Perrigrine Sessions moved his 
wagons northward about ten miles, and camped upon the spot where sprang up Sessions' 
Settlement, since called Bountiful. There he located permanently, and was the first set- 
tler of the section now comprised in Davis county. 

When Johnston's army invaded Utah in 1857-8, the Sessions family went south as 
far as American Fork, taking with them twenty-eight wagon loads of provisions and uten- 
sils; but after peace was declared they returned to their home in the north. Mr. Sessions 
continued in farming and stock raising, and also engaged in the milling business with 
President Heber C. Kknbajl. Later he took stock in the Bountiful and Brigham City 
Co-operative institutions, and was also interested in Z. C. M. I. at Salt Lake City. From 
1871 to 1877 he was the postmaster at Bountiful. 

Perrigrine Sessions was counselor to the first Bishop of North Canyon Ward the 
first ward organization in his neighborhood and held that position until the ward was 
re-organized under its new name Bountiful. Subsequently he was President of the High 
Priests' Quorum of Davis Stake for a number of years. Prior to that he held the office 
of a Seventy, to which he was ordained at Kirtland in 1S37. 

His missionary record is as follows: In 1839-40 he went upon a mission to Maine, 
and again visited that State as a missionary in 1841-2. From September, 1852, until 
August, 1854, he was on a mission to England, and in 1856-7 was colonizing with a 
portion of his family in Carson valley, then in Utah, but now in Nevada. In 1868 he 
again visited his native State, but returned home sick the year following. In 1870 he 
went to Maine to gather genealogical information, and in 18778 was there on a mission, 
in company with Elders William I. Atkinson and Judson Tolman. 

In the building of temples, churches, school houses, and in the immigration and sup- 
port of the poor, Perrigrine Sessions played his part. He was industrious, frugal and 
thrifty, and gathered around him considerable property. He had a large family nine 
wives and fifty-two children thirty-eight of the latter living at last accounts, and at his 
death he left to each of his wives a comfortable home, with ample means to support and 
educate his children. He died at East Bountiful June 3, 1893. 



JOSEPH HORNE. 

APTAIN JOSEPH HORNE 'S introduction into Utah history came as early as Octo- 
ber, 1847, when at the head of fifty wagons, a portion of the first emigration that 
followed the Pioneers from Winter Quarters, he entered Salt Lake valley, which 
was thenceforth his home. A Latter-day Saint since 1836, he had passed with 
his people through the most troublous scenes in their experience, holding successively the 
offices of Deacon, Elder and Seventy. In Utah he explored and colonized extensively and 
held various public positions, such as school trustee, justice of the peace, poundkeeper, 



104 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

watennaster, and member of the city council of Salt Lake. He also became a Bishop's 
counselor, a High Councilor and finally a Patriarch, holding the last named position at 
the time of his death. 

Joseph Home, son of Joseph and Maria Maidens Home, was a native of London, 
England, where he was born January 17, 1812. When he was six years old his parents 
emigrated to Canada and settled at a place called Little York, now the city of Toronto. 
They were of the poorer class of people, the father being a shoemaker by trade, and as 
there were very few schools in the country districts, where they dwelt, the boy Joseph 
had little opportunity for education. About the year 1822 the family moved eight miles 
into the timbered country to open up a farm, and there his time was spent Clearing land 
and farming until he was twenty-four years of age, when he married. 

The lady who became his wife was Miss Mary Isabella Hales, like himself a native of 
England, but at that time a resident in his neighborhood. The date of their marriage 
was May 9, 1836. Two months later the young couple were baptized into the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In the spring of 1837 they became acquainted with 
the Prophet Joseph Smith, and in the following year moved to Far West, Missouri, where 
they passed through the mob troubles of that period. From 1839 to 1842 they resided at 
Quincy, Illinois, prior to moving to Nauvoo. Soon after settling at the latter place Mr. 
Home engaged in mercantile; business, which he continued as long as he remained 
there. He was ordained a Seventy, and shortly afterwards was set apart as one of the 
presidency of the twenty-eighth quorum of Seventy. 

He left Nauvoo in February, 1846, in the first company of Saints that started for the 
West. His family then consisted of himself, his wife and three children boys. His 
daughter, Elizabeth Ann, was born at Mount Pisgah as they journeyed. They also- 
brought with them a man and his wife and a boy who drove one of their teams. They 
spent the next winter on the Missouri river, and on the 15th of June, 1847, resumed their 
westward journey. Bishop Edward Hunter was captain of the company in which they 
traveled, and under him Mr. Home was captain of the first fifty wagons. They arrived in 
Salt Lake Valley on the 6th of October. 

Up to the spring of 1849, Mr. Home and his family lived in the Old Fort, and then 
moved into the Fourteenth Ward of Salt Lake City. In August, 1850, he was called by 
President Brigham Young as one of a committee of four to explore Sanpete valley, his 
associates being William W. Phelps, Dimick B. Huntington and Ira Willis. While on 
this trip he with Messrs. Phelps and Willis ascended Mount Nebo, so named by Judge 
Phelps. They located the site of Manti, and dedicated the whole valley for settlement 
by the Latter-day Saints. In November of the same year Mr. Home accompanied Parley 
P. Pratt's exploring expedition to the Rio Virgen river, returning in February, 1851. In 
the fall of that year he was one of a company called to go with George A. Smith to Iron 
county, where they founded the settlement of Parowan. 

From 1854 to 1858 he superintended the tithing labor, team work, etc. , on the Tem- 
ple block at Salt Lake City, and during the latter year was called by President Young to- 
take charge of a company of men and go to the Rio Virgen, there to make and work a 
cotton farm. This occupied two years. In 1861 and 1862 he had charge of a company 
of men and teams that went back to the Missouri river for emigrants. 

While Salt Lake City was yet in its infancy he was elected a member of the city 
council and held that position until the year 1858. In 1878 he was elected justice of the 
peace for the Second Precinct, holding that office for six years. He was city pound- 
keeper for four years and for several years city, waterm aster, also serving as a school trustee. 

In 1852 he became a counselor to Bishop Abraham Hoagland, of the Fourteenth 
Ward, and held that position until the spring of 1861. On June 4th, 1873, he was made 
a member of the High Council of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion, and acted as such until 
March 18, 1890, when, owing to a defect in his hearing, he was honorably released from 
that position. On the same day he was ordained a Patriarch under the hands of Presi- 
dents Wilford Woodruff, George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith, the second named 
being mouth. The venerable Patriarch notes in his journal that he has done work for the 
living and the dead in all the Temples that have been reared by the Latter-day Saints. 
Up to 1888 he continueoTto reside in the Fourteenth Ward, but during that year he moved 
into a new home that he had built in the Eighteenth Ward. 

Patriarch Joseph Home died at his home in Salt Lake City on the 27th day of April, 
1897. He was the father of twenty-five children, fifteen of them, including three pairs of 
twins, being the children of his first wife, Mary Isabella Hales. The remaining ten are 
the children of his second wife, Mary P. Shepherd, whom he married in 1856. The 
Homes are an exemplary family, highly esteemed in the community. 



JOHN NEFF. 

fHE founder of Mill Creek, where h built the first grist-mill south of Salt Lake City, 
' the subject of this narrative was a native of Strasburg, Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, and was born September 19, 1794. His parents were John and Barbara 
Herr Neff. They were wealthy and gave their son a good education, both in Eng- 
lish and in German. He was particularly noted for his fine penmanship. His boyhood 
and early manhood were passed in his native place, where he became a farmer and stock 
raiser and withal a shrewd business man. His father and Mr. Frank Kendig were the 
owners of a woolen factory near his home, but failed in business when John was quite 
young. He bought them out, thus obtaining his start in life, securing the factory at a 
very low figure, as the neighbors, out of respect, would not bid against the son in pur- 
chasing his father's property. While carrying on farming and stock-raising he also had 
a distillery and manufactured liquor. 

In politics he was a Whig, and was intimately acquainted with President Buchanan, 
Thaddeus Stevens and other leading politicians of the time. In his youth he saw General 
LaFayette, during his last visit to America, and would often describe the personal ap- 
pearance of the distinguished Frenchman. He as well as his parents was highly 
respected, their names being among the most honored in their neighborhood. 

The first Mormon meeting attended by John Neff resulted in his conversion to the 
faith of the Latter-day Saints. The meeting was held in a schoolhouse near his home in 
Lancaster county, and the preacher was Elder Henry Deem. Soon after this he was 
baptized, and from that hour until his death his religion was to him the most precious 
thing in existence. 

In the year 1821 he married Mary Barr, daughter of Christian and Susanna Brene- 
man Barr, who was ever a faithful and devoted companion, united with him in all things. 
In the spring of 1844, accompanied by his wife and child, a daughter named Barbara, he 
visited Nauvoo, Illinois, for the purpose of seeing the Prophet Joseph Smith, and pur- 
chasing property in the City of the Saints, with a view to moving there at an early day. 
The visitors were warmly welcomed by the Prophet, whom they heard many times in 
public and in private. On one occasion he said in their hearing that he should not live 
long. They stayed during their visit at the Mansion House, and left Nauvoo about six 
weeks before the martyrdom. 

Returning to their home in Pennsylvania, they remained until the summer of 1846, 
when, having disposed of their property at a great sacrifice, they set out to join their 
people, who were then in the midst of the exodus from Illinois. Mr. Neff had an excel- 
lent outfit, for he was still well-to-do, notwithstanding his financial sacrifices. His teams, 
carriages and equipment were of the best. 

He passed the winter of 1846-7 on the Missouri River, where he outfitted Orrin 
Porter Rockwell, one of the Pioneers; and after their departure for the West he made 
preparations to follow them in the first company of emigrants to Salt Lake valley. He 
was organized in the division commanded by Jedediah M. Grant, and between him and 
Captain Grant, Uncle John Young and other prominent men there sprang up a warm 
friendship. He entered the valley on the 2nd of October. 

He first made his home in the "Old Fort," but early in the spring of 1848 he began 
the construction of a grist mill below the mouth of Mill Creek canyon. During the summer 
he moved out to that vicinity, where sprang up a settlement of which he was virtually the 
founder. His mill was completed and began to grind during the winter of 1848-9. 

Father Neff was active from the first in developing the agricultural resources of the 
country, planting potatoes from seed brought by the Pioneers. During the dark days 
that followed, when the crops of the settlers were threatened and at times devoured by 
crickets and grasshoppers, he was always hopeful and predicted the prosperity that 
would follow. He was a generous and charitable man, freely imparting of his substance 
for the relief of the poor and needy. 

7 



106 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Modest and retiring, he shrank from public life and notoriety, and the offices held 
by him were few. In the Church he was a High Priest, and he accompanied President 
Young and party on a mission to Salmon River. He also acted as a commissioner to 
locate University lands. This seems to have been the extent of his official service, 
though not by any means the limit of his usefulness to tl^e public. 

John Neff was the father of five sons and five daughters. His youngest son and 
name-sake is now Bishop of East Mill Creek. The honored sire departed this life May 9, 
1869, at his old home in the settlement that he founded. 



LORIN FARR. 

'HE Farrs of Utah are a numerous and an influential family, especially in Weber 
) county, where the subject of this story resides. The life of Hon. Lorin Farr has 
been active, useful, and replete with interesting incidents. Than he, none of the 
founders of our States have made more honorable records, whatever may be said 
of more illustrious ones. To speak of greater gifts and larger opportunities, is not to dis- 
parage those possessed by a man whose abilities as a colonizer, a law-maker and an 
executive are so well known and recognized. The simple fact that for twenty-two years 
he was mayor of the second city in Utah is an eloquent tribute to his worth and the es- 
teem in which he was held by his fellow citizens. Those were times, too, when the best 
men were sought for and put in office, men of honesty and integrity, who could be relied 
upon to expend the public revenues wisely and economically and administer the affairs of 
government in the interest of the entire people. No man was given office as a reward 
for political service, partisan politics was almost unknown, and the spoils system had no 
place in public life. For a period of equal length to that during which he was Mayor of 
Ogden, Mr. Farr presided over the Weber Stake of Zion, and for twenty-eight years he 
represented Weber, Box Elder and Cache counties, and some of the time Carson county, 
in the Territorial legislature. 

Lorin Farr was born July 27, 1820, in Waterford, Caledonia county, Vermont. His 
parents were Winslow and Olive Hovey Freeman Farr, and his earliest American ances- 
tor was George Farr, who emigrated from London, England, in 1629, as a ship-builder for a 
Boston company. His father was a well-to-do farmer, prominent and influential, holding 
the office of judge of the county court. When Lorin was about eight years old the family 
moved to Charleston, Orleans county, forty miles north of their former home, and it was 
there that they became connected with Mormonism. They were converted under the 
preaching of Orson Pratt who, by the laying on of hands, was instrumental in healing 
Mrs. Farr of consumption ani other ailments from which she had been a sufferer for five 
years. The healing was instantaneous and permanent; she who was then an invalid, 
thirty-two years of age, living until she was ninety-four. 

Lorin was baptized a Latter-day Saint in the spring of 1832, being then eleven years 
of age. Five years later he removed with his parents to northern Ohio, and in the gen- 
eral Mormon migration from that part to the State of Missouri, he and his brother Aaron 
walked the whole distance from Kirtland to Far West. This was in the spring of 1838. 
The following winter ho was in the exodus of his people from Missouri to Illinois, and 
while in both those States he lived a good deal of the time in the family of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith. 

Hitherto a farmer and a carpenter, Lorin, who had received a good common educa- 
tion, now turned his attention to school teaching. He taught for a number of years at 
Nauvoo and the vicinity, the children of the Prophet and those of Brigham Young, 
Heber C. Kimball, John Taylor and other leading men being among his pupils. In the 
spring of 1842, by direction of the Prophet, he was ordained an Elder of the Church, and 
in the fall of 1844, under the hands of Elder Charles C. Rich, was ordained to the office 
of High Priest. While still at Nauvoo, on New Year's day, 1845, he married his first 
wife, Nancy B. Chase. Early the next year he bade farewell to that city and the State 
of Illinois, and with the main body of the exiled Saints passed over the frozen Mississippi 
and traveled across the Territory of Iowa on his way to the Rocky Mountains. 

From the Missouri river, where he remained until the summer of 1847, he journeyed 



HISTORY OF UTAH 107 

westward in the companies that followed immediately behind the Pioneers, leaving the 
Elk Horn in June. These companies comprised about six hundred wagons, with fifteen 
hundred human beings and five thousand head of stock. His individual outfit was a 
wagon, two yoke of oxen, two yoke of cows and provisions to last him and those depend- 
ent upon him eighteen months. His family was then small, consisting of his wife and 
his little son Enoch. He first traveled in A. 0. Smoot's hundred and George B. Wal- 
lace's fifty, but during the latter part of the journey he was in Daniel Spencer's hundred 
and Ira Eldredge's fifty. He reached Salt Lake valley September 21, 1847. 

After living awhile in the "Old Fort, 1 ' he moved onto a lot north-west of the Temple 
block and adjoining the corner now occupied by the residence of Hon. Moses Thatcher. 
His first domicile in the valley was his wagon box, taken off the running-gears and made 
into a temporary abode; but he and his brother Aaron soon hauled logs from the canyon 
and built homes of a more comfortable character. Their houses in the fort had whip 
sawed lumber floors and were among the best constructed there. Lorin had brought 
with him from Winter Quarters all kinds of seeds, and these he planted in the spring of 
1848. Most of his crop was devoured by the crickets before they were destroyed by the 
gulls, but he raised enough to support his family till another harvest time, and had con- 
siderable to spare. Some of his neighbors were forced to eat thistle roots, raw hides and 
even wolf meat. Many put their families upon rations. He was not reduced to this nec- 
essity, owing to the fact, he says, that he had an economical wife, who managed so well 
that the family had enough to eat and something to give away. 

In March, 1850, by special request of President Young, Lorin Parr removed to 
Ogden "to locate and take charge of the northern colonies.'' He with Charles Hubbard 
built, in the summer of the same year, the first saw mill and grist mill north of Salt Lake 
City. In the fall he bought out Mr. Hubbard and conducted the milling business alone 
for several years, after which he took in as a partner his brother Aaron. 

In the fall of 1851 the colonists on the Weber had considerable trouble with the 
Indians, caused by the accidental killing of the Shoshone chieT Terakee by Urban Stew- 
art, one of the settlers. The chief, who was a noble specimen of his race, and very 
friendly to the whites, had gone into Mr. Stewart's corn-field one night about eleven 
o'clock to get his horses out of the corn, when the owner, hearing a noise and supposing 
it to proceed from some animal, wild or tame, that had strayed into his enclosure, impru- 
dently fired his gun in that direction. The bullet struck Terakee, killing him instantly. 
Much beloved by his people, his tragic death was deeply lamented, and for a time it 
seemed as if the Shoshones could not be placated, but would take revenge on the whole 
colony for the unwise act of one of its members. As it was, the Indians, on the day fol- 
lowing the accident, shot and killed one of Mr. Farr's men, his best mechanic, while at 
work upon his mills. Mr. Stewart regretted his rashness as much as any one, but that 
did not bring the dead to life, though his explanation and apologies, with the protesta- 
tions of his associates, did much to appease the wrath of the red men. The settlers, 
however, fearful of a massacre, lived for several years in forts. A large portion of the 
immigration of 1851 was sent to strengthen the Weber county settlements. The first 
military organization of the county was formed about this time; it comprised all the mili- 
tia in the Territory north of Davis county, and was organized by President Lorin Fair. 

Elected Mayor of Ogden in the spring of 1851, he was re-elected every two years 
until he had had ten consecutive terms of office. He retired in November, 1870, but in 
1876 was again elected for two years, making his aggregate period in the Mayoralty 
twenty-two years. From 1852 until 1880 he was a member of the Utah legislature. 
Meantime, in the summer of 1868, in connection with Chauncey W. West and Ezra T. 
Benson, he took a contract from Governor Leland Stanford, of California, President of 
the Central Pacific railroad, and did the grading for two hundred miles of that road west 
of Ogden. 

In November, 1870, President Fan- took his first and only foreign mission, which 
was to Europe. He had always been of a religious turn, and had done much preaching 
in his time, but his ministerial labors were generally at home, where his services were 
most needed. He not only preached the gospel, but practiced it, "trying to persuade 
men, women and children to live better lives in every way. I have labored all my life,'' 
he says, "to promote religious sentiment and make laws to protect the same. I have 
tried to do all the good I could, and as little harm as possible.'' 

Mr. Farr was a member of the Constitutional Convention, which in 1895 framed the 
State Constitution upon which Utah was admitted into the Union. Since then he has led 
a quiet, uneventful life at his home in the city of Ogden. He is the father of forty child- 
ren. His first wife, who has been named, and his plural wives, Sarah Giles, Olive Ann 



108 HISTOEY OF UTAH. 

Jones, Mary Bingham and Nicoline Erickson, are all dead. He has recently married 
again. Some years ago Mr. Fair met with an accident, a very painful fall, which at 
first threatened to be fatal, but he recovered and regained much of his old time sprightly 
vigor. At this writing he is in the eighty-third year of his age. 



JACOB HOUTZ. 



(T+ OR many years a prominent citizen, both of Salt Lake and Springville, Jacob Houtz made 

"Y~ a record as an enterprising and successful man of business, a founder and promoter 

of various industries. He was born near Selin's Grove, Union county, Pennsylvania, 

October 12, 1814, and his boyhood and early manhood were passed in the same locality. 

His parents were prosperous, owning a fine farm on the banks of the Susquehanna river, 

and their son received as good an education as the time and place could afford. When 

not at school he helped his father upon the farm. 

Jacob was but seven years old when his mother, Elizabeth Zellir Houtz passed from 
earth, but he found a good friend in Catherine Zellir, his mother's sister, who 
became his father's second wife. He remained at the old homestead until his own mar- 
riage, in January, 1840. The maiden name of his wife was Lydia Mace. 

In September, 1844, he became a Latter-day Saint, and at Nauvoo, about two years 
later, was ordained to the office of a Seventy. Accompanying his people into the wilder- 
ness, Mr. Houtz found himself, at the opening of the year 1847, at Council Bluffs and in 
May of that year he joined the emigration that was being organized near Winter Quarters 
to follow the Pioneers across the great plains. He was outfitted with two wagons, two 
ox-teams and a sufficiency of food and clothing for himself and family. They traveled in 
Daniel Spencer's hundred, and arrived in Salt Lake valley on the 23rd of September. 
The Houtzes settled first at Salt Lake City, where the head of the family became a 
Bishop's counselor, first to Bishop William Hickenlooper, and afterwards to Bishop 
Elijah F. Sheets, of the Eighth Ward, holding the latter position until he moved from 
Salt Lake to Springville. 

Meantime, in September, 1852, he was called with Elder Orson Spencer upon a mis- 
sion to the kingdom of Prussia. They arrived at Hamburg on the 22nd of November, 
and three days later reached Berlin. Mr. Houtz writes: "Our passports having been 
presented to the government officials, we were in due time required to appear at police 
headquarters, where we were closely scrutinized and thoroughly questioned as to our 
business, our religion and the causes that brought us to that country. The court, determ- 
ining that the Gospel as taught by the Latter-day Saints would not be permitted in 
Prussia, made an order prohibiting its introduction and commanding us to leave Berlin 
and the kingdom by seven o'clock next morning, and not return, on pain of transporta- 
tion. We applied to the American legation at Berlin (Messrs. Bernard and Fay) for such 
relief as they could give us, but were informed that the laws of Prussia were absolute, 
the religion national, and that wisdom would dictate obedience to the order. Conse- 
quently we returned to Liverpool, reporting to President Samuel Richards, of the British 
Mission, the unfavorable treatment we had received. We were advised by him to return 
to America, and lay the matter before Apostle Orson Pratt, then editing "The Seer" at 
Washington, D. C. We did so, and Brother Pratt advised our return to Utah." While 
yet in the East Elder Houtz visited his birthplace, where he enjoyed a brief stay among 
his relatives, one of whom, his widowed sister, Mrs. Catherine Boyer, he converted, and 
she, with six small children, accompanied him to Utah. He arrived home in September, 
1853. 

Since 1851 he had been interested in business at Springville, where he had taken up 
a farm and built a grist mill on Spring Creek, about a mile north of the village. In the 
spring of 1854 he began at that place the erection of a second flouring mill, and in 1855 
completed one of the best mills in the Territory. In 1863, in partnership with William J. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 109 

Stewart and William Bringhurst, he began the erection of a cotton factory, which was 
completed in 1866-7 at a cost of about eighteen thousand dollars. In the spring of 1868 
Mr. Houtz made Springville his permanent home. Coring the Walker, Blackhawk and 
other Indian wars he rendered material aid to the fighting frontiersmen in the way of 
supplies, equipment and other necessaries.- In 18C9 he fulfilled a mission to the States. 
Forty years of his active life were passed in milling, manufacturing, merchandizing 
and farming, but after the year 1888, he followed the more quiet and peaceful labors of 
fruit and farm culture. His wife Lydia died that year. He had two other wives, and his 
children in all number fourteen. His death occurred at Springville, December 11, 1896. 
He was the father of Mrs. Mary E. Snow, wife of the late President Lorenzo Snow, and 
others of his descendants are well known citizens of the commonwealth. 



ELIJAH F. SHEETS. 

' S Captain of Ten in the immigration of 1847, Elijah F. Sheets, the venerable 
Bishop of the Eighth Ward, came to Salt Lake valley in September of that year. 
During most of the time since, though he has colonized and lived in other parts 
of Utah, Salt Lake City has been his home. He was one of our earliest Aldermen, 
and has held various other positions of prominence, among them those of Traveling 
Bishop and Assistant to the Trustee-iu-Trust. 

A native of Chester county, Pennsylvania, Elijah Funk Sheets, son of Frederick 
Sheets and his wife Hannah Page, was born March 22, 1821. His parents were in 
moderate circumstances, and followed farming for a livelihood. He received but little 
education, either before or after their death, which double calamity came upon him when 
he was only six years old. Between the ages of eight and sixteen, he attended school 
about six weeks in each year. For two years after the death of his father and mother he 
lived with the parents of the latter, and then sought and found employment with Edward 
Hunter, the future Presiding Bishop, who became his life-long friend and associate. This 
was before either of them had heard of Mormonism. 

He was employed for nine years at farming and stock-raising, and resided during 
that period in Mr. Hunter's family. Thus early was he initiated into the duties that fell to 
him so abundantly in after years, when he superintended the live-stock interests of the 
Church. At seventeen, having quit Mr. Hunter's employ, he apprenticed himself for three 
years to Taylor Dillworth, to learn the blacksmith's trade. It was during his apprentice- 
ship that Mormonism was preached in Chester county and the vicinity by Lorenzo D. 
Barnes, Edwin D. Woolley and other Elders from Nauvoo. He embraced the Gospel, as 
taught by them, and was baptized July 5, 1840, by Elder Erastus Snow. 

In 1841 he moved to Nauvoo, arriving there in September. He was one of a hundred 
men who volunteered to work free on the Nauvoo Temple for a period of six months, be- 
ginning with the spring of 1842. Having fulfilled this contract, he went on a mission to 
his old home in Pennsylvania, accompanied by Elder Joseph A. Stratton. He was gone 
twenty months. They baptized about sixty souls, and returned with a company of 
thirty to Nauvoo. 

Mr. Sheets had only been home a few days, when, on May 21, 1844, he started upon 
a mission to England. Having fulfilled this mission, at the expiration of nearly two years 
he returned to Nauvoo in time to join the exodus of the Saints from Illinois. Owing to 
his long absence from home he was poorly prepared for the long journey that lay before 
him, but with one yoke of oxen, one cow and an old wagon of his own, with another yoke 
of oxen borrowed from Elder Stratton, he made a start about May 1st, 1846, following 
the trail of the companies that had preceded him to Mount Pisgah, Garden Grove and 
Winter Quarters. 

At the last named place he tarried one winter, having a serious time with sickness, 
by which he lost his wife, Margaret Hutchinson, whom he had married January 16, 1846, 
the day that he was released from his English mission. He also buried at Winter Quarters 
his first-born child. He married his second wife, Susannah Musser, April 6, 1847, and about 



110 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

the 1st of June started for the Rocky Mountains, following in the wake of the Pioneers. He 
was a captain of ten wagons in Perrigrine Sessions' fifty, Daniel Spencer's hundred. 
Among the incidents of the journey, he mentions a vast herd of buffalo coming up to 
water at the Platte, and states that it was only after a great deal of labor, shouting and 
shooting that they were able to turn the tremendous herd and prevent the whole camp, 
women, children and all, from being trodden under foot. The date of arrival in Salt 
Lake valley was the 22nd of September. 

After camping in the "Old Fort" and unloading his wagon, Mr. Sheets went into 
the canyon to help make roads and get out logs for a house and for fuel during the win- 
ter. He then began laboring at his trade (blacksmithing) with Burr Frost, and continued 
at that work until December, 1850, when he was called with George A. Smith and a 
hundred and twenty others to go south and settle Iron county. Upon the site of Parowan 
he and his family resided until the spring of 1851, when he was called back to Salt Lake 
City. Here he worked at farming and blacksmithing until he was appointed by the 
municipal authorities Watermaster and Street Supervisor. Soon he was elected a mem- 
ber of the City Council, during Mayor Grant's administration, and subsequently was 
Alderman of the First Municipal Ward under Mayor Smoot for a period of twelve years. 

On May 11, 1856, Elijah F. Sheets was taken from the Second Quorum of Seventies, 
of which he was one of the Presidents, and ordained a High Priest and set apart as Bishop 
of the Eighth Ward, which position he still holds. Associated with him as counselors 
have been such men as Jacob Houtz, George Woodward, Levi Stewart, Robert Daft, 
Alexander Pyper, Heury W. Lawrence, J. D. T. McAllister, Joseph McMurrin, Isaac 
Brockbank and others. 

"In February, 1868,'' says Bishop Sheets, "I was called with many others by Presi- 
dent Young to Prove, to try and bring order out of chaos. On our arrival there, the 
Utah Stake was reorganized, with A. O. Smoot as President and William Miller and my- 
self as counselors. I was also elected a city councilor. We commenced to build the 
Provo Woolen Mills, in which work I took an active part. I also, with A. 0. Smoot, took 
a contract to help build the Union Pacific railroad. We organized a company of about 
seventy-five men on a co-operative plan, and contracted for fifty thousand dollars worth of 
work. We made a good profit. President Smoot and myself built by contract the Co- 
operative East Store of Provo. From October, 1869, I was absent on a six months' mis- 
sion to Pennsylvania and New York. In February, 1870, I was appointed Assessor and 
Collector of Utah county." 

In April, 1871, Bishop Sheets was again summoned back to Salt Lake, where 
he was appointed Traveling Bishop for Utah, Juab, Millard, Sevier, Sanpete and Tooele 
counties. It was his duty to take general supervision of the Church tithing in those dis- 
tricts, and see that it was forwarded, in kind as received, to the General Tithing Store, 
unless otherwise directed by the First Presidency. In August of the same year he was 
given charge of all the Church stock and pasture lands, succeeding Briant Stringham, 
deceased , in that place of trust. In the winter of 1872-3 he accompanied President Young, 
Colonel Thomas L. Kane and others to St. George, at which time the Temple at that 
place was located. In April, 1873, he was chosen by President Young an assistant to the 
Trustee-in-trust, which appointment was continued under the administration of President 
Taylor. 

Bishop Sheets has always been a thrifty and substantial citizen, a promoter of worthy 
enterprises, ever interested in the welfare of the people and the State at large. As early 
as the "fifties" he was a Major in the Nauvoo Legion, and as late as the "eighties" an 
Alderman of Salt Lake City. He is a stockholder in Z. C. M. I., in the Provo Woolen 
Mills, the Provo National and Savings Bank, Zion's Savings Bank and Trust Company 
and the State Bank of Utah. 

His household is of a patriarchal character. He entered into the order of plural 
marriage in February, 1857, when he married Elizabeth Leaver. In December, 1861J he 
wedded Emma Spencer. He has had twenty-eight children, most of whom are living. 
Being liable to prosecution under the Edmunds Law, in October, 1887, he went into semi- 
retirement, as most of the Church authorities had previously done. But it was not for 
long. Preferring to face the issue, on the 13th of October, 1888, he gave himself up to 
the United States marshal, and going before Chief Justice Sanford, in the Third Dis- 
trict Court, there pleaded guilty to the charge of unlawful cohabitation the living with, 
or having of more than one wife and received his sentence, a fine of one hundred and 
Tifty dollars and costs and eighty days imprisonment in the Utah penitentiary. About a 
uundred and fifty other Elders of the Church were serving sentences for similar causes at 
tne same time. Since his release from prison the veteran has lived a quiet, retired life, 



HISTORY OF UTAH. Ill 

attending faithfully to his ecclesiastical and other duties, and devoting much time to 
sacred labors in the Salt Lake Temple, where he has been one of the regular workers 
since the dedication. 



JOHN NEBEKER. 



JOHN NEBEKER was the eldest of five brothers who were amove: the earliest settlers 
of Utah. Three besides himself Henry, Peter and George came to Salt Lake 
valley in 1847, and the other, Lewis, arrived a few years later. All the Nebekers 

of this region are descendants of these brothers, and all of that name in America 
are related to them. John was captain of ten in George B. Wallace's fifty and 
A. 0. Smoot's hundred, a part of the first emigration that came to make homes in the 
midst of the Rocky Mountains. As colonizer, civic officer, legislator, and every other 
capacity in which he acted, he was a faithful, industrious worker and an honest, straight- 
forward man. 

His parents were George and Susannah Meridith Nebeker, and he was next to the 
eldest of their eight sons and two daughters. The date of his birth was August 1, 1813; 
the place, Newport, Newcastle county, Delaware. Up to thirteen years of age he attended 
the common schools of his neighborhood, and then studied at home under the tutelage 
of his father, who had a finished commercial education. The latter was foreman of a 
cotton factory in Delaware and a farmer in Illinois. He was also a government 
surveyor in Ohio. The mother was an intelligent and thoroughly good woman, the 
daughter of a Baptist clergyman of Wilmington, Delaware. 

Their son John, who became proficient in mathematics, leaned toward civil engi- 
neering, and also had a taste for the legal profession. He would have succeeded in 
either had he been given the necessary education. At Covington, Fountain county, 
Indiana, he learned the saddle and harness-making trade, and this with farm work and 
labor in the cotton factory occupied his time until he attained his majority. Moving to 
Vermillion county, Illinois, he there made a home, dealt in horses, bought and sold 
furs, and was accounted a solid citizen. In politics he was a Whig, but he had many warm 
friends in the Democratic party. He was now a married man, having wedded Lurena 
Fitzgerald, a native of Pennsylvania, at Reily, Butler county, Ohio, October 25, 1835. 

Mr. Nebeker became a Latter-day Saint during a visit to Nauvoo in the winter 
of 1845-6; his wife and his mother having previously been converted to the Mormon 
faith. Prior to taking this step he had thought of going to Oregon, but now he deter- 
mined to follow the fortunes of the Saints. His political friends sought to dissuade 
him from his purpose, offering him various inducements to remain, but he was firm in 
his resolve to share the lot of his exiled co-religionists. 

With a good outfit of wagons and cattle he left Vermillion county in the fall of 
1846, and arrived at Winter Quarters on the Missouri in time to assist in fitting out the 
Pioneers, one of whom, Perry Fitzgerald, was his wife's brother. After their departure 
he joined the general emigration, which in June, 1847, set out for the Rocky Mountains. 
On the way his son Ashton was run over by a wagon and had his thigh broken. The 
fractured bones were set by Luke Johnson and Henry I. Doremus, the boy playing 
with a pocket knife while the operation was in progress, which was thought remarkable, 
no soothing drug having been administered to the little hero to prepare him for the 
ordeal. The date of arrival in Salt Lake valley was the 26th of September. 

Mr. Nebeker and his family, having lived in the "South Fort," an adjunct of 
'the "Old Fort," until the spring of 1849, moved onto a city lot (lot 4, Block 116, Plat "A," 
Salt Lake City survey) and in that vicinity, it is claimed, he cut the first wheat that 
ripened and was harvested in this inter-mountain region. It is also said that he had one 
of the two apple trees that first bore fruit in Utah, the other tree being raised by President 
Brigham Young. The Nebeker tree ripened its fruit the first year of bearing. He took 
a great interest in the cultivation of fruit trees, he and his brothers bringing with them 
from Illinois quite a quantity of apple seeds and peach pits, which being divided, the 
Nebekers planted one portion and William C. Staines the other. The young trees that 
sprang from these plantings, especially those raised by Mr. Staines for the others were 
destroyed by crickets are believed to have stocked most of the early orchards of Salt 



112 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Lake valley. Mr. Nebeker not only kept his own orchards in fine condition, but assisted 
his neighbors in caring for theirs, giving his advice and instruction free. The general 
exellence of Utah fruit up to the invasion of the codling moth in 1869 was largely due to 
the public-spirited and unselfish labors of John Nebeker. 

Prior to the organization of the Provisional State of Deseret, and while yet a resi- 
dent of the fort, he acted as a deputy-marshal, first under Marshal John Van Cott 
and then under Marshal Horace S. Eldredge; his duties corresponding with those of & 
deputy sheriff of to-day. Many tough characters coming with the gold seekers on their 
way to California, Deputy Nebeker more than once had to arrest such persons, and for 
lack of a place of confinement would take them to his home and board and lodge them 
there, until their cases were disposed of by due process of law. It is related that for 
several weeks he had three men, encumbered with ball and chain, eating at table with his 
family and sleeping in the same room with himself and some of his children. 

About the year 1852 he was a justice of the peace at Salt Lake City, but as such was 
more of an arbitrator than a judicial officer, it being his practice to get the parties, 
plaintiff and defendant, together, out of court, and in a neighborly way induce them to 
an amicable settlement of their difficulty. He got no fee for such services, but for that 
he cared little, so long as he could promote peace and save expense to his 
fellows. 

In the fall of 1853 he presided over the missionary company which located and built 
Fort Supply on Smith's Fork, near Fort Bridger, a movement intended to exert a civilizing 
influence over the Shoshone Indians. While there he represented Green River county in 
the Territorial legislature. The mission was abandoned in 1854, and three years later the 
fort was destroyed at the approach of Johnston's army. 

In the fall of 1861 Mr. Nebeker moved with a portion of his family (he had married a 
plural wife, Mary Woodcock, in September, 1854) to Toquerville, in Washington county, 
where he raised cotton, built and operated a cotton gin, and was associated with Apostle 
Erastus Snow in the settlement of Southern Utah, including what is now Lincoln county, 
Nevada, where he presided for some time, enjoying the confidence and good will of both 
Mormons and non-Mormons. In 1869-70 he went upon a mission to Illinois and 
Indiana. 

From 1870 to 1872 he was Probate Judge of Kane county, and in the latter year 
represented that county in the Constitutional Convention. He now returned north and 
located a part of his family at Laketown, in Rich county, which section he represented in 
the legislature of 1874. Ecclesiastically, he was president of the Elders' quorum for 
several years after the settlement of Utah, and at a later period was a member of the 
High Priests r quorum. 

John Nebeker was a man of veracity, of character and integrity. Possessed of a 
keenly sympathetic nature, he was ready at all times to render assistance to any one in 
trouble. He practiced self-denial, despised flffemiuacy, and was noted for his impartiality 
and high sense of justice. If a member of his own family were a party to a dispute, and 
he the arbitrator, he would lean_almost to the other side in his efforts to be fair to the 
stranger, giving him the benefit of every doubt. He was very much inclined to take an 
unselfish interest in the welfare of others, generally thinking first of the comfort of those 
around him, and of his own comfort last. He was the father of ten sons and six 
daughters, most of whom grew to maturity. His sons William Perry, Ira and 
Aquila are among the best known of his descendants. He died October 25, 1886, at his 
home in Laketown. 



CHARLES CRISMON. 

pioneer mill-builder of Utah, also a prominent colonizer in California and in 
Arizona, Charles Crismon was known as a man of ability and enterprise. He was 
born December 5, 1805, in Christian county, Kentucky, and remained there until 
the year 1830, when he married and moved to Jackson county, Illinois, where he 
settled down to farming and building mills. The maiden name of his wife was Mary Hill. 
Mr. Crismon joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1837. Early in 




HISTORY OF UTAH. 113 

1838, during the Mormon exodus from Ohio to Missouri, he went with his team to assist 
the Prophet Joseph Smith in moving to the latter State. He then sold his property in 
Illinois and took his family to Missouri, arriving near Far West about the last of August. 
Later in the year, when the persecution against the Saints was raging, he moved into 
that city and remained there until the general expulsion. 

In the early part of 1839 he was in Morgan county, Illinois, and in 1842 settled at 
Macedonia, Hancock county, about twenty miles in an easterly direction from Nauvoo. 
He there engaged in mill building, and was the owner of a carding machine at that place. 
In December, 1845, he took up his abode at Nauvoo, where he resided until the Mormon 
exodus from Illinois. 

Crossing the Mississippi on the 8th of February, 1846, he and his family joined the 
camps on Sugar Creek. They were connected with Bishop George Miller's company, 
which was in advance of the others most of the way to the Missouri River. Mr. Crismon 
was captain under Bishop Miller, and remained in that position until after the founding 
of the settlement of Ponca, to which point the Bishop led his detachment in disobedience 
to the instructions of President Young. The latter desired him to establish a temporary 
settlement at or near Grand Island, along the line of travel, but Miller, who was becom- 
ing disaffected, led his company out of the line of travel , across the country to the junction 
of the Running Water and Missouri rivers, about one hundred and fifty miles north of 
Winter Quarters. After wintering there and enduring many hardships, most of the com- 
pany, the Crismons included, having lost confidence in Miller, found their way back to 
Winter Quarters, where they joined the main body of the Saints. 

Mr. Crismon had returned from Ponca in advance of his family, and in the winter of 
1846-7 was sent by President Young on a mission to Mississippi, to visit some families in 
that State and make arrangements for their emigration to the West. He was accom- 
panied on this mission by Bryant Nowlen, and returned with John Brown, who was 
chosen one of the Pioneers. The Mississippi Saints joined the Pioneers at Fort Laramie 
and accompanied them to Salt Lake valley. 

His family having joined him, Mr. Crismon, with his son George, made two trips 
with teams into Missouri to obtain supplies for the westward journey. At Winter Quar- 
ters they were detained while getting their grain ground, and consequently were the last 
of the season's emigrants to cross the Elk Horn and connect themselves with the com- 
panies then moving. They reached the Horn the day that Jacob Wethert^ was killed by 
Indians. They joined Jedediah M. Grant's hundred, and were in Wjjlard Snow's fifty 
and Jacob Gates' ten, all the way to Salt Lake valley. 

Among the exciting incidents of the trip was a stampede of cattle, about two hundred 
and fifty miles west of the Missouri. In this stampede Mr. Crismon lost an ox, which 
returned to Winter Quarters. It was taken from the estray pound there, by a friend of 
the owner, and delivered to him in Salt Lake valley in the fall of 1848. This was rather 
remarkable, considering the distance the ox had to travel back to Winter Quarters, over 
country covered with buffalo and infested by Indians. The estray pound bill was five 
cents another remarkable circumstance, in view of the rates that now prevail. 

During the latter part of 1847 Mr. Crismon, while living in the Old Fort, built a small 
grist mill at the mouth of City Creek canyon, near the point where Third Street now 
crosses the bed of that stream. It was the first mill built in this region. On the same 
creek, a short distance above, he put up a saw mill, and this was one of the first saw mills 
erected here. In the fall of 1848 he sold both mills to President Brigham Young, who 
operated them for many years. About the same time he built a home near the site of the 
present Penitentiary, and resided there until he removed to California. 

It was in the latter part of April, 1849, that Charles Crismon and his family set out 
for the land of gold. They took the Humboldt route and arrived at Sacramento on the 
3rd of July. At that time there was but one house in the town, though there was a num- 
ber of tents. He was engaged in mining at Mormon Bar on the north fork of American 
River, for a few months, and during the following winter lived at Mission Dolores, San 
Francisco. In July, 1850, he removed to the Cheno Ranch in the southern part of the 
State, and assisted to found, in 1851, the city of San Bernardino. He built the first saw- 
mill south of Santa Cruz, and one of the first grist-mills in that place. In the Stake 
organization at San Bernardino he was a member of the High Council. 

He returned to Utah in 1858, locating in the Fourteenth Ward, Salt Lake City. He 
built the Husler mill in 1865 and during the next twelve years was engaged in freighting, 
railroad contracting, stock-raising, coal-mining and gold and silver mining. He is said 
to have introduced into Utah the transitory system of sheep-herding, moving camp on 
wheels from desert to mountain, with the alternation of the winter and summer seasons. 



114 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

In 1878 Mr. Crismon removed to Arizona. He was one of the early settlers of Salt 
River valley, and built the second grist mill there. His home was near Mesa City, and 
be was a member of the High Council of Maricopa Stake. He died March 23, 1890. 
Among his sons are the well known Crismou brothers, George, Charles, John and Scott. 
He had three families in Arizona. 



JOSEPH CORRODON KINGSBURY. 

/v HIGH Councilor at Kirtland, an assistant to the Trustee-in-trust at Nauvoo, and 

lip one of the early Bishops in Utah, Joseph C. Kingsbury was a historical character 

^ in the midst of his people, the Latter-day Saints. He will best be remembered 

by the present generation for his extended connection with and superintendency 

of the General Tithing Store at Salt Lake City. 

He was a native of Connecticut, born at Endfleld, in Hartford county, on the 2nd of 
May, 1812. His father's name was Solomon Kingsbury, and his mother's maiden name 
Bashebe Peas. On his mother's side he was descended from Governor Bradford, and on 
his father's, from one of two Kingsbury brothers who landed at Salem, Massachusetts, in 
John Winthrop's company, in 1630. He was but a year old when his parents moved to 
Painesville, Ohio, and but two years of age when his mother died, leaving four children, 
himself the youngest. His father, who was a farmer, a merchant and for some time 
County Judge, died when Joseph was nineteen. 

The days of his youth were partly spent on a farm. At sixteen he went to work on 
his own account, superintending the weighing of ore and coal for the Geauga Iron 
Company. In the fall of 1830 he clerked in a merchant's store at Ashtabula. He left 
there in the fall of 1831, and after assisting his brother, who was in business at Chagrin, 
returned to Painesville. In December of the same year he went to Kirtland, where he 
was employed first by a Mr. Knight, and afterwards by Newel K. Whitney, 
whom he had known for some years, and who was then a Mormon merchant and the 
Bishop of Kirtland. 

Prom Bishop Whitney and his wife young Kingsbury heard much of Mor- 
monism, and soon he was converted to the faith, becoming a member of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints January 15, 1832. He was ordained an Elder July 
23, 1833, being one of twenty-four Elders chosen to lay the cornerstones of the Kirtland 
Temple on that day. His ordination as a High Priest came in November. 1835, when on 
the 13th of that month he was made a High Councilor of the Kirtland Stake of Zion. 
Meantime he had been clerking in Bishop Whitney's store. 

He now took a mission to the Eastern States, laboring in New York for about three 
months and then returning to Kirtland, where he again worked for Bishop Whitney, 
whose relative, Caroline Whitney, he married, February 3, 1836. Their first child, a son 
named Joseph W., was born February 13,1837, but died August 13, 1838, while the family 
were on the way to Missouri. There they passed through the tribulations that came upon 
their people, and next resided successively at Quincy, Illinois, and Montrose, Iowa. In 
1841 they became residents of Nauvoo. 

Bishop Whitney was agent at this time for the Prophet Joseph Smith, having charge 
of his store, and Mr. Kingsbury was his assistant. On the 16th of October, 1842, his 
wife died. In July following he went upon a mission to the Eastern States, laboring 
among his relatives, as well as the people generally, and returning to Nauvoo, in com- 
pany with Horace K. Whitney, a month after the murder of the Prophet. In November, 
1844, Mr. Kingsburv was again engaged by Bishop Whitney, who was acting as Trustee- 
in-trust for the Church. In 1843, prior to going upon his mission, he had copied for the 
Bishop the original manuscript of the revelation on celestial marriage, which had been 
written by William Clayton at the Prophet's dictation. Thus it happened that when the 
original was destroyed, (as related elsewhere) an exact copy was in existence, in the 
hand-writing of Joseph C. Kingsbury. On November 22, 1845, he married Dorcas A. Moor. 

In the exodus of February, 1846, he traveled with Bishop Whitney to the Missouri 
river, where in the ensuing summer, when the general emigration was organized, he and 



HISTOBY OF UTAH. 115 

his family became part of A. 0. Smoot's hundred and George B. Wallace's fifty. Thus 
they came to Salt Lake valley, arriving here on the 29th of September. 

Mr. Kingsbury, after residing for a year and a half in the "Old Fort." which he 
had helped to build, moved on to his lot in the Second Ward of Salt Lake City. He 
acted for a while as a counselor to John Lowry, the Bishop of the Ward, but on July 13, 
1851, he succeeded Lowry in that position. In October, 1852, he moved to Ogden and 
afterwards to East Weber, from which place he proceeded to Provo in the general move of 
1858. In September of the same year Salt Lake City became his permanent home. 

In 1860 began his long connection with the General Tithing Store, of which in 1867 
he was made superintendent. There he was under the direction of Presiding Bishop 
Edward Hunter, with whom he was as much in favor as he had been with Bishop Whitney, 
Hunter's predecessor. January 25, 1883, was the date of his ordination as a Patriarch. 
He remained superintendent of the Tithing Office up to within a few years of his death, 
and was then given a position at the Salt Lake Temple. He died October 15, 1898. 

Joseph C. Kingsbury was a man of blameless life and of the strictest integrity. He 
was trusted as few men were by the Prophet Joseph Smith, and was equally loyal to his 
successors. He had a conservative, constant, gentle nature, was fervent in his religion, 
yet charitable and liberal to all men, was fearless in spirit and faithful in the discharge 
of every duty. A frontiersman during the first half of his life, he received little schooling, 
but he was interested in education, and did all he could for his children in that direction. 
He was the father of President Joseph T. Kingsbury, of the University of Utah, a man 
who bids fair to be as widely known and as deservedly esteemed as his deceased sire. 



EDWARD STEVENSON. 

fMONG those who came to Salt Lake valley in 1847 was Edward Stevenson, for 
many years a prominent Elder and zealous missionary of the Mormon Church; at 
the time of his death one of the First Council of Seventy. He was a Captain of 
Ten in the Artillery Company, led by General Charles C. Rich. He spent a great 
deal of his time upon missions, foreign and local, and it was through his efforts that 
Martin Harris, one of the Three Witnesses to the Book of Mormon, was brought back into 
the fold and ended his days in Utah. 

Edward Stevenson, a son of Joseph and Elizabeth Stevens Stevenson, was born 
May 1st, 1820, at Gibraltar, where his parents then resided, his father being in the employ 
of the British Government. He was the fourth-born in a family of five sons and two 
daughters. The family came to America in 1827, and the father died when Edward was 
eleven years old. He was living with his mother in the State of Michigan, and was 
thirteen years of age, when he first heard the Gospel preached by Mormon Elders Jared 
Carter and Joseph Woods. He believed their testimonies, and on December, 20, 1833, 
was baptized by Elder Japhet Fosdirk. His mother and others of the family were also 
baptized. 

Joining the main body of the Saints, they endured the hardships and persecutions 
incident to Mormon life in the early times. At Far West, Missouri, Edward Stevenson 
became intimately. acquainted with the Prophet Joseph Smith, whom he had first met at 
his mother's home in Michigan. As a youth of eighteen, he took an active part in the 
defense of Far West, where, thinly clad and shivering with cold, he stood guard over the 
Prophet night after night. After the exodus from Missouri, he was a resident of Mont- 
rose, Iowa, opposite Nauvoo. At the latter place, on May 1st, 1845, he was ordained a 
Seventy, under the hands of President Joseph Young and others. Afterwards he became a 
president of the Thirtieth Quorum of Seventy, and was for many vears its senior 
president. 

Subsequent to his arrival in Salt Lake valley in the fall of 1847, he crossed the 
plains eighteen times, and the Atlantic Ocean eight times, as a missionary of the Church. 
In 1852 he was called by President Briarham Young to select a missionary companion and 
go and open a mission in Gibraltar. He chose Elder Nathan T. Porter, and forthwith 
the two proceeded to their field of labor. Elder Porter, not being native born, was 
expelled from the place two weeks after his arrival; but it was different with Elder 
Stevenson, who, being a native, could not lawfully be banished. He preached, baptized, 
and organized a branch of eighteen members, which he left in charge of a Priest upon 



116 H1STOBY OF UTAH. 

being released to go to England, where he spent the remaining part of his three years 
mission, returning home in September, 1855. Across the ocean he had charge of a large 
company of emigrating Saints of different nationalities, and at St. Louis was placed at 
the head of a Texan company bound for Utah, their president having become ill. 
Cholera was raging among them and many died, but Elder Stevenson, putting faith in a 
promise made to him, that if he would go trusting in the Lord not a new case should 
appear, piloted them through in safety, the promise being verified. 

In 18J7-8 he fulfilled a mission to the States, returning as leader of a large company 
of immigrants. He was also in Echo Canyon at that period, assisting to delay Johnston's 
army, and while there had a son born, whom he named Joseph Echo, in commemoration 
of those times. He held the office of a chaplain in the militia. Subsequently he stood 
guard over the Beehive and Lion houses, in days deemed perilous to President Young. 
In 1869-70 he fulfilled another mission to the States. 

In reporting this mission to President Young, Elder Stevenson spoke to him con- 
cerning Martin Harris, who was living at Kirtland, Ohio, and had expressed a desire to 
come to Utah : whereupon President Young gave him a special mission to bring Martin 
Harris to the headquarters of the Church. He willingly responded, and on August 30, 
1870, arrived at Salt Lake City, in company with the aged Witness. At the American 
hotel in Chicago, while the two were en route to the West, Harris bore a firm and fervent 
testimony to a large number of people respecting the visitation of the angel who had 
shown to him and his fellow witnesses the golden plates of the Book of Mormon. It was 
not the first time that Stevenson had heard Harris so testify. He had also listened to 
Oliver Cowdery's solemn declaration upon the same subject. Subsequently he visited 
David Whitmer, and heard his statement, which was to the same effect. 

From 1865 to 1877 Edward Stevenson traveled as a special home missionary among 
the settlements of the Saints, visiting every town and village in Utah, some of them many 
times. During this period he performed three special missons to the States, two of which 
have been mentioned. The third was in 1872, when he also went to Canada. He ful- 
filled in 1877-8 a mission to the Southern States, in 1883-4 another mission to the United 
States and Canada, and in 1886 a mission to the United States and to Europe. In 1888, 
in company with Elders Andrew Jenson and Joseph S. Black, he revisited the scenes of 
early Mormon history, obtaining much valuable information of a historical nature, which 
was afterwards published. 

His call into the First Council of Seventy came on the 9th of October, 1894. He was 
set apart by Apostle Brigham Young. From that time until his death he labored assidu- 
ously in the duties of his calling. In 1895 he took another trip to Missouri, his wife 
Elizabeth accompanying him. He filled a special mission to Mexico, and was engaged in 
missionary labors in the North-west, when he was taken sick at Walla Walla, Washington, 
September 11, 1896. This was the forerunner of his fatal illness, which began in December 
of that year and ended January 27, 1897, when he passed away at his home in Salt 
Lake City. 

President Stevenson was the husband of four wives and the father of twenty-eight 
children, an even score of them boys. Notwithstanding his almost incessant labors in 
the ministry paying his own expenses most of the time he accumulated property, 
some of which, in real estate, he bequeathed to the Latter-day Saints University. He 
was a very exemplary man, strictly temperate in his habits, a ready speaker, an interesting 
writer and an entertaining conversationalist. Among his published writings is a pamphlet 
entitled "Reminiscences of the Prophet Joseph." 



WILLIAM C. STAINES. 

'NOTHER of the original immigrants to Sail Lake valley was William C. Staines, 
for many years the emigration agent of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. He was Utah's first public librarian, and an early member of the city 
council of Salt Lake. He was a merchant at one time, but his special delight 
was in the cultivation of fruits and flowers, and as a director of the Deseret Agricultural 
and Manufacturing Society he rendered valuable service. He was a man of industrious 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 117 

habits, of precise businesslike methods; honest, candid and outspoken, yet withal of 
a kind and genial disposition. In the course of his career he mingled with many 
people and with all classes, and was universally respected and esteemed. 

A native of Higham Ferries, Northamptonshire, England, where he was born 
September 26, 1818, he was very young when his parents moved to Beddenham, near 
Bedford, about forty miles from London. There he was sent to school, much against his 
will, for he had little liking for books when a boy, and hated the confinement of the 
school room. He had a passion for floriculture and horticulture, manifested most 
practically in after years, when also he deeply regretted his early indifference to 
education. What helped to make school distasteful to him was an accident which befell 
him when he was thirteen years of age. While playing on the ice, he fell, injuring his 
spine and causing a deformity, attended with much pain, from which he suffered severely 
for twenty years. In fact, he was never entirely free from it. This misfortune, while it 
materially lessened his stature, did not detract from the pleasant impression made by his 
frank, open countenance and kindly manner. As a youth he worked with other laborers 
in his father's garden. 

It was on the twenty-third anniversary of his birth that he first heard of Mor- 
monism, from one of its authorized representatives Elder George J. Adams. He believed, 
was baptized and confirmed, and at his confirmation was promised the gifts of prophecy, 
healing, tongues and their interpretation; which promise was amply fulfilled. Among 
the Elders met by him in England was Lorenzo Snow, who presided over the London 
Conference, and was afterwards one of the presidency of the British Mission. Mr. 
Staines testifies to certain predictions made to him by President Snow, which were 
marvelously verified. 

Until January, 1843, he labored in the ministry in his native land, and then sailed 
for America, reaching Nauvoo, by way of New Orleans and St. Louis, on April 12th of 
the same year. A note of his journey up the Mississippi illustrates a mistaken 
notion had in England respecting the condition of the negro slaves in this country. 
When about nine years of age he had been informed that these slaves all worked in chains 
upon rice and sugar plantations in the Southern States. His sympathies were so aroused 
by the woeful tale that he refrained from eating sugar in order that the money thus saved 
might go to a fund that was being raised in England for the emancipation of slaves in 
America. Concerning his observations at New Orleans and along the Mississippi, he 
says: "Here to my surprise I found them driving fine mule teams, being trusted with 
cartloads of valuable merchandise, taking the same to all parts of the city and country, 
apparently equal with the free white man, except in being slaves and owned by someone. 
I found them working as porters, warehousemen, firemen on steamboats, etc., and their 
food was as good as that of white men performing like labor. I must confess that this 
surprised me, and for the first time I regretted that I had quit eating sugar to help free 
the negro. I found him in slavery having all the sugar he needed and with a better 
breakfast than any farm laborer in England could afford to eat. The negro firemen on 
the steamboat informed me that they all belonged to one master, who lived about fifty 
miles from New Orleans, and he allowed them to work out and gave them one-third of 
what they earned. They received twenty-four dollars a month and board; and the eight 
dollars, with board, that went to them was better wages than a man working on a farm 
in England was getting at that time. They said they had a good master and did not 
want to leave him." Mr. Staines, however, while undeceived as to the actual condition of 
most of the slaves in the Southern States, was not converted from his opposition to 
slavery, for he realized that grave abuses attended the system. 

The day after landing at Nauvoo he met the Prophet Joseph Smith, whom he 
recognized instantly, having seen him in a vision while crossing the sea. The next 
day he heard him preach for the first time. At Nauvoo he was employed a good deal 
upon the Temple. He happened to be in St. Louis when the Prophet and his brother 
were slain, and when told of the tragedy was unable to speak to his informant for 
some moments, so deep was his emotion. Returning to Nauvoo he beheld the bodies of the 
martyrs lying in state. He says: "I have seen England mourning for two of her kings 
and for the husband of her queen, when every shop in London was closed, when every 
church bell tolled, when every man who drove a coach, cab or conveyance of any kind 
had a piece of crape tied to the handle of his whip. Accompanied by Brother Amasa 
Lyman, I rode for miles through the city, while the burial services were being performed 
at Windsor Castle. It was indeed a solemn sight. I have seen this nation mourn for its 
chief magistrate President Lincoln. But the scene at Nauvoo was far more affecting. 
The grief and sorrow of the Latter-day Saints was heart- felt. It was the mourning of a 



118 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

community of many thousands, all of whom revered these martyred brethren as their 
fathers and benefactors, and the sight of their bleeding bodies for their blood had not 
ceased to flow as they lay in their coffins was a sight never to be forgotten. The mour- 
ning I witnessed for kings and for our nation's chief was only here and there manifested 
by tears; but for the two who suffered for their religion and their friends, the whole 
people wept in going to and from the scene all, all were weeping." Mr. Staines was 
one of those who attended the memorable meeting where Brigham Young was recognized 
and accepted by the Saints as the lawful successor to the martyred Prophet. "Brigham's 
voice," says he, "was as the voice of Joseph; I thought it was his, and so did the 
thousands who heard it." 

In the exodus from Nauvoo William C. Staines was in Charles Shumway's company 
of fifty, the first to cross the Mississippi and start westward. He was at Sugar Creek, 
Garden Grove, Mount Pisgah and Winter Quarters. Three weeks before reaching the 
last-named place he was prostrated with fever and ague. His narrative thus continues: 
"I was traveling at the time in Bishop George Miller's family, and they were all very kind 
to me in my affliction. By the time we reached the Missouri river we got entirely out of 
meat and very short of breadstuffs. Our company had been selling and exchanging every- 
thing that could be spared, even to feather beds, for provisions, and many had become 
discouraged, >:ot knowing where to get future supplies. Bishop Miller called a meeting 
of the company, raised sufficient means to purchase grain and flour for temporary relief, 
and prophesied that there would be an abundance of corn in camp before we crossed 
the river. This prediction was fulfilled a few days later, when an Indian trader, Mr. 
Tarpee, came into camp and made a contract with the Bishop to bring a lot of robes and 
skins from a point up the river, where he and his fellow traders had been bartering with 
the Indians. It was usual to bring these articles down in boats made of buffalo skins, 
but this season the rains had been insufficient to swell the river so that the boats could 
pass over the shallow places. Hence it was proposed to bring them in wagons. Mr. 
Tarpee pledged himself to forfeit several wagon loads of corn if anything should occur to 
break the contract. Something did occur, for about three o'clock the next afternocn, just as 
the wagons were ready to start, Mr. Tarpee came and informed the Bishop that a messenger 
had arrived from his traders, stating that heavy rains had fallen and that they were 
bringing their robes and furs by water and had no use for teams. He then told the 
Bishop to send his wagons to the trading post and he would pay the forfeit. The Bishop 
protested that under the circumstances he had no claim, but Tarpee insisted and the 
wagons were sent and returned loaded with corn. The Bishop afterwards made another 
prediction of the same kind, which was just as remarkably fulfilled." Mr. Staines' 
interesting account of his subsequent experience among the Indians is here summarized : 

Soon after the organization and departure of the Mormon Battalion, a company, led 
by Bishop Miller left Winter Quarters with the intention of crossing the Rocky Mountains 
that season (1846), but upon reaching the Pawnee Indian Mission, which they found 
deserted, they received instructions from President Young and the Apostles, still on the 
Missouri, to winter on Grand Island. About the same time eight Ponca chiefs, whose 
tribe had been at war with the Pawnees, arrived at the Mission for the purpose of making 
peace with their foes, whom they expected to find there. These chiefs proposed that 
the Mormon company winter with them in their country, which they said was "three 
sleeps," or three days travel from the Mission. They promised the emigrants timber for 
houses and fuel, with pasturage for their cattle. Preferring this prospect interpreted 
to him by James Emmett to a stay on Grand Island without the consent of the Pawnees, 
who were far away and were said to be "mad," Bishop Miller called a council of his 
brethren, and a majority favoring the Ponca proposition, it was accepted and acted 
upon. The "three sleeps" proved to be three days and nights travel with ponies, or 
eleven days for the wagons, over hard, rough roads. Having reached their destination, 
Miller's company camped near the junction of the Running Water and the Missouri rivers, 
and there formed a settlement named Ponca. 

Early in October the Indians informed their white friends that they would soon leave 
for their winter hunting grounds, and would like some of the brethren to accompany 
them. They were especially desirous that William C. Staines should go, he having partly 
learned the Indian tongue and made himself popular with them by acting as cobbler; 
mending their pouches, bridles, etc. Bishop Miller demurred, Mr. Staines being still a 
member of his family and in delicate health, but the latter, who was much interested in 
these Indians and desired to do them good, pleaded so earnestly for the privilege of 
going, that the Bishop finally consented. In all six white men went with the Indians on 
this hunt, but three soon returned, and finally all left excepting Mr. Staines, who 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 119 

slept in the chief's tent and was named by him "Waddeskippe," meaning a steel tostrike 
flint for fire. He remained with them six months, instructing them in the principles of 
the Gospel and acquainting them with the history of the Latter-day Saints. He taught the 
squaws how to braid their hair, witnessed some wonderful buffalo hunts, and passed 
through a variety of experiences. The Indians were very kind to him, receiving his in- 
structions with interest, and he became quite proficient in the Ponca language. Upon 
his departure, he left with the chief a copy of the Book of Mormon. During eighteen 
weeks of his life among the Poncas Mr. Staines ate no vegetables or bread, subsisting 
almost entirely on fresh meat; as the result he suffered terribly from scurvy. In February, 
1847, he bade his Indian friends farewell and rejoined his brethren. They received him 
with joy and astonishment, it having been reported to them that he was dead. 

The date of Mr. Staines' arrival in Salt Lake valley was September 15, 1847. During 
the first years of his residence here he engaged in various avocations. An expert gardener, 
he not only cultivated fruits and flowers upon his own premises, but superintended at 
one time the gardens and orchards of President Brigham Young. He had a farm of three 
hundred acres in Davis county, and his home in Salt Lake City, which he sold to 
William Jennings, who there built the Devereaux House, was "a thing of beauty," a 
veritable bower of roses. His connection with the D. A. & M. Society began in January, 
1856. His interest and success in fruit culture is partly indicated by the fact that on one 
occasion September 18, 1857 he had upon his table fom his own orchard six kinds of 
peaches, some of them measuring nearly ten inches in circumference ; also grapes of his 
own raising. 

William C. Staines became the Territorial Librarian, by appointment of the Governor 
and Legislative Assembly, in the winter of 1851-2. The library, for which Congress 
had appropriated five thousand dollars, was opened in the Council House at Salt Lake 
City. In 1853 he was one of a posse to guard the Overland Mail route against hostile 
Indians, and in 1857 he served in Echo Canyon. Two years later he became one of the 
mercantile firm of Staines, Needham and Company, whose stock of merchandise cost 
seventy-five thousand dollars. In April of that year he was elected to the city council, 
and in December of the year following was called upon a mission to his native land, 
where he remained until 1863. He was then appointed the Church emigration agent, and 
faithfully and efficiently served in that capacity during the remaining eighteen years of 
his life. He made regular annual trips between Salt Lake City and New York, his duties 
requiring his presence in the East during the spring, summer and fall, after which he 
would return to spend the winter with his family and friends in Utah. 

Mr. Staines was twice married, but died without issue. One of his latest acts, after 
providing liberally for his widows, was to deed a large amount of valuable property to 
the Church of which he had been for so many years a zealous and exemplary member. He 
died August 3, 1881. 



NATHAN TANNER PORTER. 

EATHAN T. PORTER was the son of Sanford and Nancy Warner Porter, and 
was born at Corinth, Orange county, Vermont, July 10, 1820. The same year 
his father sold his homestead, and moved with his family including two sons and 
two daughters older than Nathan to Augusta, Oneida county, New York. The 
following year they moved into the State of Ohio, locating in Liberty township, Trum- 
bull county. There they resided about six years, and then started for Illinois, journey- 
ing by flat-boat down the Mahonan, Beaver and Ohio rivers as far as Evansville, Indiana, 
and traveling thence three hundred miles by land. Locating in Tazewell county, near 
the Illinois river, in June, 1828, they remained in that vicinity until the fall of 1831. 

By this time Nathan's parents and their elder children had joined the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and now they again set their faces westward to cast 
in their lot with the Mormon colony then settling in Jackson county, Missouri. With 
several other families they arrived at Independence March 1, 1832, having spent the 
previous winter traveling, pitching their tents by the way. They were among those 
driven by mob violence from their possessions in the fall of 1833. 



120 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Nathan was now thirteen years of age and had become a member of the Church by 
baptism. He felt a deep interest in his religion, so far as he could comprehend its prin- 
ciples. He passed through the trying ordeals of the succeeding five years, ending with 
the expulsion of the Saints from Missouri and their settlement in Illinois. He remained 
with his father and the family, following the occupation of farming, until the fall of 
1841, when, having been ordained a Seventy, he was sent upon a mission to the Eastern 
States. 

In company with Elder Henry Mowery he left his home in Lee county, Iowa, three 
miles west of Nauvoo, about the 1st of September. In Clinton county, Indiana, where 
they labored during the fall, they added sixty members to the Church, organizing them 
into three branches. Elder Mowery then returned home, but Elder Porter, with Elder 
William J. Earl, extended his labors into the State of Ohio, returning to Iowa in October, 
1842. 

Called with many other Elders to preach the gospel and incidentally to present a 
document written by Joseph Smith, then a Presidential candidate, upon the policy and 
powers of the Federal Government, Nathan T. Porter, with John Cooper, in May, 1844, 
took passage on a Mississippi steamboat, and by way of St. Louis and the Ohio river, 
reached Chillicothe. "On the way," says he, "we embraced the opportunity of present- 
ing the political document to our fellow passengers, doctors, lawyers and others, who, 
assembling on deck, listened attentively to its reading. The reader was a prominent 
attorney. At the close he remarked, 'Gentlemen, that is a masterpiece of statesmanship, 
and if Joe Smith is let alone, he will go into the Presidential chair.' A voice was heard, 
'I'll vote for him.' The Prophet's views created a profound impression, and became the 
leading comment." The Elders had but fairly begun their labors when the report of the 
Carthage jail horror reached them. They returned to Nauvoo, and there ( mingled ^their 
tears with those who mourned the loss of the Prophet and Patriarch. "Again,'' says 
Elder Porter, "I resumed my labors at home. Securing a piece of land, I brought it 
under cultivation, but before I could build, our people fled once more from their oppres- 
sors, and sought a home in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains." 

Accompanying his father, mother, two brothers and a sister, Nathan T. Porter 
arrived upon the shores of the Great Salt Lake in October, 1847. After assisting his 
father to cultivate a -small piece of land, he secured for himself a home. He married 
Rebecca Ann Cherry, who shared with him the toils and hardships incident to the times. 
After a lapse of four years he was called upon a mission to Europe, his destination being 
the Rock of Gibraltar. 

In company with some seventy other missionaries, in charge of Apostle Orson Pratt, 
he left Salt Lake City, September 22, 1852, crossing the plains with mule and horse 
teams. Most of the company were bound for Europe. Sailing from New York on the 
17th of December, Elder Porter landed at Liverpool January 5, 1853, and on the 29th of 
that month he and Elder Edward Stevenson took passage from Southampton, and after 
touching at Vigo, Lisbon and Cadiz, arrived on the morning of the 8th of March at the 
fortress of Gibraltar. 

Says he: "We learned that ministers of the Gospel were required to obtain a license, 
otherwise they were not permitted to hold meetings in the garrison. We applied to the 
chief magistrate for a license, but received a positive denial; we would not be permitted 
to hold meetings indoors or outdoors. Being a foreigner, I could not even remain in the 
garrison without a permit; one was granted to me, but for fifteen days only. At the ex- 
piration of that time I applied through the American consul a Mr. Sprague for a 
renewal of the permit, and he applied to the chief magistrate, but the renewal was 
denied, for the reason that I had been distributing tracts, thereby causing a disturbance 
in the churches. I then asked the consul, as an American citizen, to provide me with 
means to convey me to my native shore; but he informed me that he was only authorized 
to furnish such means to sailors. Having been told by the chief magistrate that I must 
leave the garrison or be put out by the police, and not having sufficient money to procure 
a cabin passage without leaving Elder Stevenson destitute, I went immediately to the 
office of the general ship agent, to see if I could secure a steerage passage to Southamp- 
ton on a steam-packet that had just come in from Constantinople. There was no steer- 
age passage on the chart, and the cabin fare was nine pounds. I stated my case in part 
and asked for a reduction, which was brusquely refused, but afterwards, on hearing my 
whole story, the agent politely apologized, and granted me a steerage rate four pounds. 
This enabled me to leave a few pounds with Elder Stevenson, who, being a native of 
Gibraltar, was allowed to remain. On the first day of April, 1853, I found myself glid- 
ing up the straits on the way back into the Atlantic. As night came on I acquainted the 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 121 

cook and chief steward with my circumstances and the nature of my calling, soliciting 
their hospitality in providing me with a berth in the cabin. This they readily granted, 
and I had cabin fare during the voyage back to Southampton." 

Mr. Porter remained in England, laboring successively as a Traveling Elder in the 
Reading, Essex and Kent conferences, under Elders William Gill Mills, f Martin M. 
Slack and Thomas Broderick, and then succeeding Elder Noah T. Guyman in the presi- 
dency of the Worcestershire conference. On January 1, 1856, he was released to return 
home. 

This was the year of the famous handcart emigration. Crossing the Atlantic in a 
company of three hundred Saints, he landed at New York, but owing to a severe illness, 
which seized him during the voyage, he was too feeble to go on with the company, and 
had to be left in care of a Brother Beasdon at his residence in Williamsburg. For a 
time his life was despaired of, but he recovered and proceeded to the frontier. His nar- 
rative thus continues: 

"Upon our arrival at Iowa City, the point of outfitting for the plains, I found the 
company which had left me in New York many weeks before they were still on the 
camp ground, engaged in making handcarts. I understood that a 'contract had been 
made with parties in St. Louis to furnish the carts, but the contractors had failed, and 
the carts were now being made on the ground. This caused much delay. It was not 
until about the 10th of August that the camp ground was cleared and all moved on 
in an organized capacity. I was appointed to assist Captain Benjamin Hodgetts, in 
what was called the Independent Company, fitted out by their own means with wagons 
and teams, and traveling in close proximity to the handcart companies. We reacned 
Winter Quarters (now Florence) September 1st, and without delay moved on, with un- 
usual anxiety for a successful journey across the plains. The first of November found 
us at the last crossing of the Platte, where we encountered a snow storm and were 
detained by it several days. Upon the experiences of suffering and death that followed I 
will not dwell. Finally all were made glad by meeting men and teams from Salt Lake 
City, bringing supplies and aid, which were much needed. The handcart workers, who 
were all worn out, were now released and with the other members of those companies 
conveyed the remainder of the way in wagons, as comfortably as circumstances would 
permit. On my arrival in Emigration Canyon, I was met by two of my brothers, who 
escorted me to my home, where I had the great joy of embracing the rest of my dear 
ones, after an absence of four years and three months; it being now December, 15, 
1856." 

About this time he married his second wife, Eliza Ford. He passed through the 
general experience of his people at the time of the "Echo Canyon war" and "the 
move,'' and for a decade or more after, his life was peaceful and uneventful. In 1869 
and in 1872 he fulfilled two missions to the States, acting in the interim as a home mis- 
sionary. His residence was at Centerville, Davis county. After his last return from the 
East he resumed his labors as a home missionary, acted as County Superintendent of 
Sabbath Schools, and became counselor to Bishop William R. Smith, of Centerville. 
These duties occupied most of his time up to June 17, 1877, when the Davis Stake was 
organized, and he was released from the Bishopric and made a member of the High 
Council. He retained for many years the superintendency of the Sabbath Schools. So 
wore away the remaining part of his life. Nathan T. Porter, an honest, modest, upright 
man, a good and useful citizen, died at his home in Centerville on the 9th day of April, 
1897. He was the father of ten children. 



SIMPSON MONTGOMERY MOLEN. 

NE of the earliest settlers of Utah, and for many years a prominent citizen of 
Cache county, where he was a college trustee, a Bishop, and subsequently a mem- 
ber of the Stake Presidency, S. M. Molen was a native of Jacksonville, Morgan 
county, Illinois, born September 14, 1832. He was the second son of Jesse and 
Lurany Huffaker Molen, who were the parents of thirteen children. When a mere child 
he moved with his father's family to Bureau county in the same State, close to the fron- 



122 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

tier. There they purchased a tract of land and began to cultivate it and make improve- 
ments. In the course of a few years it became a pleasant and comfortable home. 

About the year 1843 Mormon Elders began preaching in their neighborhood, and the 
Molen family were converted and baptized. When it became known that they had 
joined the unpopular church it created some excitement; their old friends turned against 
them, and though previously respected and esteemed, they were now shunned and 
despised as "fanatics deluded by Joe Smith." They were not long in determining that it 
was not only a duty but a privilege for them to live with the main body of their people. 
The boy Simpson was very urgent upon this point, and so, about the spring of 1845, the 
family sold out at a great sacrifice and moved to Camp Creek, Hancock county, thirteen 
miles from the city of Nauvoo. There they purchased a new home and made many im- 
provements, but were not destined to remain long to enjoy them. 

When the anti-Mormons, not content with having caused the murder of the Prophet 
and the Patriarch, began burning the homes and devastating the fields of Mormon set- 
tlers around Nauvoo, the Molen family fled to that city, whence they were expelled 
with many others in the fall of 1846 by the mob forces. They parted with their property 
on Camp Creek, worth about two thousand dollars, for an old wagon and two yoke of 
oxen, and with these joined the exodus. At this time Simpson and several other mem- 
bers of the family were prostrated with fever and ague, and in this condition they began 
the westward journey. 

They spent the following winter near Oskaloosa, Iowa, and then, after procuring a 
scanty supply of provisions and clothing, resumed their dreary march to Winter Quar- 
ters. They joined the emigration of 1847, being organized in Jedediah M. Grant's hun- 
dred, Willard Snow's fifty, and after a tedious journey of three months, enlivened only 
by stampedes, buffalo hunts and interviews with roving bands of Indians, reached Salt 
Lake valley. 

The Molens pitched their tent near the "Old Fort," the nucleus of the pioneer settle- 
ment. "Shortly after reaching this place of rest,'' says Simpson, "we were advised by 
the authorities of the Church to weigh our supplies and put ourselves on rations, that 
there might be sufficient food to last us until harvest ; there being no chance to replenish 
our scanty store. To this end the number of days was calculated, when we discovered 
to our great surprise that we had only about one ounce of flour a day for each member of 
the family. We had but little meat, no milk, no fruit nor vegetables to help out the 
meagre allowance. The children, twelve in number, were all hale and hearty, and to 
have to be reduced to such rations was the source of much suffering indeed it seemed 
almost like starvation. Fortunately the winter was mild and open, and the family sought 
for and dug thistle roots, which we substituted as an article of food. These roots, how- 
ever, while they appeased the cravings of hunger, furnished but little nutriment. When 
spring opened the sego root was found, and this was more nutritious. These roots, with 
"greens'" and the milk from a few cows, enabled us to keep body and soul together until a 
kind providence blessed us with a harvest of wheat, corn and vegetables. But a long 
time elapsed even after food became plentiful, before the cravings of hunger could be 
satisfied by eating a hearty meal." 

In 1848 Simpson's eldest brother, Alexander, went to the frontier with a team to 
assist the emigration, but when he met them he left the team and continued on to the 
States. His departure and the failure of his father's health left much of the responsi- 
bility of providing for the family upon the younger son, who, owing to the unsettled 
state of affairs, had little opportunity to acquire an education. His cares and responsi- 
bilities were much increased by the death of his father in the spring of 1852. 

Two years later he was called upon a mission to the Sandwich Islands. In company 
with other missionaries he traveled by team to San Pedro, California, and thence up the 
coast by steamboat to San Francisco, where he embarked on a sailing vessel for Hono- 
lulu. He was nineteen days at sea. While on this mission he suffered many hardships, 
endured hunger and fatigue, but enjoyed his labors in the ministry. He acquired a 
knowledge of the Hawaiian language, traveled a great deal and preached to the natives 
in their own tongue. After four years of faithful service he returned to Utah. 

He now made his home at Lehi, where he became acquainted with Miss Jane E. 
Hyde, daughter of William Hyde, the future Bishop of Hyde Park and Probate Judge of 
Cache county. On August 7, 1859, Miss Hyde became Mrs. S. M. Molen. In the spring 
of 1860 the young husband with his wife and father-in-law, moved to Cache valley, set- 
tling on a plain five miles north of Logan. There sprang up the settlement of Hyde 
Park, which Mr. Molen helped to found. He became first counselor to Bishop Hyde, 
when the latter was appointed to preside there. He had always taken a great interest in 






HISTORY OF UTAH 123 

military matters, and when the militia of Cache valley was organized he became identi- 
fied therewith, and was earnest and energetic in discharging his duties as a citizen sol- 
dier. Within a few years he rose from the ranks first to be sergeant and then lieutenant- 
colonel of infantry. 

In 1864 Mr. Molen went to Illinois to settle some business pertaining to the family 
estate, and while in the East he purchased on commission a large stock of merchandise 
and freighted the same to Utah. In 1868 he was chosen to take charge of a large emi- 
gration train, consisting of sixty wagons, with ox teams, sent from Utah to the terminus 
of the Union Pacific Railroad, then at North Platte. This mission he performed to the 
entire satisfaction of the Church authorities, the owners of the teams and the five hun- 
dred emigrants brought by him to Utah. A most lamentable accident, however, befell 
his company at Green River on the 25th of June. They were crossing the river at Robi- 
son's ferry, a large number of men with four yoke of oxen being on board the ferryboat. 
The river was very high, with a strong wind blowing. When fairly out in the river the 
boat began to dip water and became so heavy that it sank, breaking the guy rope and 
'drifting down stream. The current swept away men, oxen and all loose timbers, mixed 
up in great confusion; men hanging to timbers and to the horns and tails of oxen as the 
wild waters carried them on. The boat, after the freight was swept from it, came to the 
surface. Mr. Molen and one or two others got aboard and threw out ropes to those in the 
water, encouraging the ones they could not reach to stick to their pieces of timber. They 
landed the boat about three miles down the river, between a small island and the main 
shore. On that island they found Julius Johnsdn, who had floated to that point on a 
piece of timber. When the roll was called, after the company had crossed, six men 
failed to respond Thomas Yeates of Millville, Niels Christopherson and Peter Smith of 
Manti, Peter Neilson of Fairview, Chris Jensen and Chris Nebellah of Mount Pleasant 
all supposed to be drowned. 

In 1874-5 Mr. Molen filled another mission to the States, traveling and preaching: in 
Iowa, Illinois and Kentucky, visiting many relatives and gathering the genealogy of his 
ancestors. In the spring of 1876 he went upon a second mission to the Sandwich 
Islands, taking a part of his family with him and remaining there three years and three 
months. The latter part of the time he presided over the mission and superintended the 
work on the Church farm and sugar plantation at Laie. He became acquainted with a 
number of the leading men of the Hawaiian nation, and with some of the members of 
the royal family. Among the latter were King Kalakaua, Queen Kapiollani and ex- 
Queen Emma, whom he had the honor of entertaining at the plantation. He returned 
home in 1879. 

Shortly afterwards he was set apart as first counselor to Bishop Robert Daines of 
Hyde Park. He had not been long at home when he met with a serious accident, by jump- 
ing in the dark from a moving train. He was severely bruised and shaken up and one of 
his arms broken. In August of the same year he was elected assessor and collector of 
Cache county. Many years later he served two terms as county assessor. 

On the 10th of September, 1882, Simpson M. Molen succeeded 0. N. Liljenquist as 
Bishop of 'Hyrum, being set apart by Apostle Moses Thatcher and President William B. 
Preston, the latter then at the head of Cache Stake. He made his home in Hyrum, and 
presided over that ward for eight years, when he was chosen first counselor to the Stake 
President, Orson Smith. This office he held until 1899. Mr. Molen had always been 
greatly interested in education. A year before he became Bishop of Hyrum he was 
appointed by the President of the Church one of the Board of Trustees of the Brigham 
Young College at Logan. He retained this position until the day of his death, November 
29, 1900. 

Mr. Molen was a modest, unassuming gentleman, and while progressive, was not 
aggressive, seeming to lack confidence in his own ability. He found no pleasure in con- 
tention, was not much of an orator, but led out in public enterprises, such as the making 
of roads, the building of bridges and the erection of churches and school houses. He 
was kind-hearted and charitable, liberal in his views, liked to see fair play, and was an 
honest man, who took pride in paying his debts. In politics he was a staunch Democrat. 



DAVID AND SUSAN FAIRBANKS. 

fHE Fairbanks family is supposed to be of Scotch origin, the first settlers in this 
country making their home in New England. Joseph Fairbanks, father to the 
subject of this sketch, was a native of Worcester county, Massachusetts, as was 
also Polly Brooks Fairbanks, the mother. The former died at Winter Quarters in 
February, 1847; the latter at Payson, Utah, in January, 1860. They had thirteen 
children, five of whom became Latter-day Saints and settlers in this part. Henry, the 
youngest, was a member of the Mormon Battalion. 

David Fairbanks, the original Bishop of the First Ward, Salt Lake City, was born 
March 14, 1810, at Peru, Bennington county, Vermont. In his early boyhood his parents 
moved to Sandy Hill, Washington county. New York, and subsequently to Bergen county, 
New Jersey. His father was a stone mason and contractor on the Morristown canal and 
his sons worked with him. David received a common school education. 

In November, 1838, he married Miss Susan Mandeville. In 1842 he heard the Gospel 
preached by Mormon Elders, and in March, 1843, was baptized by Elder Selah Lane, at 
Mead's Basin, New Jersey. In 1844 his father, who had also been converted, with four sons 
and a daughter and that daughter's husband, Dr. Henry I. Doremus, left New Jersey 
by various routes for Nauvoo; David, his wife, and two younger brothers going by 
team. They arrived at their destination on July 5th, shortly after the Carthage jail 
calamity. David bought a farm of a hundred and sixty acres, four miles east of 
Nauvoo, built a good brick house, and was about to begin sowing wheat when called to 
assist in the exodus from Illinois. He left his plow in the furrow, but reserved a peck 
of wheat and afterwards planted it in Utah, securing a return of about twelve 
bushels. 

While on the Missouri river he offered to enlist in the Mormon Battalion, but as 
his brother Henry had already enlisted, he was counseled by President Young to 
remain and assist in taking care of the poor, including the soldiers' families. He was 
ordained a Bishop of one of the Wards at Winter Quarters, where his father died as stated. 
It is related that while traveling through Iowa the old gentlemen was very feeble, and 
the rough fare of the camp not being palatable to him, he one day expressed a desire 
for some soup. He had no sooner uttered the wish than a fine plump bird alighted 
on his knee. He reached forth his hand, caught the bird, and in a short time it 
was converted into a bowl of nourishing soup, of which he partook with relish. 

In the fall of 1846 Bishop Fairbanks was told by President Young to prepare to 
follow the Pioneers who would cross the plains next season. He traveled in Apostle 
Taylor's company. An amusing incident of the trip is thus related: "A strong wind 
blew for days, and Brother Taylor was in a position to get the dust. Our wagons 
traveled four abreast. After some days Brother Taylor asked permission to change sides, 
which was granted. The wind then changed and he got all the dust again. In the 
evening he asked permission to take his old place." In a stampede a large number of 
the stock were lost, but the only animal of the Bishop's that ran off was the laziest 
one he had. He arrived at Salt Lake valley October 6, 1847. 

When Salt Lake City was divided into ecclesiastical wards February 14, 1849 
David Fairbanks was chosen Bishop of the First Ward (a position for which Peter McCue 
had previously been mentioned) and was also a justice of the peace. He served in 
these capacities until April, 1851, when the city Bishops were advised to go out into 
the neighboring country and take up farms. Accordingly he moved south, intending to 
stop at American Fork, but continued on as far as Payson. The Bishop there, James 
Pace, did not deem it advisable for any more families to settle in that place, as there 
was not enough water for the fifteen families already on the ground. Hence Mr. 
Fairbanks went two miles east of Payson and threw a bank across a ravine in which 
a spring was located, thus forming a large pond or reservoir. They broke ground, 
raised some splendid crops, and founded Pondtown, now called Salem; David Fairbanks, 
his brother John, David Crockett and Henry Nebeker being the first settlers. 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 125 

After raising 1 two crops of wheat, Mr. Fairbanks moved to Payson, owing to Indian 
troubles then pending. He and his family had previously become well acquainted with 
a tribe of Indians inhabiting the southern part of Utah county, and the most friendly 
relations existed between them. This was very fortunate, for when the Walker war broke 
out, Mr. Fairbanks made a forced ride to Nephi to warn President George A. Smith of an 
Indian ambush in Salt Creek canyon, and was only spared by the skulking redskins along 
his route through the influence of "Ponnawatts," a friendly Indian, who persuaded the 
others not to fire upon his white friend. Two men returned with him for protection. 
The trip was so trying that it was several weeks before he recovered from the strain. 

In October, 1864, he was called on a mission to the "Muddy," and the following 
February he joined the settlers who had preceded him to that locality. There he remained 
two years, when, on account of ill health, caused by the hardships encountered, he 
was released. His son Cornelius remained until the mission was abandoned. 

Returning to Payson, the ex-Bishop took up his permanent residence there. He 
held the positions of city marshal, school trustee, city counselor, etc., serving in all 
these offices without pay. He was also president of the High Priests' quorum. He 
owned one of the largest and finest farms in Utah county, and carried on farming 
quite extensively until the infirmities of age compelled him to withdraw from the labors 
and cares of active life. 

His wife, Susan Mandeville Fairbanks, was descended from one of the old American 
families. Her ancestors were Hollanders. They came to this country in 1646, in a vessel 
chartered from the Dutch East India Company. They were fugitives from religious 
persecution. Her great-grandfather landed on Manhattan Island, now New York City. 
His son William used to tell how he drove his herd over the famous "cow-paths" from the 
Hudson to East river, along what is now Chatham Street. 

Susan was the fourth child of Cornelius William Mandeville and his wife Janes Jones. 
She was born September 23, 1819, at Pompton Plains, Pequanca Township, New Jersey. 
Her father, a well-to-do farmer, held many offices in the gift of the people, and when he 
died was a Major-General in the State Militia. She well remembered his association with 
such men as President Andrew Jackson, Ben Wade and other notable persons of 
that day. 

Susan Mandeville was married to David Fairbanks November 26, 1838. In July, 
1842, she heard Mormonism preached by Elders Curtis E. Bolton and John Leach, and a 
week later was baptized, preceding her husband into the Church. She moved with 
him to Nauvoo, where she resided until the spring of 1846. 

At Winter Quarters she suffered severely from sickness brought on by hardship 
and exposure. Her life was despaired of, but when the time came for their departure 
for the Rocky mountains, Dr. Willard Richards told her husband to start with her, sick 
as she was, and promised that she should recover. She was placed on a bed in a 
wagon, and improvement followed from the first day of the journey. 

In Salt Lake valley and elsewhere she passed through the hardships and trials incident 
to the early times. She accompanied her husband to Payson, and resided there more or 
less continously during the rest of her life. She was identified with the Relief Society of 
the place from its inception, and spent much time and means striving to establish the silk 
industry. She was the mother of thirteen children, ten of whom at last accounts were 
living. 



JOHN WESLEY TURNER. 

a boy of fifteen John W. Turner came to Salt Lake valley in the immigration of 
1847. He and his parents were members of A. 0. Smoot's company of one 
hundred. They left Winter Quarters about the last of May, started from the 
Elkhorn early in July and arrived here late in September. This boy in after years 

became Sheriff of Utah county, and was one of the bravest and most efficient civil officers 

in the intermountain country. 

The son of Chauncey Turner and his wife Hanna Franklin Redfield, he was born at 



126 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Avon, Livingston county, New York, November 21, 1832. When he was very young his 
parents moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where he was baptized a Latter-day Saint. His father 
was a farmer and a school teacher, and John worked upon the farm and improved what 
chances he had for education. These, however, were limited. 

In 1845 the family moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, where they were in very poor 
circumstances, some money possessed by them having been stolen. John's father 
placed much confidence in him, even when a boy, and relied upon him to a great extent 
when means had to be raised for their journey westward. Procuring a wagon and some 
oxen, with about a year's provisions, they left Nauvoo in 1846, and joined at Winter 
Quarters in 1847 the general emigration for Salt Lake valley. An incident occurred on 
the Sweet water that showed the tactful nature of the lad, who was never at a loss for 
some resource to extricate himself or his friends from trouble. Some of the cattle having 
died from drinking alkali water, his father became somewhat discouraged and askd what 
they should do. The son promptly replied: "Put the harness on one ox and we'll have 
a spike-team." This was done, and they pulled through successfully. 

The family first resided at Salt Lake City, but in 1848 they moved to Sessions' settle- 
ment (now Bountiful) where they remained until the next year, and then went to Provo. 
There John W. Turner settled permanently. He was in his twenty-first year when, on 
the first day of December, 1853, he married; his wife's maiden name being Sarah Louisa 
Fausett, the mother of his ten children. 

From April to August of the same year he had been with Captain Wall on an Indian 
expedition. His next experience among the red men was as a missionary to the Los Vegas 
Indians, beginning in May, 1855. He returned in December of that year for supplies, 
which he conveyed to the mission the following spring. Early in 1857 he came back to 
Provo, and on April 21st started with the handcart missionaries for the East. He filled 
a mission in Canada, and returned home May 21, 1858. He held successively the offices 
of Elder and Seventy, and at the close of his life was one of the presidency of the Forty- 
fifth Quorum of Seventy. He took especial pleasure in his duties as a home 
missionary. 

In business Mr. Turner was associated with such men as James A. Bean, Henry C. 
Rogers and S. S. Jones, and was an officer in most of the co-operative institutions of his 
section. He engaged in farming, stock-raising, freighting and contracting, and was very 
successsful in these pursuits. His civic record comprises the offices of city councilor and 
city marshal of Provo, deputy-sheriff and sheriff of Utah county. He was marshal from 1875 
continously for about twelve years, and sheriff from 1870 until 1889. During much of the 
latter period he acted as a United States deputy-marshal, under U. S. Marshals Shaughnessy 
and Ireland. 

The greatest grief of his life came to him in the month of July, 1880, when his eldest 
son, John Franklin Turner, was murdered by Fred Hopt, alias Fred Welcome, at or near 
Park City, the body of the victim being afterwards conveyed by the assassin to Echo 
Canyon, where it was secreted. The murderer's motive seems to have been a mixed one 
of robbery and revenge. He had been in Sheriff Turner's custody several times as a 
criminal, and on one occasion, it is said, young Turner helped to arrest him. He was 
treated with great consideration, however, the Turners being kind- hearted and humane 
and had apparently forgotten any previous unpleasantness between him and them, when 
he accompanied the son to Park City for the purpose of securing employment. There he 
took to drinking, and one night, it appears, returned to camp and brained his victim 
with an ax as he lay asleep. Placing the corpse in one of Turner's two wagons, he drove 
the murdered man's double-teams eastward, camping in Echo Canyon, where he hid the 
body behind a large rock, and then proceeded into Wyoming. The body being discovered 
and identified, Sheriff Turner, though overwhelmed with grief, immediately started in 
pursuit of the murderer of his boy. He discovered piece by piece his stolen property, 
which Hopt had disposed of at different points along the way, and finally captured the 
criminal and brought him back to Utah. As the train bearing them passed the point 
where young Turner's dead body had been found, the iron-nerved sheriff was visibly 
affected, and prudently handed iiis gun to a fellow officer, lest he might do violence to 
the assassin. 

Sheriff Turner's whole subsequent course was equally wise and commendable. For 
seven years the period intervening between the murder of his son and the execution of the 
murderer he was under the terrible strain entailed by the law's delay and the defendant's 
four trials and convictions, three of which, owing to irregularities in the proceedings, proved 
abortive, the decisions being reversed by the Supreme Court of the United States. After 
the third conviction, in June, 1884 (See volume 3, page 101) public sentiment, exasperated 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 127 

by the delay, demanded that the execution take place, but as this would have deprived 
the defendant of the benefit of his appeal to the court of last resort, a reprieve was 
granted by the Governor after an order staying the execution had been refused by the 
local Federal courts. Sheriff Turner acquiesced, as usual, in the law's vindication; no 
reversal of the fourth decision followed, and the condemned man finally paid the penalty of 
his crime, being shot to death August 11, 1887, within the walls of the Utah penitentiary. 
Jack Emerson, alias John McConnell, whom Hopt accused of committing the murder, 
and who was sentenced to the penitentiary for life, was pardoned by the Governor several 
years later, there being reason to believe him innocent. 

John W. Turner died at the home of his son, Charles H. Turner, in Provo, January 
20, 1895, after an attack of nervous prostration, lasting about two months. He was a 
man of sterling integrity, honest in his dealings, true to his friends and generous to his 
foes. He had a wide reputation as one of the most successful detectives and criminal 
hunters of his time. His successes, however, did not make him vain. His greatest 
comforts and pleasures were those of home and family. Nevertheless he would 
sacrifice pleasure and property at any time to obey a call of duty, never stopping to 
consider whether or not he would be remunerated for his services. His courage was 
equal to any occason. Few men have exhibited greater nerve or presence of mind, 
higher regard for law or better self-control when surrounded by circumstances of a trying 
character. He was faithful to his religious convictions, but always gentlemanly in 
asserting them. Genial, sociable and benevolent, in his death the public lost an 
intrepid and devoted servant, the poor a sympathizing and charitable friend. 



ANDREW LOVE. 



UTAH veteran of 1847, the subject of this narrative was born at Bullocks Creek, 
York district, South Carolina, December 1, 1808. When six years old he went 
with his parents to Missouri, first to St. Louis county, and then, after several 
other moves, to Pike county, in the fall of 1817. Taking up heavily timbered land, 
they cleared five acres, improved it and planted and raised a crop. John Love the father 
died September 4, 1818, leaving Andrew's mother, Elizabeth Ewing Love, and two sons. 
On December 7th of the same year she gave birth to twins. Much suffering and privation 
followed the father's death. 

Though his inclination was to stock-raising and farming, Andrew apprenticed himself 
to the blacksmithing trade, and having served his time, worked in different places. His 
schooling was limited, but by self-help he secured a fairly good education. On the 8th 
of December, 1834, he was united in marriage to Nancy Maria Bigelow, at Decatur, Illinois. 
At Lovington, in that State, he owned three hundred acres of land. For a time he kept 
a tavern. He studied law, with the intention of graduating, but circumstances prevented 
it. In 1840 he was postmaster at Lovington, and it was there that he was baptized into 
the Mormon Church, June 1st, 1844. Immediately after joining the Church he was 
ordained an Elder, and shortly afterwards a Seventy. 

In the spring of 1846 the Loves were preparing to move West, when they were noti- 
fied by an armed mob that they must go within a certain time almost immediately. 
Accordingly they crossed the Mississippi at Fort Madison, arriving at Highland Grove, 
on Keg Creek, Iowa, in August. There they passed the winter. Early next spring Mr. 
Love went to Missouri to get an outfit for the mountains, and returning with three 
wagons, sufficient teams, bread-stuffs, clothing, etc., they left Highland Grove June 9, 
1847. They ferried the Missouri river at Winter Quarters; also ferried the Elk Horn, 
where they camped until the companies formed that were to follow the Pioneers. The 
Love family traveled in Jedediah M. Grant's hundred, Joseph B. Noble's fifty, and 
Josiah Miller's ten. Their destination being unknown to the journeying band, it was 
with great delight that they came one day upon a buffalo skull, inscribed with directions 
from the Pioneers, who had passed that way. At Strawberry Creek the company met a 
number of the Pioneers returning. Here is a leaf from Mr. Love's diary: 

''Arrived in Great Salt Lake valley October 4, '47; built a cabin of adobes made after 
the Spanish style (sixteen inches long, eight inches wide and four inches thick) two 



128 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

small rooms and one small store-room; took my wagon-bed for flooring; covered the 
walls with poles, grass and dirt. 

"Plowed land and sowed grain in February, '48. Early in spring crickets came; 
still we plowed, sowed, planted, ditched, fenced, and the crickets grew, fat, field after 
field succumbing to the invaders. Hope seemed to stand aloof. All of a sudden the 
gulls came and made a desolating war on the crickets. The colony was saved, and with 
right good will we acknowledged the hand of the Lord in it. Harvested that fall one 
hundred bushels of corn and eighteen of wheat." 

Until 1850 Mr. Love and his family, after moving from their primitive hut at the 
south-east corner of the Fort, resided on a city lot in the Seventh Ward. The next year 
found them at Little Salt Lake valley, now in Iron county, and the year following at 
Willow Creek, now Mona, Juab county. There his wife died November 27, 1852, leaving 
him with two little daughters. Says he: "Our crops were growing nicely, when the 
Indians drove us in a hurry to Salt Creek (Nephi). We mustered into companies, 
drilled, stood guard, herded, built a fort, armed on all occasions the everlasting 'six- 
shooter' in our belts. Here took up new land, improved it and helped to build a city 
wall around nine blocks six feet at the base and tapering up to two-and-a half feet at 
the top, twelve feet high." 

On the 8th of March, 1854, Andrew Love married Sarah Maria Humphrey, and seven 
months later he wedded his third wife, Clementine Henrietta Henroid. October, 1857, 
found him in Echo canyon, under Warren S. Snow's command. Since January, 1854, 
he had held a first lieutenancy in the Juab military district, and was also commissary of 
subsistence. In consequence of the winter's exposure during that memorable campaign, 
he suffered much from rheumatism in after life, his deafness also dating from that time. 
His wife Clementine died September 20, 1858. From December, 1864, until August, 
1S69, he taught school "drawn crooked all this time," says he, "by rheumatism, but 
sincerely thankful to God for many blessings." 

Mr. Love's official record comprises the following named offices: Alderman and 
school trustee, May, 1854; legislative representative for Juab county, 1852; county 
recorder, August, 1858; probate judge, 1859; justice of the peace, August, 1871; county 
superintendent of district schools, 1877. He was ordained one of the presidents of the 
forty-second quorum of Seventy, May 19, 1857, and a High Priest September 20, 1868. 
He was president of the High Priests' quorum of Juab Stake. 

From October, 1869, until March, 1870, he was absent upon a mission to the States. 
The death of the worthy veteran, at the age of 82 years, occured at his home in Nephi, 
December 7, 1890. He left a large family, his children numbering an even score. 



THE WOODBURYS. 

fHE head of this family in Utah, Thomas Hobart Woodbury, was one of the fathers 
of horticulture in these parts, and was the founder of the Pioneer Nursery at Salt 
Lake City. He and his first wife, Catherine R. H. Woodbury, came to "the valley" 
in the original immigration of 1847. 

Thomas began life at New Salem, Franklin county, Massachusetts, July 4th, 1822. 
His parents were Jeremiah and Betsy Bartlett Woodbury. The father was a farmer, and 
the family were in moderate but comfortable circumstances. The son received a common 
education, attending school during the winter, and working on the farm in summer. He 
passed his boyhood in his native county, employing himself at times in dressing and 
splitting the palm leaf and making hats of that material. When eighteen years of age he 
turned to wagon-making and wood-working. His inclination, however, was to farming 
and gardening, which he afterwards studied and practiced scientifically. 

His life was upright and straightforward. He attended regularly the Baptist church 
and Sunday School, but did not become a member of that religious body. In September, 
1841, he was baptized a Latter-day Saint, and in December of the same year was ordained an 
Elder of the Church. On May 8, 1842, he married in his native town Catherine Rebecca 
Haskell, and they moved the same year to Nauvoo. 

Mrs. Woodbury was of Puritan descent from both parents Samuel Haskell and 




, 








-"sZ 










HISTORY OF UTAH. 129 

Elizabeth Reynolds, who were well-to-do farm folk, much respected and esteemed; her 
brothers holding positions of honor. She was born at New Salem, July 6th, 1816, and 
lived at her father's home until she married. She had a common school education, and 
followed the vocation of straw-braider and dressmaker. She was a liberal-minded, large- 
hearted woman, a faithful companion to the husband of her choice. 

At Nauvoo Mr. Woodbury rented a farm of the Prophet Joseph Smith. He was 
there ordained a Seventy, and connected with the eighteenth quorum. He and his wife 
were sharers in the troubles of those times, and in the general exodus left Nauvoo with 
a wagon and team, some seed grain and eighteen months provisions. The wagon Wood- 
bury himself constructed; it had no paint and very little iron, but served very fairly the 
purpose of its creation. Having crossed the Missouri river, the Woodbury s were organized 
in A. 0. Smoot's one hundred, George B. Wallace's fifty, and crossed the plains, arriving 
, in Salt Lake valley September, 26, 1847. 

Upon his arrival here Mr. Woodbury was stricken with mountain fever, brought on 
by hardship and exposure. "Notwithstanding the many toils, worriments and anxieties 
t beset us," says he, "we could rejoice with grateful hearts when looking back upon 
poverty and sickness that abounded before the Saints left Nauvoo. We all had fever 
Ipd ague and plenty of poverty at that time." Rallying from his illness, he was con- 
fpnted with the problem of how to prepare for winter. He must have a house, but of what 
slpuld it be made logs and adobes, or willows and mud? He built his walls of adobe, 
am covered them with poles, willows, hay and dirt; a very good roof in. dry weather, 
bu "in case of a shower, it did not quit raining quite so soon inside as out." On leaving 
thAFort he made a home in the Seventh Ward, Salt Lake City. Of his early experience 
at Vrming, he writes: 

"I had my land to cultivate for the coming season. It was at the south end of the 
BigT'ield, between Mill Creek and Big Cottonwood, on the brow of the bench, and very 
slopig. Near by was one of the favorite hatching grounds of the crickets. They hatched 
early and were ready to devour the first blade of corn that came in sight. They began 
to eatup what I had planted, but I had them herded off by the time they had eaten 
about ^n acre. The land lying a little below, some fifteen or twenty acres, was entirely 
bare <! everything, also another larger piece, a little above; the same as part of mine. 
It neveUtarted again to grow anything. I fought crickets until they were all killed, or 
had laiof;heir eggs in the ground and disappeared. These eggs were in great abundance, 
which Mtg a great care upon my mind for the coming year. I drew my land (by 
lot) theWond year a little below the piece I had the first year; a portion of that 
previous^ devastated. The crickets hatched the second spring 1849 but an over- 
ruling Haid was against them and they disappeared. Wheat and corn grew without being 
molested, fad we had plenty to eat, which was appreciated, for our rations had been short 
for two yeas. We had been without bread a little while each year, during which time 
we ate thisi roots." 

The Wadburys continued to reside at Salt Lake City until 1861, when they moved 
to Grafton, 1 Kane county. The head of the family at this time was second counselor 
to Bishop WiUrn G.Perkins of the Seventh Ward, but was called to "Dixie" onamission, 
to start a nurW and supply the people in that section with fruit trees. Says he : 
"I started aba the first of November, taking with me young trees of all the varieties I 
had, and arrivlat my destination about the first of December, with the trees in good 
condition. I pled them out near the bank of the Rio Virgen river. A freshet came, 
and the river k rising until I had to move my trees in the middle of the night, the 
water followingWe at my heels, and taking away most of the ground on which the 
trees were pitted.rhis narrow escape from failure was followed by others, insects attacking 
small seeds and s\dlmg Sj but these pests were to a great extent overcome, and the ven- 
ture finally provedmccessful. " 

In Grafton, &% e organization of the town, Thomas H. Woodbury was made post- 
master and justiceVf the peace, which offices he held until the place was abandoned 
on account of IndiaVroubles, the inhabitants moving to Rockville. He now had two 
families, having mai e d his second wife, Harriet Miller, in the fall of 1851. His first 
wife, after residing UJrafton nearly two years, returned north on account of her 
daughter's delicate kith. Two years later she became connected with the Relief 
Society. In Decemftv 1866, her husband, owing to poor health, also returned 
to Salt Lake City. TW he served as a Ward Teacher for some time, and on August 
29, 1873, was given I old position in the Bishopric, as second counselor to Bishop 
William Thorn. He <^tinued to reside at his old home during the remainder of 
his days. 



130 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Thomas H. Woodbury was one of the earliest members of the Gardener's Club, after- 
wards the Horticultural Society, with which he was connected for many years. For 
about forty years he was the chief proprietor of the Pioneer Nursery, those interested 
with him in the business being 1 members of his family. He was a High Priest from 
February 25, 1852, and was still acting in the Bishopric at the time of his death. He 
was also a zealous and prominent worker in the Sunday School, and being an amiable, 
kind-hearted man, was well beloved by the children and all his associates. By his first 
wife he was the father of five children, and by his second wife the father of two. Mrs. 
Catherine Woodbury also had an adopted child. Both his wives and five of his children 
preceded him into the life beyond. The date of his death was June 6, 1899. 



ORSON B. AND SUSANN S. ADAMS. 

'HIS worthy pair were among the first settlers of Salt Lake valley, arriving here >nly 
a few days after the advent of the Pioneers, whose trail they had followed torn 
Fort Laramie. They came with Captain Brown's detachment of the MormonBat- 
talion, and as members of that body had passed the previous winter at Piablo. 
They early migrated into Southern Utah, where they helped to found Parowan, Buris- 
burg and other settlements, and in that part they passed the remainder of their live. 

Orson B. Adams was born March 9, 1815, at Alexander, Genesee county, New York, 
but was living in Morgan county, Illinois, when he became acquainted with hii future 
wife, Miss Susann Smith, whom he married there, March 20, 1836. She was thfdaugh- 
ter of Anthony and Mahurin Smith and a native of Greyson county, Kentucky, wiere she 
was born May 30, 1819. Her father died during her infancy, and her mother remarried 
when Susann was about eight years old. The name of her step-father was Meks. In 
the fall of 1834 the family moved to Morgan county, Illinois. 

Mr. and Mrs. Adams settled in Brown county ,and in March, 1840, they joined le Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Two years later they took up their rsidence at 
Nauvoo, remaining there until the general exodus. Both were strongly attaoed to their 
religion, and the kind and charitable disposition of Mrs. Adams, with a natv'al aptitude 
for nursing the sick, made her a worthy acquisition to the Relief Society, orgnized by the 
Prophet Joseph Smith. She was one of its earliest members. 

In June, 1846, they crossed the Mississippi and traveled with other Jormon exiles 
across Iowa to Council Bluffs. Thre, in July of that year, Mr. Adam enlisted as a 
member of the Mormon Battalion. His wife, having no children at th time, enlisted 
also, and in the capacity of a laundress accompanied the troops as far as' arj te Fe. She 
also served as a nurse, attending the sick and disabled, and administers comfort and 
cheer to all needing consolation. They arrived at Sante Fe on the 12tlf October, and 
after resting a few days, in company with those deemed unable to jirsue the further 
journey to California, they marched northward to Pueblo, where they refined until June, 
1847, and then set out for Salt Lake valley. They had previously he'd from President 
Young and the Pioneers, who had passed Fort Laramie and were n their way to the 
shores of the Inland Sea. Mr. Adams' term of enlistment from July >, 1846, to July 16, 
1847, expired during his journey hither. He and his wife entered 8* Lake valley on the 
29th of July. 

Their experience during the first few years was that of their 'How settlers in the 
Fort and subsequently in the pioneer city and its vicinity. Unt'the wheat harvest of 
1848 their subsistence was chiefly of "roots and greens." Twenboushels o f ripe wheat 
having rewarded their first farming labors, their gratitude an(*hanksgiving knew no 
bounds. In the midst of the new colony JVIrs. Adams found at'le opportunity for the 
exercise of the gifts with which nature had endowed her thos for ministering to the 
sick. These qualifications, it seems, were so well known and cognized that they con- 
stituted one of the main causes for the early removal of the fam? to another part. 

Called to settle in Iron county, they proceeded to Parowan 1851 or 1852, and there 
Mrs. Adams was blessed by Apostle George A. Smith, the footer of the place, and set 
apart to wait upon her sex as a midwife. This calling she pursed for thirty-eight years, 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 131 

with marked success, officiating at the birth of many of the present inhabitants of Paro- 
wan and other towns. At one time the Adamses resided at Paragoonah. 

Early in the "sixties." they again moved southward, settling at the new town of 
Harrisburg, Washington county, where Mrs. Adams spent the remainder of her days. She 
held office in the presidency of the local Relief Society, and occupied a position therein at 
the time of her death. She died January 23, 1892, in the seventy-third year of her age. 
Her husband, her aged mother, a daughter, an adopted son, and three orphan children 
whom she had reared, were among those who mourned her loss. 

The widowed husband took up his abode with his daughter, Mrs. Susann Adams 
Harris, in the neighboring town of Leeds, where he continued to reside until the day of 
his death, February 4, 1901. He kept no record of his life, but was known as a good and 
useful citizen, faithful, like his sainted wife, to his religious convictions. 



HORACE DRAKE. 

p^ORACE DRAKE, another emigrant of 1847, a resident of Centerville at the present 

K\ time, is a native of Hartford, Trumbull county, Ohio, where he was born April 19, 

(jyj 1826. His father's name was Daniel Drake, and his mother's, before her marriage, 

Patience Perkins. They were hardworking people, the father a farmer, and the 

mother a spinner and weaver. They soon won a competence by their industry, but as 

Horace had to help earn a livelihood for the family, he was not favored with very much 

schooling. He was about eight years of age when he moved with his parents to Illinois. 

Having become Latter-day Saints, they joined the exodus of their people in May, 

1846, and started westward, crossing the Mississippi at Port Madison. They fitted them- 
selves out with two wagons and ox teams and began the journey across the plains in June. 

1847, as members of Captain Daniel Spencer's company. Horace by this time was an 
expert huntsman, and contributed to the game supplies of the camp along the way. He 
much enjoyed the trip. He arrived in Salt Lake valley on the 19th of September, a few 
days ahead of his company. 

He first settled upon the site of Salt Lake City. On the third day of October, a little more 
than three years after his arrival here, he married Miss Diana E. Holbrook, who at eight 
years of age had traveled with her father, Chandler Holbrook, in Zion's camp; the only 
female, it is claimed, in that organization. Mr. and Mrs. Drake have quite a family of 
sons and daughters, namely, Horace L., Cyrus H., Eunice D., Samuel, Joseph, Hyrum, 
Alice E., Jedediah M., Daniel C., Roseto A., James A. and Edith L. Some of them are 
married. 

Mr. Drake was ordained a Seventy on February 8, 1850, and eleven years later was 
chosen one of the Presidency of the Tenth Quorum. In the Utah militia he was drum- 
major in the first regiment of the Nauvoo Legion. His vocation is that of a farmer and 
stock-raiser. He is also mechanically inclined, and would have been skillful with tools 
had he been apprenticed to a trade. 

In May, 1887, he and his family moved to Davis county, where they still reside. Mr. 
Drake is an honest man, a quiet unassuming citizen, one who attends to his own business 
and lets other people's affairs alone. He came West, as he says, "to get out from under 
the yoke oj oppression" and find a place where he could "worship God according to the 
dictates of conscience." 



JOHN GABBOTT. 

GABBOTT, of Farmers' Ward, Salt Lake county, is a native of Nauvoo, Illinois, 
but has been a resident of Utah since he was six years old. His parents were Edward 
|)J and Sarah Ann Rigby Gabbott, who emigrated from Leyland, Lancashire, England, 
in 1841. They were baptized by Heber C. Kimball during his first mission to Eng- 
land. The father was in poor circumstances, employed in a bleaching works in England, 



132 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

and followed farming after coming to America. His son John, who was born October 4, 
1842, was between three and four years old at the time of the exodus from Illinois. 

Among the incidents which made a vivid impression upon his mind was the death of 
his mother, who was run over by a wagon while traveling across Iowa. The family were 
poorly outfitted for the long journey westward. They left the Missouri River in the 
spring of 1848, and arrived in Salt Lake valley in September. 

They settled in the Seventh Ward, but prior to that lived in the Fort, where Father 
Gabbott built an adobe house of one room, covered with poles, canes and earth, but hav- 
ing no floor. In that humble domicile they spent the first two winters. The first school 
that John attended was in the Fort. He afterwards went to the Seventh District school. 
Says he: "Events of interest to children in those times were the training days of the 
Nauvoo Legion and the celebrations of the Fourth and Twenty-fourth of July. I remem- 
ber also the riot on Christmas day, I think it was 1855, between the citizens and the 
soldiers of Colonel Steptoe's command. I was on Main street at the time and saw the 
soldiers fire on the crowd across the street." 

"On June 11, 1866," says Mr. Gabbott, "I started with General D. H. Wells and 
escort for Sanpete county, where I spent six weeks of that summer in the Blackhawk 
Indian war. We assisted the people of Circleville on the Upper Sevier to remove to 
Sanpete county for safety from the Indians." When at home he was occupied with farm- 
ing, teaming, wood-hauling and canyon work. Latterly he has engaged in gardening 
and in the nursery business. 

In May, 1868, he married Emma Twiggs, and in the fall of that year went with her 
to settle on the "Muddy." There he remained until 1869, when, the place being selected 
by the government as an Indian reservation, he returned to Salt Lake City. He had 
previously lived in Sugar House Ward, but in 1870 moved to the Seventh Ward, where he 
resided until 1874, when he built his present home in Farmers' Ward. When that Ward 
was organized, July 22, 1877, he was chosen second counselor to Bishop Lewis H. Mous- 
ley, and on September 12, 1886, (Bishop Mousley having moved away and the Ward being 
re-organized) he was made first counselor to Bishop Henry F. Burton, which position he 
holds at the present time. 

;*3October 22, 1878, witnessed the death of Mrs. Emma T. Gabbott, who had borne to 
her husband four children, two boys and two girls. In March, 1879, he married Olive R. 
Crossgrove, who also became the mother of four children, three boys and one girl. She 
died in 1888, and since that time Mr. Gabbott has remained a widower. 

Among the offices held by him are those of school trustee and justice of the peace. 
The former he held continuously from November, 1876, for a period of nineteen years. 
In politics he is a Democrat and has represented his party in County and State Conven- 
tions as a delegate. Ecclesiastically he took part in the organization (January 28, 1900) 
of the Granite Stake of Zion, with which Farmers' Ward is now connected. 




WILLIAM MARKER. 

William Barker belongs the distinction of being Utah's oldest native white male 
inhabitant. The date of his birth was September 26, 1847; its place, the head of 
Echo Canyon. He is the son of Joseph and Susan Sneath Barker, who as mem- 
bers of the first immigration that followed the Pioneers, were nearing the goal of 
their hopes and desires Salt Lake valley when this child was born to them. Six days 
prior to his advent a son had been born to Mr. and Mrs. Lorenzo D. Young, already in 
the valley; and on the 9th of the preceding August Mrs. Gathering Campbell Steele, wife 
of John Steele, a member of the Mormon Battalion, had given birth to a daughter, the 
first white child born in Utah. This daughter, now Mrs. James Stapley, 'resides at 
Kanarra, Kane county. Bishop Young's little boy did not live very long. Thus it hap- 
pens that William Barker, the subject of this sketch, is to-day Utah's oldest white male 
native. 

Be has led a humble, though useful and honorable life, his early boyhood being 
passed at what was known as the "Old English Fort," on the west side of the Jordan, to 
which place his parents moved in the spring of 1848. They were very poor at that time, 




r &. W/Aans tSBrc jV 




HISTORY OF UTAH. 133 

having to dig thistle roots as a part of their living. The father was a farmer, possessing 
little but what he produced from the soil, until 1855, when he procured three head of 
sheep and began sheep -raising. William's early labors were at herding sheep, and this 
so occupied him that he received but little education. His youth was passed at Taylors- 
. ville and in Rush valley. 

William Harker was married January 19, 1867, to Frances Elizabeth Wright, who 
has borne to him ten children. He went on a mission to the State of Indiana in Septem- 
ber, 1882, but was released on account of sickness, and returned home the following 
June. He is still living at Taylorsville. 






LEADING COLONIZERS 






ORSON HYDE. 

' POSTLE ORSON HYDE was best known in Utah as the leading spirit of the San- 
pete settlements, over which he presided up to the day of his death. He was also 
the chief colonizer of Carson valley, now in the State of Nevada. A very early 
convert to Mormonism, be was one of its original Twelve Apostles, one of the 
founders of the British Mission, and the first Mormon Elder to set foot upon the soil of 
Palestine. As an orator he had few equals in the Church, and he was also an able writer. 
He had a legal mind, was an experienced legislator, and possessed many excellent quali- 
ties, among which were his humility and that indomitable pluck and perseverance by 
which he overcame the obstacles of poverty and frontier environment, and made 
himself an educated man, fitted for the prominent place and weighty responsibilities as- 
signed to him. 

The son of Nathan and Sally Thorp Hyde, he was born at Oxford, New Haven 
county, Connecticut, January 8, 1805. He was next to the youngest of eight sons and 
three daughters, and was but seven years of age when his mother died, soon after giving 
birth to her youngest son.. She was a pious member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Her husband was a man of many gifts, and by vocation a boot and shoe maker. After 
the death of his wife he enlisted in the United States army, serving in the war of 1812, 
and several years later was accidentally drowned while attempting to swim a river in 
Derby, Connecticut. 

There, after the death of his mother, Orson lived with Nathan Wheeler, until he was 
eighteen years of age. The rest of the family were scattered in various places. He was 
but fourteen when in company with Nathan Wooster, Mr. Wheeler's nephew, he went to 
Kirtland, Ohio, where his foster-father had purchased a farm. The two walked all the 
way from Derby to Kirtland with knapsacks on their backs, containing clothes, bread, 
cheese and dried beef for their journey. Wooster was a strong man, but young Hyde 
kept up with him, trudging from thirty to forty miles a day until the entire distance six 
hundred miles was traversed. 

Upon his eighteenth anniversary, Orson Hyde bade the Wheeler family good bye and 
went forth to seek his fortune. A suit of home-made woolen clothes, two red flannel 
shirts, two pairs of socks, a pair of coarse shoes, an old hat, and six and a quarter cents 
in cash comprised his capital stock and entire outfit. But he had more than these his 
native ability and energy, which no amount of money or clothing could purchase. He 
first hired out to Grandison Newell at or near Kirtland, and worked for six months, at 
six dollars a mouth, in a small iron foundry, where he learned to mould clock-bells, 
and irons, sleigh shoes and other articles. He then hired out for another six months to 
Orrin Holmes, a wool carder at Kirtland. Next he was employed as a clerk in the store 
of Gilbert and Whitney at that place, and after working for them one or two years, he 
hired two carding machines, from the earnings of which he cleared in one season six 
hundred dollars in cash. Winter coming on he again clerked for Gilbert and Whitney 
until spring, and then assisted them in the manufacture of pot and pearl ash. 

The year 1827 witnessed his conversion to Methodism, the result of his attendance at 
a camp meeting six miles from Kirtland. The revival spread to that place, where the 
young convert was appointed a class-leader. About this time vague reports came in the 
newspapers of a "gold bible" that had been"dug out of a rock'' in the State of New York. 
It was regarded as a hoax, but Orson Hyde said, on hearing of it, ''Who knows but this 
gold bible may break up all our religion and change its whole features and bearings." 
Not long after, Sidney Rigdon and the Campbellite propaganda came that way, and Mr. 
Hyde, becoming a convert to this faith, now began to prepare himself for the ministry. 
At the home of Mr. Rigdon in Mentor he spent several months studying English gram- 
mar under his tuition. He then took two terms at the Burton Academy, reviewing 
grammar, geography, arithmetic and rhetoric. Returning to Mentor, he spent a season 
with a young man named Matthew J. Clapp, whose father kept the public librarv. There 

3 



138 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

he read history, science and literature until his mind was pretty well stored. Ordained 
an elder in the Campbellite church, he accompanied Mr. Rigdon to Elyria,Lorain county, 
and to Florence, Huron county, where they baptized many and organized several 
branches, over which, in the spring of 1830, Mr. Hyde was made pastor, and took up his 
residence among them. In the intervals of preaching and ministering in his pastorate he 
taught school at Florence. 

Next came the advent of Mormonism, preached in his neighorhood in the fall of the 
same year by Samuel H. Smith, Peter Whitmer, Ziba Peterson and Frederick G.Williams. 
They exhibited the so-called "gold bible," the Book of Mormon, which Mr.Hyde read, and 
concluded at first that it was a piece of fiction. While preaching against it, at a place called 
Ridgeville, near Elyria, his conscience pricked him, and he resolved that he would 
assail it no more until he had thoroughly investigated the subject. At the close of school 
in the summer of 1831 he returned to Kirtland, where Sidney Rigdon, A. S. Gilbert, 
Newel K. Whitney and others of his acquaintance had embraced the Mormon faith, and 
where the Prophet Joseph Smith then resided. Under cover of a clerkship with Gilbert 
and Whitney, he gave Mormonism a close and careful study, the result being his conver- 
sion. He was baptized by Sidney Rigdon, October 30, 1831, and confirmed and ordained 
an Elder the same day under the bands of the Prophet and Elder Rigdon. A few days 
later the Prophet ordained him a High Priest, at a conference in Orange, and sent him 
and Hyrum Smith upon a mission to Elyria and Florence. In these places they con- 
verted and baptized many of Elder Hyde's Campbellite friends and organized two or 
three branches of the Church. 

Then followed a mission to the Eastern States, in company with Samuel H. Smith. 
At Westfield, New York, early in 1832, they preached to a crowded audience. After they 
had spoken, a man in the congregation arose and stated that he had known Joseph Smith 
from boyhood, proceeding then to give what purported to be his history. Says Elder 
Hyde: "He soon came to where he said Joseph did some mean act and ran away. An- 
other gentleman, who happened to know that the speaker, on account of his mean acts, 
had recently run away from his former place of abode, here interrupted him by asking 
how long it was after Joseph ran away till he started. The question discomfited the 
speaker, who sat down amid the hisses and uproar of the multitude. The two Elders 
preached and baptized in Massachusetts, Maine and Rhode Island, and at Lowell Orson 
Hyde called upon his sister, Mrs. Laura Hyde North, whom he had not seen for twenty- 
five years. She received him very coolly and rejected his testimony. At Providence 
they met with violent opposition. December found them again at Kirtland. During 
the spring and summer of 1833 Elder Hyde labored with Hyrum Smith, mostly in Erie 
county, Pennsylvania. 

The same summer Orson Hyde with John Gould was appointed to carry to Mis- 
souri special instructions from the Prophet to the Latter-day Saints in that State. 
They arrived at Independence just as the trouble began which culminated in the ex- 
pulsion of the Saints from Jackson county; and returning they bore the news of the 
outrages to Kirtland. The following winter Orson Hyde with Orson Pratt went to 
Pennsylvania and New York to preach the gospel and gather recruits for Zion's 
Camp. He joined the expedition at Dayton, Ohio, and donated to it between one and two 
hundred dollars of his own money, which he had collected at Florence. He and Par- 
ley P. Pratt were deputed to call upon Governor Daniel Dunklin at Jefferon City, and 
plead the cause of their driven and plundered people. After returning from Missouri 
Orson Hyde married at Kirtland Marinda N. Johnson, daughter of John and Elsa 
Johnson and sister of Lymau E. and Luke S. Johnson, afterwards two of his fellow 
apostles. The marriage ceremony was performed September 4, 1834, by Elder Sidney 
Rigdon. 

The Twelve Apostles were chosen the following February. In the spring Apostle 
Hyde accompanied his quorum on their first mssion, traversing the states of Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire. The spring of 1836 found him in New York State, 
preaching in the vicinity of Rochester. At Buffalo he fell in with Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith, and after parting with them proceeded to Canada, where he joined Parley P. 
Pratt, with whom he labored very successfully. At Scarborough he had a debate 
with a Presbyterian minister named Jenkins, who had challenged him to a discussion. 
After an all day verbal cannonade the Presbyterian threw up his hands, exclaim- 
ing, "Abominable! I have heard enough of such stuff! 1 ' Apostle Hyde at once 
rejoined, "Ladies and gentlemen, I should consider it highly dishonorable to continue 
to beat my antagonist after he has cried enough.'' About forty persons were bap- 
tized immediately after the debate. Mrs. Hyde joined her husband in Canada, and 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 139 

he continued to labor there until fall, when he returned to Kirtland and spent the fol- 
lowing winter studying Hebrew. 

The summer of 1837 saw him on his way to England with Heber C. Kimball, 
Willard Richards and others. They labored in Lancashire and Yorkshire, baptized 
nearly two thousand souls, founded the British Mission, and returned to America, our 
subject arriving at Kirtland May 21, 1838. 

In the summer of the same year he moved with his family to Far West, M ssouri, 
where soon after his arrival he was attacked with billious fever, and did not fully 
recover until the spring of 1839. While in this feeble and debilitated state he drifted 
away from the society of the Saints for a season, though he never lost his standing in 
the Church; and after it was driven out of Missouri he came back, and was restored 
to his former position. Resettled with the Saints at Commerce (Nauvoo), and there 
took the ague, which lasted for months, and was well nigh fatal to him and his fam- 
ily. At the April conference of 1840 he presented almost the appearance of a 
skeleton. 

It was at this conference that Apostles Orson Hyde and John E. Page were appointed 
upon a mission to Palestine. They started, but Page fell by the way. His companion 
kept on his course, crossing to England, where his fellow Apostles were laboring, and 
then passing over to Bavaria, where he studied the German language. He next proceeded 
to Constantinople, and from that point visited Cairo and Alexandria, and finally reached 
the Holy Land. Ascending the Mount of Olives above Jerusalem, on Sunday morning, 
October 24, 1841, he dedicated and consecrated the land for the gathering of the scat- 
tered children of Judah. In witness of his act he erected two piles of stones one upon 
Mount Olivet and the other upon Mount Zion. Having suffered many hardships and pri- 
vations, he returned home in the latter part of December, 1842. 

At the death of the Prophet and the Patriarch, and the defection of Sidney Rigdon, 
Orson Hyde stood staunchly by Brigham Young and his brethren of the Twelve, and ac- 
companied the Church into the wilderness. In the summer of 1846, he, with Parley P. 
Pratt and John Taylor, went upon a mission to England, where they stamped out "joint 
stockism," and then returned to Winter Quarters on the Missouri Elders Pratt and Tay- 
lor in advance of Elder Hyde, who did not reach the Mormon camps until after the de- 
parture of the Pioneers for the Rocky Mountains. His two confreres followed the 
Pioneers the same season, and this left Apostle Hyde in charge of affairs on the frontier. 

After the return of President Young and his party from Salt Lake valley, a council 
was held at the home of Orson Hyde and the matter of reorganizing the First Presidency 
considered by the Twelve Apostles. Apostle Hyde moved that Brigham Young be Pres- 
ident of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and that he nom-nate his two 
counselors. Wilford Woodruff seconded the motion, and it was carried unanimously. The 
date of this action, which was subsequently confirmed by the Saints in General Confer- 
ence, was December 5, 1847. Early in the summer of 1848 the First Presidency and the 
main body of the people set out for Salt Lake valley, but Apostle Hyde still remained 
on the Missouri, where he published at Kanesville (Council Bluffs) the "Frontier Guar- 
dian," and had charge of the emigrational business of the Church. He came to Utah and 
settled in Salt Lake City in 1851. 

In May. 1855, he led a colony to Carson valley, then in Utah, being accompanied 
thither by United States Marshal Joseph L. Heywood and Associate Justice George P. 
Stiles. These three had been empowered by the legislature to help establish in the Carson 
valley region the boundary between Utah and California; a similar commission from 
that State being sent for the same purpose. This duty done, they organized Car- 
son county, Orson Hyde becoming the probate judge. At the time of the Buchanan 
expedition most of the Carson valley settlements were broken up, the Mormons returning 
to Salt Lake valley. 

About the year I860 our Apostle was appointed by the Presidency of the Church to 
take charge of its affairs in Sanpete Stake. He made his home in Spring City, where he 
continued to reside until his death, November 28, 1878. He left a large family, being the 
husband of several wives and tne father of numerous children, some of whom have risen 
to prominence in the community of which their honored sire was so long a notable mem- 
ber. For many years he represented Sanpete and other counties in the Legislative As- 
sembly, and was one of the committee for the construction of the Matiti Temple. Active 
and zealous in the discharge of his apostolic duties, he was beloved and respected by 
a wide circle of friends and acquaintances, and died as he had lived, a firm believer in 
the divine mission of the Prophet Joseph Smith and his successors. 



PETER MAUGHAN. 



k NE of the most prominent of Utah's colonizers, and a sterling character in the 
Mormon community, was Peter Maughan, the pioneer of Cache valley. He was 
born at Brekenridge, in the Parish of Farley, Cumberland, England, May 7, 1811. 
His parents were William and Martha Maughan. The boy received a good 
common school education and passed his early boyhood upon his father's farm. When 
about fourteen years of age he went to Alston, where he labored in the lead mines, 
and while there, in the spring of 1829, he married Miss Ruth Harrison, who bore to him 
six children. She died at Alston in 1841. 

This place was one of the first in Great Britain to hear Morrnonism, which was 
preached there in the summer of 1837 by some of the missionaries who accompanied 
Apostles Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde to that land. Mr. Maughan became a convert 
to the faith in the year 1838, and in the spring of 1841, after being ordained an Elder by 
President Brigham Young, he emigrated to America, taking his children with him. The 
youngest of these, a babe, died during the voyage and was buried at sea. He crossed 
the Atlantic in the same ship that carried President Young and the Apostles back to their 
native land. 

Arriving at New York he first went to Kirtland, where he met Mrs. Mary Ann Weston 
Davis, a widow, who subsequently became his wife. After a two months sojourn at that 
place he proceeded on by way of the Lakes to Illinois, and reached Nauvoo in the fall. 
The following winter (1841-2) he and Mrs. Davis were married, Apostle John Taylor 
officiating. At Nauvoo he followed the trade of a stone mason. 

In the spring of 1844 Peter Maughan, with John Saunders and Jacob Peart, was 
sent by the Prophet Joseph Smith up the Mississippi and Rock rivers in search of stone 
coal for the Church. They purchased on Rock river eighty acres, with an excellent bed 
of coal, five feet thick. They returned to Nauvoo to find the city under martial law for 
the defense of the people against mob violence; and this, they learned, was the so-called 
act of treason for which the Prophet was to be tried at Carthage. 

After the murder of Joseph and Hyrum, the Maughan, Saunders and Peart families 
resided at Rock Island for some time, opening out a coal bank by direction of the Church 
authorities. Mr. Maughan was still there, detained by the sickness of himself and family, 
when the Mormon exodus from Illinois began. In order to get help, so as to be able to 
follow the Church to the Rocky mountains, he went to the lead mines at Galena, landing 
at New Diggings, twelve miles above that place, on the 15th of April, 1846. There he 
remained with his family until 1850. 

In the spring of that year, having obtained means for their outfit, they took up their 
line of march for Salt Lake City. At Kanesville, Iowa, they were organized into Captain 
William Wall's company of fifty, Mr. Maughan being captain of ten. They left the 
Missouri river in June, and had a great deal of sickness and some deaths from cholera 
while on the plains. The Maughan family had a special cause for sorrow. Peter Maughan, 
Jr., aged about three years, on the 12th of July fell out of a wagon and was run over 
and fatally injured. They buried him by the wayside. The date of arrival at Salt Lake 
City was the 17th of September. 

Mr. Maughan first settled in Tooele county, where he took up a farm. He searched 
for lead in the mountains, but did not find any. When Tooele county was organized he 
was appointed county clerk and assessor, and held those offices until 1853. He was also 
a selectman of the county and recorder for Tooele city, and subsequently became county 
treasurer. In company with Ormus E. Bates and Bishop John Rowberry he located 
E. T. City, where in October, 1854, he was appointed to preside, with G. W. Bryan and 
Howard Coray as his counselors. 

On July 21st, 1850, Peter Maughan was sent by President Young to locate a settle- 
ment in Cache valley, and accompanied by his son William H. Maughan, Zial Riggs, 




~a HtM* AS 








HISTOEY OF UTAH. 141 

George W. Bryan, John Tate and Morgan Morgan, be proceeded to that part and made 
choice of the south end of the valley as the site for the new settlement. Returning to 
Tooele county (where in August of that year he was elected a representative to the 
Legislature) he moved his family to Cache valley; Gr. W. Bryan, Zial Riggs, Francis 
Gunnell, O. D. Thompson and their families going also to that part. They arrived on 
the 15th of September, and having spent two days looking around the valley, went to work 
building houses, cutting hay from the wild grass growing there, and otherwise settling in 
permanent abodes. Wellsville, the settlement they founded, was originally Maughan's 
Fort. It was renamed in honor of President Daniel H. Wells. Such was the origin of 
the first settlement in Cache valley. The first child born there was Elizabeth Maughan, 
daughter of Peter and Mary Maughan; the date of her birth being September 27, 1856. 

Early in December of the same year the Legislature met at Fillmore, but on account 
of the death of Hou. A. W. Babbitt, the Territorial secretary, and the entire lack of 
preparation for the assembly, it adjourned the same day that it convened December 8 
to meet in the Social Hall at Salt Lake City. Peter Maughan was present. He speaks 
glowingly of the great discourses delivered during the session by Presidents Brigham 
Young and Heber C. Kimball the greatest discourses he ever heard; and also refers to 
the Reformation then in progress throughout the Church, and the large amount of business 
transacted for the Territory by its representatives. The session continued from the 18th 
of December, 1856, until the 16th of January, 1857. "Next day," says Mr. Maughan 
"I filed my bond for Probate Judge of Cache county, having been elected to that office 
by the legislature." 

The following passage is taken from a sketch written by Mrs. Mary Ann Maughan, 
relative to their early experiences in Cache valley. Referring to the time of their arrival 
there she says: "On the night of September 26th we had our first snow. It was very 
deep. In the midst of it, on the morning of the 27th, our first daughter was born the 
first white native of Cache valley. Having moved into our log cabins, Mr. Maughan 
started for Fillmore on the 25th of November. The storm he speaks of must have reached 
Cache, for our fences, wood-pile, wagon, etc. were soon covered up by drifting snow. 
We did not see them again until spring. We dug down to the end of a log of wood, drew 
it out and cut it. When that was burned we got another the same way. We dug ditches 
in the snow to keep the cattle off the tops of our hay-stacks. It was a very cold winter. 
The next spring and summer we raised some crops, and then came the year of 
the move." 

Early in that year the Maughans started south with their loaded wagons, and after 
camping some time at Brigham city, proceeded on to Salem, Utah county. Returning 
north in July, 1858, they spent the winter at Roger's Pond, a mile north-west of Willard, 
and finally, in April 1859, reached Cache valley. 

That region now began to be settled rapidly, Logan and Providence being 
the next places founded. Regarding the meagre postal facilities of the period, Mrs. 
Maughan says: "There were many letters brought and left with me for people that had 

come to Cache. I remember one addressed to 'Mr. somewhere in Cache valley; 

go find him;' I sent it up north; as it did not come back, I suppose it found him." She 
continues: "From this time the settlements were laid out by Mr. Maughan as fast as he 
could do so. He was at home very little. In the fall of '59, Brother Benson came with, 
others of the Twelve to help organize the Cache Valley Stake of Zion and name the settle- 
ments then made. Mr. Maughan was appointed Presiding Bishop and President, and was 
counseled to move to Logan, as the most central place. In May, 1861, we moved to 
Logan. The Indians were then very troublesome." 

Not only was Peter Maughan the presiding eeclesiast in Cache valley, but he continued 
to represent that part in the Territorial legislature, acting in each capacity as long as he 
lived. He was regimental quartermaster of the Cache valley military district, holding 
the rank of Colonel, and was a prominent officer in many public associations. Tall of 
stature, robust, and of fine physical development, he was admired, respected and beloved 
by the people in general; also by the Indians, many of whom attended his funeral and 
sincerely mourned the loss of their kind and fatherly friend. 

He died at his home in Logan, April 24, 1871. He was the father of eighteen 
children, the offspring of his three wives, Ruth Harrison, Mary Ann Weston and Elizabeth 
Prater. His son William H. was for many years Bishop of Wellsville, and his son 
Willard W. is now one of the presidency of Cache stake. He was the grandfather of 
Mrs. Joseph Howell, the wife of our present representative in Congress. 



ANSON CALL. 

'HE name of Call will always be associated .with the founding of Utah, and especially 
| Davis county, where the subject of this story settled as early as the fall of 1848. 
The name is also identified with early American history, ancestors of his figuring 
in the war of the Revolution and in the Indian wars of the Colonies. Anson Call's 
grandfather, Joseph Call, was at the battle of Bunker Hill and afterwards served under 
Washington. The brother of his great-grandfather fell with the gallant Wolfe upon the 
heights of Abraham. 

Anson Call, son of Cyril Call and his wife Sally Tiffany, was born in the town of 
Fletcher, Franklin county, Vermont, May 13, 1810. His mother was the daughter of 
Christopher Tiffany, a German immigrant. When Anson was seven years old the family 
migrated to Geauga (now Lake) county, Ohio. There they were much afflicted with 
sickness and reduced to lowly circumstances. These misfortunes, with the new condition 
of the country, prevented the boy from receiving much education. He was trained, however, 
to habits of industry and self-reliance. His early labors were in farming, but at odd times 
he took contracts in and around the iron mines. He married, on the 3rd of October, 1833, 
Mary Flint, daughter of Rufus and Hannah Haws Flint; the father a wealthy farmer from 
Vermont, who, having willed his farm in Ohio to his daugthers Hannah and Mary, after- 
wards disinherited them for joining the Mormons. 

The Calls were Methodists in religion. Anson, on hearing Mormonism preached by 
Brigham Young, John P. Greene, Almon W. Babbitt and other Elders from Kirtland, 
had a hard struggle with himself before he yielded to his convictions and espoused the 
unpopular faith. He studied it for three years, and then, after boldly asserting its truth 
in a Methodist meeting, set out for Kirtland, where he was baptized by William Smith, 
the brother of the Prophet, May 21, 1836. He was confirmed by David Whitmer in the 
Temple. At this time he was miraculously healed of an impediment in his speech, and 
promised that the healing should be permanent so long as he used his tongue for the 
advancement of the Truth. He was ordained an Elder (subsequently a Seventy) and 
preached the Gospel to his Methodist friends, about thirty of whom were converted and 
baptized. His wife and his father's family followed him into the Church. 

In March, 1838, he left Kirtland for Missouri, accompanied by his father and his 
brother Harvey. They traveled part way with Asahel Smith, uncle to the Prophet. On 
a steamboat going up the Missouri they met Colonel (afterwards General) Moses Wilson, 
who had helped to drive the Saints from Jackson county, and who told this party that he 
intended to assist in the Mormon expulsion from Caldwell county. He advised them not 
to go to Far West, for if they did they were sure to be killed. They replied, "We are no 
better than our brethren, and if they die, we are willing to die with them." The boat 
touched at Jefferson City, where Colonel Wilson introduced hi.s Mormon acquaintances to 
Governor Boggs and other anti-Mormons. Arriving at his destination Mr. Call purchased 
land in Caldwell county, and by July of that year, had his family comfortably settled upon 
his farm on Grand river. 

In September he was visited by the Prophet, his brother Hyrum and Sidney Rigdon. 
The Prophet told him and his neighbors that there was trouble ahead, and advised them 
to abandon their homes and move to Far West or Adam-Ondi-Ahman. Neglecting to 
take the warning promptly as they desired to save their crops they found themselves 
in a few days beset by mobs, and were forced to flee in the night, by an unfrequented 
road, to "Diahman." Prior to their flight, Mr. Call had hid in a bunch of cornstalks and 
fed for four days, Phineas H. Young, whom the mob had threatened to kill. 

Anson Call was among those who surrendered to General Parks at Diahman. He 
received a permit from that officer to go to Far West and then leave the State. This was 
after the imprisonment of the Prophet. Father Joseph Smith and Brigham Young were 
among the people counseling and comforting them; for they were harassed continually. 
They were not permitted to leave the town except to get fire-wood, and though ordered to 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 143 

leave the State, were not allowed to collect their horses and cattle for that purpose. Two or 
three epistles from the Prophet in Liberty jail came to them, but to hear them read and 
receive other instructions from their leaders the men had to steal their way in the night to 
a school-house about two miles from Far West. 

One day December 23, 1838 Mr. Call, unknown to the mob, left the city to go to 
a farm in another county to make sale of two-thirds of thirty acres of corn that he had 
raised on shares. At Fredericksburg, in Ray county, he was captured by ten armed 
Missourians and subjected to much abuse. They threatened to whip and hang him, and 
repeatedly slapped his face with their hands and the backs of their bowie-knives, 
tantalizing him in various ways and daring him to fight. He was unarmed and bore the 
brutal treatment patiently. As they were about to tie, before whipping him, he suddenly 
conceived a plan of escape. Calling to a grocer, who was leaning out of his window near 
by, he asked for a bottle of whisky. A bottle and a glass were handed to him. He 
toasted his persecutors and drank to them, telling them they were the bravest and best men 
he had ever met, and then invited them to drink. Their chivalrous souls were so stirred by 
the compliment (whose irony they did not perceive) and by the prospect of a drink, that 
they accepted the invitation, and while they were drinking Call bounded away like a deer 
and disappeared in the neighboring thicket. Though hotly pursued, he evaded them, 
and five miles away reached the home of a friendly Missourian, whose wife was a 
Mormon. There he was permitted to stay over night. He arrived at Far West on 
Christmas day. 

Soon after this he decided to visit his farm on Grand river, to see if he could obtain 
some property to help him out of the State. President Young and Father Smith 
advised him not to go, as he might fare worse than he did in Ray county; but his 
situation was so desperate that he resolved to risk all consequences. He found his 
farm in the possession of one of the men from whom he had purchased it George 
W. O'Neil, who with his partner, one Gulp, was taking advantage of the times to rob 
the owner. These men set upon Mr. Call, abused, beat him and forced him to flee for 
his life. Bleeding from his injuries he returned to Far West, more than ever convinced 
that the way of counsel was the way of safety. 

In January, 1839, some apostates, including Lyman Cowdery, David Whitmer and 
William E. McLellin, endeavored to use him in a conspiracy against the Prophet, -ipon 
whom they sought to fasten a false charge of perjury; but Call, seeing through their 
design, refused to became their tool. About the middle of February he and his house- 
hold started for Illinois; the snow a foot deep and the cold intense. They suffered 
severely before reaching Palmyra, near the State border, where Anson found his father 
and his cousin, Orvis Call, with their families. The father rented a farm in Hancock 
county, five miles from Warsaw, and Anson took a sub-contract on a railroad. This 
enabled him to employ a number of his destitute brethren. He resided near Warsaw, 
and afterwards, with Chester Loveland, rented a farm near Carthage. 

In March, 1841, he moved to Ramus, about twenty miles from Nauvoo, where he 
purchased a tract of land. There a Stake of Zion was organized, and he was made 
a member of the High Council. In the spring of 1842 he took up his residence at 
Nauvoo. At Montrose, Iowa, on August 8th of that year, he heard the Prophet 
predict that the Saints would be driven west and would become a migthy people in 
the midst of the Rocky mountains. From the fall of 1842 to the spring of 1843 he 
traveled as a missionary through Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, in company with F. B. 
Cummins. 

In June, 1844, Anson Call, with David Evans, was appointed to visit the leaders of 
the mob forces then gathering against Nauvoo, and endeavor to effect a peaceable settle- 
ment of the pending troubles. They were unsuccessful and barely escaped mob violence. 
They also visited Judge Thomas of the circuit court, then sitting at Knoxville, eighty 
miles from Nauvoo, and tried to get a change of venue by which the Prophet accused 
of treason and riot might be brought before that tribunal instead of being taken to 
Carthage, which town was swarming with enemies who had sworn to kill him. Judge 
Thomas declined to interfere, remarking that it was better one or two men should be 
killed than that a whole people should perish. Messrs. Call and Evans delivered this 
answer to Emma Smith, who promised to send it to her husband, then on the west side of 
the Mississippi. Willard Richards told Anson Call that this was never done. 

June 24, 1844, was the last day that he saw the Prophet alive. Joseph bade farewell 
to the Legion near the Masonic Hall, saying: "Boys, I have come to bid you good bye; 
I am going to leave you for a while." He turned in the saddle, raised his hand and 
added, "You are my boys, and I bless you in the name of Israel's God. Be faithful 



144 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

and true, and you shall have your reward farewell." He then set out for Carthage. 
"Sunday morning, June 28" says Mr. Call "0. P. Rockwell rode into Nauvoo at full 
speed, with the sweat dripping from his horse, shouting 'Joseph is killed Joseph is 
killed; they have killed him they have killed him!'" 

A few days after the murder he visited Carthage and was shown through the jail. 
He saw Hyrum Smith's blood on the floor of the fatal room, and the Prophet's blood on 
the well curb outside the prison. He met a number of the murderers, among them 
Captain Robert Smith of the Carthage Greys. Says he: "I suppose I was the first man 
who ever testified to him that Joseph Smith was a prophet of God. He never could look 
me in the face afterwards." 

Anson Call was one of the posse led by Sheriff Backenstos against the mob that soon 
began to burn Mormon homes around Nauvoo, with a view to compelling the Saints to 
leave the State. He sold his place in Nauvoo for one-fourth of its value, and on June 15, 
1846, left in the general exodus. It was a day of mourning for him and his family, his 
infant son having been found dead in bed that morning. He overtook his father at Mount 
Pisgah, and in due time reached Council Bluffs. There another sad event occured, his 
son Moroni dying on the 9th of July, soon after his arrival at the head camps of 
the Saints. 

Notwithstanding the lateness of the season, and the call for the Mormon Bat- 
lion, it was the original purpose of the Apostles, according to Mr. Call, to pioneer the 
western wilderness before the close of 1846. Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball 
each organized a company of seventy-five wagons for that purpose, and Anson Call, as 
captain of the first ten in President Young's division, started for the Rocky mountains, 
leaving the Elk Horn on the 22nd of July. At the Pawnee Mission on Loup Fork they 
overtook fifty-two wagons led by Bishop George Miller and James Eramett. While 
camping on the west side of the Loup, an express came from the Apostles, instructing 
them to travel no farther that season, and naming twelve men, with Bishop Miller as 
President, a council to direct the affairs of the companies that had reached that point. 
How they resolved to winter with the friendly Ponca Indians, at the junction of the 
Running Water and the Missouri, and were kindly entertained by them till spring, has 
been related, notably in the biographies of William C. Staines and Charles Crismon. 

In February, 1847, Ezra T. Benson and Erastus Snow arrived at Ponca from Winter 
Quarters, with instructions to Bishop Miller and the companies with him to return to the 
latter point and replenish their teams and stock of provisions before going to the 
mountains. These instructions Miller refused to obey, stating that he did not consider 
the Apostles had any right to dictate to the people of his camp. He claimed the right 
to lead them himself by virtue of a special appointment from the Prophet Joseph 
Smith. Anson Call and ten members of the council opposed Miller's claim, contending 
that the Twelve Apostles were the legitimate leaders of the Church, and they induced all 
but the occupants of five or six wagons (who followed Miller and Emmett to Texas) to 
return to Winter Quarters. During the absence of the pioneers Anson Call farmed on 
the Pottawattomie lands east of the Missouri river, and after their return he prepared to 
accompany the emigration of 1848 to Salt Lake valley. He was connected with President 
Young's company and had charge of twenty wagons. Leaving the Elk Horn on the 
27th of June, he arrived in the valley on the 19th of September. 

Three days later he moved ten miles north to what is now Bountiful, Davis county, 
but was then or soon afterwards named North Canyon Ward. He had always been a 
successful farmer, and in this locality his good fortune did not desert him ; though at first 
he met with some reverses. His oxen were poor, and his cows helped to plow the new 
soil. Logs, procured from the neighboring canyon, were whip-sawed and converted 
into lumber, and in due time comfortable log dwellings, with lumber roofs and floors 
housed him and his family. In the cricket plague of 1848-9 he succeeded in saving most 
of his crops, gathering two hundred bushels of small grain from five bushels of seed; 
also quite a crop of corn. In the harvest of 1850 he gathered a thousand bushels 
of grain. 

In September, 1849, Anson Call became Bishop of North Canyon Ward, but in 
October, he was appointed by the First Presidency to assist George A. Smith and others 
in colonizing Little Salt Lake valley. He commanded fifty of the one hundred wagons 
sent south for that purpose. Leaving Salt Lake City on the 7th of December, he 
camped on the present site of Parowan January 12, 1851. He took an active part in 
founding the settlement, and was elected justice of the peace of the new colony. In 
the spring he led another company from the north to strengthen the Iron county 
settlement. In June he visited his home in Davis county, and then led a colony to 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 145 

Pauvan valley. Before starting he was appointed at the October Conference president 
of this colony, and at a special session of the legislature was appointed Probate Judge of 
Millard county, which he was directed to organize. He arrived on Chalk Creek in 
November, 1851. President Young, Orson Pratt and others were already there and had 
laid out a city named Pillmore, designed to be the capital of Utah. President Call led 
out in all the labors required of the colony. In August, 1852, he was elected to 
represent Millard county in the Legislature. During his sojourn at Fillmore the Indians 
were troublesome; the Walker war was in progress and the Pauvant Indians were also 
on the warpath. It was this tribe that massacred Captain Gunnison and party in the fall 
of 1853 (See volume one, pages 522-527). President Call's mission to the South ended 
in the following spring. 

In the autumn of 1854 he took up a large farm in Box Elder county and founded 
Call's Fort, the object being to furnish profitable labor to the poor emigrated by the 
Perpetual Emigrating Fund. In May, 1855, he was appointed a deputy to the United 
States Marshal, Joseph L. Heywood, and in that capacity he met Judge Drummond on his 
arrival in Utah and escorted him to Fillmore. In April, 1856, he helped to establish the 
Carson valley colony, returning in time to assist the illfated handcart companies into Salt 
Lake valley. He and his sons, Anson V. and Chester, took part in the Echo Canyon war, 
and in the temporary move that followed the family went to Payson. In October, 1864, 
he was directed by the First Presidency to assist in planting a colony near the Colorado 
river in South-western Utah, and was also made the agent for leading merchants of Salt 
Lake City to select a site for a warehouse on the Colorado, with a view to bringing goods 
into Utah by that route. It was intended at the time that Mormon immigration should also 
come that way. 

In 1870-71 Mr. Call, accompanied by his wife Mary and Mrs. Hannah Holbrook, 
visited their relatives in Ohio, Vermont and other States. In 1872 he accompanied 
President George A. Smith and the "Palestine Party" as far as England, spending 
several months traveling in that country and in Ireland. Upon his return he was 
appointed to preside over the home missionaries of Davis county, acting at the same time 
as Bishop of Bountiful. When the Davis Stake was organized in 1877 he was chosen one 
of the counselors to President William R. Smith a position held by him during the 
remainder of his life. He was succeeded as Bishop by his son Chester. 

Anson Call was the the husband of six wives, namely, Mary Flint, Maria Bowen, 
Margaretta Clark, Emma Summers, Henriette Williams Call (the widow of his brother 
Josiah) and Ann Clark. His children number twenty-three. He died at his home in 
Bountiful, Sunday, August 31, 1890. 



WILLIAM WALLACE CLUFF. 

fHE Cluffs are of Anglo-Dutch descent, their earliest American ancestor coming from 
Yorkshire, England, between the years 1630-40. One of two Cluff brothers, William 
and Jeremiah, who then landed in America, after living for a time near Boston, 
moved to Durham, New Hampshire, the headquarters of that branch of the family 
from which the Utah Cluffs are descended. They get their Teutonic blood from an 
ancestress who was the daughter of a rich merchant of Hamburg, exiled by her father to 
the New World because she loved and contemplated an alliance with his gardener. In 
America she married a man named Meda, and had a daughter who in due time wedded a 
Cluff. The descendants of this pair have helped to people Utah. 

David Cluff, the parent stem of the local stock, was a veteran of the war of 1812, 
and an uncle of his fought the British at the battle of Bunker Hill, while another uncle 
was an active politician, repeatedly a member of the New Hampshire legislature. David's 
father was a well-to-do farmer. He himself was a ship carpenter by trade, but a pioneer 
by nature. In the year 1830, while on his way to Ohio on a canal boat in the State of 
New York, he met Martin Harris, the Book of Mormon witness, who was going on his first 
mission. From him Mr. Cluff learned all about Joseph Smith and Mormonism, and 
purchased from him one of the original published copies of the book, the perusal of which, 
with Harris's earnest testimony, paved the way for his acceptance of Mormonism. This 



146 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

took place in the fall of 1831, while he was a resident of Willoughby, three miles from 
Kirtland, which place he visited in the summer of that year and there became acquainted 
with the Prophet Joseph Smith. 

William W. Cluff. fifth child and fourth son of David Cluff and his wife Betsey Hall, 
was born at Willoughby, Geauga county, Ohio, March 8, 1832. He was but four years 
old when the family moved to Kirland, where the father worked upon the Temple, and 
after a mission to Canada and the Eastern States, started in 1838 for Missouri. He had 
only got as far as Springfield, Illinois, when most of his family were prostrated with chills 
and tever, which interruption in their journey prevented them from participating in the 
troublous scenes at and around Far West. In the spring of 1840 they proceeded 
to Commerce, which became Nauvoo. Father Cluff had just returned from a mission 
to the Eastern States when the martyrdom of the Prophet and the Patriarch took place. 
At Nauvoo he carried on the business of cabinet making and building; also working on 
the Temple. May, 1846, the year of the exodus, found him and his family temporarily 
located at Mount Pisgah, Iowa, where they remained for two years. 

While residing there William W., then a boy of fifteen, met with an adventure that 
nearly proved fatal to him. He and another lad had been employed by Bishop Edward 
Hunter, Church agent, to drive some loose stock westward from Sarpee's Point. One 
afternoon, a little west of the Missouri river, they were attacked by three drunken 
Indians, one of whom, maddened at being thrown from his horse, sprang upon young 
Cluff with a bowie knife and tried to stab him. By a quick movement he avoided the 
blow, the knife grazing his shoulder. While the Indian was catching his horse the boys 
made good their escape. 

William remained in the vicinity of Winter Qurters that summer, suffering a severe 
attack of chills and fever, and in the fall was taken by his father back to Mount Pisgah. 
The family next settled at Mosquito Creek, two miles south of Council Bluffs, where 
they fenced and cultivated quite a large tract of land. They crossed the plains in 1850, 
as members of Bishop Hunter's company, leaving the Bluffs in the spring or early summer, 
and arriving at Salt Lake City on the 3rd of October. 

The Cluffs settled at Provo, then an infantile village, which they did much to develop 
and improve. They were one of the principal families in that part. The father and his 
grown sons each took up twenty acres of land at the foot of the mountain, where the 
State Asylum now stands, also establishing themselves in the town proper. It is 
claimed for David Cluff that he planted the first fruit trees and raised the first fruit in 
Provo; also that he built the first cabinet shop there, his older boys working with him at 
that trade. William was mainly occupied upon the farm. It was he who took up and 
enclosed the lot upon which the old Provo meetinghouse still stands. 

In April, 1854, he, with eighteen other young Elders, was called upon a mission to 
the Sandwich Islands. Included in this company were Joseph F. Smith, John T. Caine, 
Silas Smith, Ward E. Pack and Simpson M. Molen. Elder Cluff labored on the islands 
of Oahu, Maui and Hawaii. He learned the native tongue very thoroughly, baptized 
many, organized branches of the Church and performed all the duties of a presiding and 
traveling Elder. Honorably released, he sailed with other returning missionaries from 
Honolulu, and landed about Christmas time, 1857, at San Francisco. 

They found that city and the vicinity much excited over President Buchanan's "Utah 
Expedition." Anti-Mormon sentiment was rampant. Deeming it prudent under the 
circumstances not to disclose their identity as Mormons, they sought and found employ- 
ment at some sawmills near Redwood City. One of these mills was owned by a well-to-do 
Mormon named Eli Whipple, and the other by a non-Mormon. At the latter place Elder 
Cluff and two of his fellows obtained work. They gained the respect and good will of the 
wood-choppers, some of whom were radical anti-Mormons; on Sundays they would sit 
around the boarding house, drinking, gambling and discussing the Utah situation. When 
the account of Lot Smith's exploit reached them through the California papers, there was 
a terrible state of excitement, and one of the men, taking the floor, harangued the others, 
declaring that every Mormon ought to be hung, that he would like to volunteer to go 
and hang every Mormon that could be found, and that if he could come across a 
Mormon at that moment he would help to hang him to the nearest tree. Mr. Cluff, unable 
any longer to restrain his indignation, laid down the paper he had been reading and 
stepping up in front of the speaker said, "My friend, I am a Mormon; suppose you 
commence with me." The effect was electrical; the bully slunk away, and the rest of 
the men crowded around Cluff, shouting "Bully for you!" "Hurrah for you, my boy," 
and slapping him approvingly on the shoulder. They had liked him before; now they 
admired and befriended him, and from that moment he and his two Mormon friends were 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 147 

under their special protection. Later, when it was rumored that Eli Whipple and a 
lot of Mormons rendezvousing at his mill, were going to Utah, and a mob threatened to 
rise and prevent them from leaving, or what was equivalent, to disarm them beforehand, 
which would have exposed them to numberless dangers en route, the men at the other 
mill warned those who were threatened and offered to form an armed escort for Cluff and 
his companions and see them safe out of the State. In company with the Whipples and 
others he started for Utah March 15, 1858, arriving at Prove on the llth of June. 

This was right in the midst of the "move" preceding the march of Johnston's army 
through Salt Lake City; a spectacle witnessed by Mr. Cluff, who, with General James 
Ferguson, John T. Caine and Horace K. Whitney, was in the cupola of the Beehive house, 
on guard ready to note any hostile demonstration on the part of the government troops, 
and sound the alarm, which would have meant the burning of the city by its founders. 
After the return from the move Mr. Cluff attended the Academy at Salt Lake, conducted 
by Professors Orson Pratt and James Cobb, and was still there when called upon a 
mission to Scandinavia. At this time he was engaged to be married to Miss Ann Whipple, 
daughter of Eli Whipple, the Redwood lumber merchant, having formed her acquiaintance 
in California. His mission postponed the marriage. 

September 27, 1859, was the date of his departure from Salt Lake City, in a company 
headed by Apostles Orson Pratt, Erastus Snow and George Q. Cannon. Hoii. William 
H. Hooper, Utah's Delegate to Congress, also went along. In the East Elder Cluff 
visited the old family homestead at Durham, and after spending several days among his 
kindred sailed from New York for Liverpool. His fellow missionaries to Scandinavia 
were Jesse N. Smith and J. P. R. Johnson. They sailed for Rotterdam, and thence by 
way of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein reached Copenhagen. They were welcomed by 
Elder John Van Cott, then presiding in Scandinavia. Elder Cluff studied the Danish 
language while staying with a family of Saints on the Island of Sjelland, and after three 
months began to preach in that tongue. He traveled through the whole mission, comprising 
Denmark, Norway and Sweden, part of the time in company with Apostles Amasa M. 
Lyman and Charles C. Rich. Other visitors from England were Apostle George Q. 
Cannon and wife, Elder Joseph F. Smith and his cousin Samuel H. B. Smith. At the 
head of a large company of emigrating Saints he returned home in 1863. 

The Whipple family were then residing at Pine valley, Southern Utah, and thither, after 
a short rest at Prove, Mr. Cluff proceeded. October 24, 1863 the day after his arrival at 
the Whipple home he and his betrothed became husband and wife. They took up their 
residence at Prove. By appointment of President Young Elder Cluff labored some six 
weeks among the Scandinavian Saints in Utah, Juab and Sanpete counties, and was then 
called, with Elders Joseph F. Smith and Alma L. Smith, to accompany Apostles Ezra T. 
Benson and Lorenzo Snow to the Sandwich Islands. The purpose of this mission was to 
stamp out the Gibson imposture (see biographies of Presidents Lorenzo Snow and Joseph 
F. Smith) and set in order the affairs of the Hawaiian Mission. The party reached 
Honolulu about the 27th of March, and sailed two days later for the Island of Maui, their 
bark, the schooner "Nettie Merrill," Captain Fisher, coming to anchor on the morning 
of the 31st about a mile from the mouth of the little harbor of Lahaina. Mr. Cluff thus 
relates what followed: 

''Apostles Ezra T. Benson and Lorenzo Snow, Brother Alma L. Smith and myself 
got into a small boat to go ashore. Brother Joseph F. Smith, as he afterwards stated, had 
some misgivings about going in that boat, but the manifestation was not sufficiently strong 
to indicate any general accident. He preferred to remain on board the vessel until the 
boat returned. The boat started for the shore; in addition to our party, it contained 
the captain (a white man) , two or three native passengers, and the boat's crew, who were 
also natives; likewise some barrels and boxes. 

"The entrance to the harbor is a very narrow passage between coral reefs, and when 
the sea is rough it is very dangerous on account of the breakers. Where the vessel lay 
the sea was not rough, but only presented the appearance of heavy swells rolling on the 
shore. As we approached the reef, it was evident to me that the surf was running 
higher then we anticipated. I called the captain's attention to the fact. We were running 
quartering across the waves, and I suggested that we change our course, so as to run at 
right angles with them. He replied that he did not think there was any danger, and our 
course was not changed. We went but little farther when a heavy swell struck the boat 
and carried us before it about fifty yards. When the swell passed, it left us in a trough 
between two huge waves. It was too late to retrieve our error, and we must run our 
chances. When the second swell struck the boat it raised the stern so high that the 
steerman's oar was out of the water, and he lost control of the boat. It rode on the swell 



148 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

a short distance and swung around just as the wave began to break. We were almost 
instantly capsized into the the dashing, foaming sea. 

"I felt no concern for myself about drowning, for while on my former mission I had 
learned to swim and sport in the surf of those shores. The last I remembered of Brother 
Snow was as the boat was going over, when I saw him seize the gunwale of it with both 
hands. Fearing that the upper edge of the boat or the barrels might hit and injure me, 
I plunged head foremost into the water. After swimming a short distance I carne to the 
surface without being strangled or injured. The boat was bottom upwards, and barrels, 
hats and umbrellas were floating in every direction. I swam to the boat, and as there 
was nothing to cling to on the bottom, I reached under and seized the edge of it. About 
the same time Brother Benson came up near me, and readily got hold of the boat. The 
natives soon appeared and swam about quite unconcerned for their own safety. Brother 
Alma L. Smith came up on the opposite side from Brother Benson and myself. He was 
considerably strangled, but succeeded in securing a hold on the boat. A short time 
afterwards the Captain was discoved about fifty yards from us. Two of his sailors swam 
to his assistance, and, one on each side, succeeded in keeping him on the surface, although 
life was apparently extinct. Nothing had yet been seen of Brother Snow, although 
the natives had been swimming and diving in every direction in search of him." 

Elder duff's narrative then goes on to tell how two life boats put out from the shore, 
about a quarter of a mile distant, and how he and his friends, with the apparently lifeless 
body of Apostle Snow (which had been finally recovered by one of the native divers) were 
taken into one of the boats, while the captain and his attendants were taken into the 
other, and all carried to shore. The Captain, after being worked over for some time, 
was brought to life. He would probably not have been in much danger had it not been 
for a sack containing four or five hundred dollars in silver, which he held in his hand, 
clinging to it with great tenacity. When the boat capsized, the weight of the silver took 
him to the bottom. The natives dove and brought him up still clinging to the sack. 
When his vitality was restored, the first thing he inquired after was the money, intimating to 
the natives with peculiar emphasis that it would not have been well for them to have lost it. 

To resuscitate Apostle Snow was a much more difficult task. Elders Cluff and Smith 
administered to him repeatedly; first while his cold, stiff body lay across their laps in the 
boat. On reaching the shore, they carried him to some large empty barrels lying upon 
the sandy beach, and having laid him face downward over one of these, they rolled him 
back and forth until all the water he had swallowed was ejected. They washed his face 
with camphor, furnished by Mr. Adams, a merchant, but still he showed no signs of life. 
The bystanders said that nothing more could be done for him, but his friends would not 
give him up. Finally they were impressed to place their mouths over his and inflate his 
lungs, breathing in and drawing out the air in imitation of the natural process. This 
finally resulted in his restoration. A Portuguese gentleman living at Lahaina, who from 
the first had rendered much assistance, now invited the Elders to take Apostle Snow 
to his house, an offer gladly accepted, there being no Saints in that place. 

After seeing the Apostle out of danger, Elder Cluff returned to the schooner and 
acquainted Elder Joseph F. Smith with the happy outcome of the alarming and all but 
fatal accident. The latter, having witnessed the mishap, had been under a terrible 
strain of anxiety. He had been told by a native that the captain and an elderly man 
were drowned, and had supposed the latter to be Apostle Benson. When he found 
that all were safe, he was so overjoyed that the sudden revulsion of feeling almost over- 
came him. 

Mr. Cluff returned to Utah in December of the same year, arriving at Salt Lake 
City on the day the legislature convened. He was chosen messenger of the Council. 

In February, 1865, he was appointed Presiding Bishop of Summit, Wasatch and 
Morgan counties, and in May of that year moved with his family from Prove to Coalville. 
This town was located under his direction in the spring of 1866, and prompted by his 
ambition and energy, the people of the place began the erection of a school and meeting 
house. The same year he was elected to represent Summit county in the legislature. He 
presided over the three counties named until the fall of 1867, when Wasatch county was 
separated from his district. From the spring of 1869 until the summer of 1871 he was 
absent from home, presiding over the Scandinavian Mission. 

In 1872 he sat in the Constitutional Convention, of which Hon. Thomas Fitch, Colonel 
Akers, General Barnum, Ex-Governor Fuller and Hadley D. Johnson, all non-Mormons, 
were members. He was also in the Constitutional Convention of 1884, acting as its chap- 
lain. He was repeatedly elected to the House and three times to the Council of the Leg- 
islative Assembly, and in 1882-3 was President of the Council. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 149 



When the Summit Stake of Zion was organized, July, 9, 1877, William W. Cluff 
was made its president, and served in that capacity until 1901, when he was honorably 
released. In June, 1887, he made his third trip to the Sandwich Islands, transacting 
business for the Church and returning home in July. In politics Mr. Cluff is a staunch 
Democrat. He is recognized as a man of sterling worth, one whose record speaks for 
him in no uncertain tones as a staunch and sturdy builder of the commonwealth which 
ranks him among its prominent and respected citizens. 



WILLIAM BUDGE. 

NOTED name, both in Utah and Idaho, is that of the President of the Bear Lake 
Stake of Zion. He is a Scotchman by birth, but has been an American citizen 
during the greater part of his Irfe. He emigrated from his native land nearly 
forty years ago, and ever since, except for comparatively brief periods when duty 
called him abroad, he has been actively engaged in building up the inter-mountain coun- 
try. As a pioneer and colonizer, a law-maker and man of affairs, as well as an ecclesi- 
ast, his record is one of the best among those of his class. A man of character and 
intelligence, dignified of mien, gentlemanly in deportment, modest yet masterful, pru- 
dent, self-reliant, full of courage and integrity such is William Budge, the subject of 
this biography. 

He was born at Lanark, Lanarkshire, May 1st, 1828. His father was William 
Budge, and his mother before marriage, Mary Scott. They were in fair circumstances 
for members of the poorer class. In the early part of his life William Budge, Sr., was 
a British soldier, honorably discharged after seven years of faithful service in the 
West Indies. Later, he was a merchant in Lanark, but was unfortunate in business as 
the result of accommodating his friends. He afterwards became a traveling agent for 
the great publishing house of Fullerton & Company, Glasgow, and resided successively 
at Lanark, Wishaw, Airdrie, Glasgow and Campbellton. In these places William's boyhood 
was passed. He had very little schooling, owing in part to these frequent removals of 
the family, and in part to the primitive character of the schools in the places named. 

In his youth he was inclined to the ministry, but circumstances rendered it impos- 
sible for him to embrace that calling. At twenty be was in the boot and shoe business 
at Glasgow, and it was then that he first heard the Gospel preached by Elders of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This was in the fall of 1848. On the 31st 
of December he was baptized by Elder John McMillan in the river Clyde, and from that 
time he was engaged in local Church work until April 22, 1851, when he was called to 
general missionary duty by George B. Wallace, one of the presidency of the European 
Mission, who ordained him an Elder on the same day. He had been a Teacher since 
May 27, 1849, and a Priest since September 22, 1850. 

His new field of labor was in the Carlisle conference, under the presidency of Ap- 
pleton M. Harmon, who assigned him to the town of Workington, in the county of Cum- 
berland. There were no Saints there until Elder Budge baptized a number of believers. 
Later, his field of labor embraced also the town of Whitehaven, where he baptized seve- 
ral. In September, 1851, he was transferred to the western districl of the Glasgow confer- 
ence, and subsequently to the Southampton conference. In the latter field he baptized 
seventy or eighty. From March 19 to July 25,1854, he labored in the Norwich conference, 
and then received an appointment to repair to Cambridge and labor in that city of colleges. 
On the 28th of August he was appointed by Apostle Franklin D. Richards, who with 
Elders George B. Wallace and Daniel Spencer presided over the mission, to labor in 
Switzerland and Italy, under the presidency of Daniel Tyler. Elder Budge thus narrates 
some of his experiences on the continent : 

"On the 30th of September, 1854, I arrived in Geneva, Switzerland, and was as- 
signed to labor in Zurich. On the 5th of October I reached Weiniugen, six miles from 
Zurich, in company with Elder George Mayer, who had charge of this part of the mis- 
sion. It was a time of trouble for the Saints; one Elder had been recently banished 
from the country, and President Mayer was being looked after by the civil authorities, 
the result being his banishment also. I labored in this mission until the latter part of 



150 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

the ensuing April, when I was obliged to leave the country, having been arrested thir- 
teen times within three months, sometimes detained two or three hours or more, and im- 
prisoned on one occasion for four days. 

"I arrived at Liverpool April 28, 1855, and was appointed to labor in the Norwich 
pastorate under the direction of Elder Charles R. Dana. The time was spent very inter- 
estingly until, in response to an appointment by President Richards to introduce the 
Gospel in the kingdom of Saxony, I left England September 22 of that year and arrived 
in Dresden on the 28th. 

"It being a few years after the general political disturbances that took place in a 
number of the continental nations, the authorities were very strict; civil regulations 
made passports necessary everywhere, and the conduct and object of strangers were 
strictly investigated; it was therefore almost impossible to carry out the purpose of my 
mission. 

"I lived at the house of Dr. Karl G. Masser, who had written a letter of inquiry 
about our faith, in response to which I had come. He had exceeding great faith in the 
truth as revealed to him, and was an energetic and constant help in such efforts as we 
were able to make. It came to pass that, following Dr. Mseser, several relatives and 
friends accepted the principles of the Gospel, and on the evening of October 19 were 
baptized by President F. D. Richards, assisted by myself. President Richards, 
under whose direction the mission was opened, in company with Elder Wm. H. Kimball, 
paid us a visit on his way to other fields of labor on the continent, and in response to our 
wishes he administered the ordinance of baptism, as above stated, in the river Elbe, and 
during his brief stay instructed us in many things, which increased our faith and joy in 
the Gospel. 

"I was ordained a Seventy under the hands of President Richards and Elder Kimball 
on the 21st of October, 1855." 

After laboring for some time under adverse conditions his movements all the while 
watched narrowly by the police Elder Budge, in order to avoid bringing trouble upon him- 
self and his friends, and agreeable to instructions from President Richards, left Dresden on 
the 18th of November, and arrived at Geneva, Switzerland, on the evening of the 20th. He 
found President Tyler sick; he had been released to return home and desired Elder Budge 
to remain with him until he was able to travel. He recovered slowly, so that it was not 
until the 27th that he left Geneva, arriving in London on the 30th of that month. 

Elder Budge's next appointment was as'a traveling Elder in the London conference, 
over which he was appointed to preside July 26, 1856. In the latter part of 1857 he was 
placed in charge of the Birmingham pastorate, comprising four conferences, and while 
acting in that capacity was appointed, March 14, 1858, second counselor to Elder Asa 
Calkin, who had succeeded Apostle Richards as President of the mission. This office, 
with his pastorate, he held until May 11, 1860, when he sailed from Liverpool for Amer- 
ica, his family for he was now a married man accompanying him. They landed at 
New York. 

From that city to Florence, Nebraska, he had charge of the company of Saints that 
emigrated with him from Europe, and at the end of this section of the journey was given 
command of the last company that crossed the plains that season; this appointment came 
from Apostle George Q. Cannon. Captain Budge had Nephi Johnson, an experienced 
frontiersman, as his assistant. The company comprised seventy-two wagons, the cap- 
tain's outfit consisting of one wapon, one small tent, three yoke of cattle and two cows, 
for the accommodation of ten persons. There was also a saddle pony for his special use. 

They left Florence about July 25, 1860. The journey was comparatively uneventful, 
though not without incidents of a stirring character. A numerous band of Indians con- 
fronted them at one time, demanding something to eat in a very peremptory manner, 
and were appeased with a liberal donation from the wagons. At another time, an im- 
mense herd of buffalo, so vast as to be absolutely beyond estimate, temporarily impeded 
their progress. The company was also treated to the exciting spectacle of a stampede 
among their teams, but no damage resulted, except in the loss of a few cans and kettles 
not properly secured to the wagons. At Laramie, Captain Budge and his assistant, Mr. 
Johnson, visited the fort and called at the postoffioe, which was also the store. While 
there a number of soldiers, returning from Camp Floyd and encamped near by, came in. 
One of them, noticing that Johnson had a pistol with the letters ' U. S." upon it, offici- 
ously informed him that it belonged to the United States. Johnson replied that possibly 
it had, once, and pulling the pistol out, asked deliberately if there was anyone present 
who wanted to take it. His manner did not encourage anyone to accept the invitation, 
and the incident closed with his coolly replacing the weapon in its scabbard. 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 151 

Captain Budge and his company reached Salt Lake valley on the 5th of October. He 
settled first at Farmington, Davis county, renting a dilapidated log house of one room, 
with no windows. There was plenty of ventilation, however, for a person could "stand 
in the center of the room and look in all directions through the chinks between the logs." 
Says he: "We had no furniture. Early in the morning after our arrival a neighbor 
called and offered me a job of digging potatoes on shares, which I readily accepted. 
From that time on I labored for day's wages wherever my services were required. The 
highest wages in those days for common labor was a bushel of wheat a day, worth in the 
market sixty-five cents. Everything to be bought as merchandise was high: Nails sev- 
enty-five cents a pound, sugar one dollar, tea between three and four dollars a pound, 
with everything else in proportion. Notwithstanding this, we enjoyed life and prospered, 
although we had little to eat during the first winter but bread, potatoes and some tea saved 
from our traveling store. The following summer I raised sugar cane on shares, in con- 
nection with such other work as I could obtain. I was elected justice of the peace at 
Farmington August 4, 1862, and the same year was appointed assessor and collector of 
Davis county." 

In February, 1864, William Budge removed to Providence, Cache county, where he 
resided for six years, being Bishop of the ward during that period. In 1865 he was ap- 
pointed assessor and collector of Cache county for a term of six years. While there he 
was thrice appointed assistant assessor of internal revenue, his first appointment dating 
from March 23, 1866. He became postmaster at Providence September 18, 1866, and on 
May 14, 1868, was commissioned a major of infantry in the Nauvoo Legion. His career 
as Bishop of Providence began officially on January 10, 1864, when he was ordained a 
High Priest and set apart to act in that capacity. 

In July, 1870, he removed to Paris, Idaho, where he held the position of Presiding 
Bishop of the Bear Lake settlements until August 26, 1877, when he was appointed President 
of the State, which position he still holds. From June 14, 1878, until November 6, 1880, 
he fulfilled a mission as President of the Church in Europe. His first political office in 
Idaho was deputy surveyor of Oneida county, for which he was chosen July 23. 1872. 
He was Bear Lake county's first member in the Council of the Idaho legislature 
during the sessions of 1876-7 and 1880-1. When the Territory became a State, he 
was elected to the Senate, and served during the session of 1898-9. 

Since taking up his residence in Idaho, a combinacion of circumstances has 
placed him prominently before the public as a political representative of the Mormon 
community. As such he has held many responsible positions, and has been able at dif- 
ferent times to render considerable assistance to many who were in trouble during the 
crusade under the anti-polygamy laws. He twice visited Washington, D. C., in the in- 
terests of the Mormon people of Idaho; once when prejudice ran very high and the 
Federal courts were unwarrantably severe against those accused of polygamy or unlaw- 
ful cohabitation; and again, in order to oppose the passage of the Idaho Statehood bill, 
because of the test-oath provision that it contained. During the crusade he was him- 
self arrested at Ogden, Utah, and transferred to Idaho, where he was tried for unlaw- 
ful cohabitation. The trial, which took place at Blackfoot, was a protracted one, 
ending in his acquittal. 

President Budge is the husband of three wives, whose names with the dates of mar- 
riage are as follows: Julia Stratford, November 24, 1856; Eliza Pritchard, September 9, 
1861; Ann Hyer, April 5, 1868. His children number twenty-five. His business affairs 
have been of a personal nature, with the exception of an interest in two saw-mills, two 
o-operative stores, and an extensive cattle ranch. He lives, like the Thane of Cawdor, 
"a prosperous gentleman." 



FRANCIS ASBURY HAMMOND. 

'HE stirring story of Utah colonization would not be complete without the biography of 
Hon. F. A. Hammond, who settled in Salt Lake valley in September, 1848, and died 
President of the San Juan Stake of Zion in November, 1900. He was born at 
Patchogue, Suffolk county, Long Island, on the first day of November in the year 
1822. His parents were Samuel G. and Charity Edwards Hammond. His father was a 
boot and shoe maker, and also carried on the business of tanning and currying, with 



152 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

saddle and harness making. Francis as a youth did not devote himself exclusively to the 
vocation of his sire, but learned enough concerning all these branches of industry to 
enable him in after years to establish them. 

When about fourteen years old he began going to sea in small coasting vessels as 
cook or cabin boy at a salary of four dollars a month. This was during the summer. In 
the winter he worked with his father, and part of the time attended school. Being 
attached to a sea-faring life, he chose it as his vocation, with the ambition of becoming 
master of a ship. He continued in the coasting business until the year 1840, when he 
shipped as able seaman on board the bark "White Cake," Captain Daniel Fitch, with 
whom he started on a whaling expedition. They sailed from New London in company 
with the Brig "Somerset," commanded by Captain Beck. The two captains were the 
sole owners of the vessels. They whaled in Nu Bay, latitude forty degrees south, and all 
down the South American coast to Cape Horn and the Falkland Islands. 

At Falkland during a gale the crew of the "White Cake" refused to go on shore to carry 
freight from a ship- wreck for the benefit of the captains, and for this Hammond and two 
other seamen were put in irons. He seems to have regained the confidence of his 
master, however, for he was subsequently made steward of the vessel. Moreover, he was 
placed in charge of certain prisoners the chief mate and the ex-steward; the former a 
Mr. Allen, and the latter a Portuguese. Owing to extreme rough treatment received from 
the masters while moored in Nu Bay, Mr. Allen had run away, in company with the 
steward, taking with him a new whale boat, a chronometer, a coast chart, all the specie 
on board and all the arms and ammunition. They were pursued and brought back in 
irons, and Mr. Hammond, having been made steward, was given charge of them until the 
vessel arrived at Rio Janeiro, where they were turned over to the American consul, with 
witnesses who accompanied them to the United States. Hammond was one of these 
witnesses. On board the sloop of war "Decatur," Captain Farragut, they reached 
Richmond, Virginia, and on May, 5, 1842, a trial was held and the prisoners, charged 
with piracy, were set free, as the charge could not be sustained. 

Hammond's next sea-faring venture was a whaling voyage to the Arctic Ocean, 
upon which he sailed from Sag Harbor, Long Island, on the ship "Thames," Captain 
Jeremiah Hedges, June 23, 1843. He shipped as boat steerer, a petty officer privileged 
to live aft and associate with the chief officers. After rounding the cape of Good Hope, 
where Captain Hedges was sent home sick, and the chief mate, Mr. Bishop, became 
captain, they pursued their way across the Indian and South Pacific oceans, landing in 
March, 1844, in the Hawaiian" Islands, at the very spot where the famous Captain Cook 
was killed by the natives. 

While whaling in Okhotsk Sea Mr. Hammond was disabled by an accident, which 
nearly cost him his life, and was the indirect cause of changing the whole course of his 
career. He was bracing with all his might against a large cask of oil, when a barrel of 
flour, headed up in an empty ninety gallon cask, fell fifteen feet and struck him in the 
small of the back. The captain and fellow officers, believing him to be fatally injured, 
put him ashore at Lahaina, Sandwich Islands. In two months he was sufficiently 
recovered to set up a shoe-making establishment, which he conducted until the fall of 1847, 
when he sailed for San Francisco, intending to go on to New York, marry, and return to 
make his home in the Islands. He little knew that at this very time the woman he was 
destined to wed was on her way to meet him ; though as unaware of his existence as he 
of hers until a year after her arrival as a Mormon emigrant girl in the valley of the Great 
Salt Lake. 

Our sailor friend was no sooner well ashore than he set up a shoe shop and industri- 
ously plied his vocation. Among the new acquaintances made by him were some of the 
Latter-day Saints who had come to California with Samuel Brannan on the ship 
"Brooklyn;" also certain members of the Mormon Battalion. Acquaintance with these 
people was followed by conversion to their faith, and on the last day of December, 1847, 
Francis A. Hammond became a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. The next May he set out for the newly discovered gold mines, and after digging 
gold on Mormon Island for six or seven weeks, returned to San Francisco, where he 
purchased an outfit for Salt Lake valley and straightway took up his journey hither. 

He arrived at the "Old Fort" on the 6th of September, 1848, in company with 
quite a number of other immigrants to the mountain home of the Saints. Here he met 
and married, two months and five days after his arrival, Miss Mary Jane Dilworth, who 
had been teaching school in the fort, and was the pioneer teacher of Utah. President 
Heber C. Kimball performed the marriage ceremony. In March, 1851, the young hus- 
band and father for by that time he had a child six months old was called on a mission 



flISTOBY OF UTAH. 153 

to the Sandwich Islands. His wife and child accompanied him. The family were gone 
about six years, returning to Utah in the summer of 1857, having passed the previous 
winter at San Bernardino, California. They had barely reached their home on Big 
Cottonwood when the news came of the coming of Johnston's army. The returned 
missionary forthwith joined the militia and spent much of the following winter in Echo 
Canyon. In the "move" he took his family to Payson, whence they returned in mid- 
summer of 1858 to their home in Salt Lake valley. 

In March, 1859, the Hammonds moved to Ogden, where the head of the house went 
into business with Bishop Chauncey W. West, in the manufacture of leather, boots and 
shoes, saddles and harness. During this period he was counselor to Bishop West, justice 
of the peace and a member of the city council. In the summer of 1865 he made a trip to 
the Sandwich Islands, in company with Elder George Nebeker, to purchase for the 
Church the famous plantation at Laie. The purchase was effected, and quite a colony of 
native Saints located there. 

Upon returning home in the fall he was called to take charge of the Latter-day 
Saints at Huntsville, in Ogden valley, and was afterwards ordained a Bishop and placed 
to preside there. During the construction of the railroad across Utah he took a number 
of contracts, both on the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific lines. In the fall of 1869 
he was one of five hundred missionaries called to visit various parts of the United States 
and do all in their power among relatives, friends and others to modify the intense 
bitterness that prevailed against the Mormon people. He returned home in the spring of 
1870. He was a member of the Weber county court for six years, and after retiring 
from office spent some time traveling through Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Old 
Mexico, looking out suitable places for settlements. By this time he had been called to 
part with his beloved wife, Mary Jane Dilworth Hammond, who died at their home in 
Huntsville just before completing her forty-sixth year. 

In December, 1884, Bishop Hammond was called to preside over the San Juan Stake 
of Zion, and spent a portion of the winter traveling in that part, accompanied by his son. 
In the fall of 1885, with his own and some other families, he moved thither, first residing 
at Bluff, San Juan county, and afterwards at Moab,' Grand county; the latter place 
as well as the former included in his Stake, which comprised parts of Utah, Colorado 
and New Mexico. President Hammond spent the winter of 1888 at Washington, D. C., 
in the interest of the San Juan county settlers, and in connection with what was known 
as the Southern Ute Indian Removal bill. He was Probate Judge for San Juan 
county under the Territorial regime, and represented that part in the Constitutional 
Convention of 1895. 

Up to the day of his death, though he had entered upon his seventy-ninth year, 
he was comparatively hale and active. He would brave all sorts of weather and 
travel over all kinds of country in making his regular visits to the various Wards embraced 
in the Stake over which he presided. It was while performing such a duty that he was 
accidentally killed by being thrown from a wagon in a runaway at Bloomfield, New 
Mexico, November 27, 1900. His death was deeply regretted, for he had many friends, 
and was a genial warm-hearted gentleman. He had been thrice married, but only one 
of his wives survived him. He was the father of fifteen children. During his extended 
career as a colonizer he built or purchased twenty-five different homes. 



WILLIAM MILLER. 



T5\ISHOP William Miller, of Provo, Utah county, who died on the 7th of August, 1875, 

T5j had been a settler in Utah since 1849 and a veteran of the Latter-day Church since 

the days of Kirtland. He passed through the persecutions of Missouri, helped to 

build Nauvoo, and on arriving in Utah took a prominent part in colonizing the 

southern counties. He will also be remembered in Mormon history for the "Bogus 

Brigham" incident, which happened just before the Saints left Nauvoo. Many good 

works remain to perpetuate his memory. 

The son of Seth and Martha Tilden Miller, he was born at Avon, Livingston county, 
New York, on the 8th of January, 1814. His ancestors were English and among the 
first settlers of New England. His father and mother were natives of Connecticut and 

10 



154 HISTORY OF UTAH 

Massachusetts, respectively, but soon after their marriage they migrated to the western 
part of the State of New York. Their occupation was farming and stock-raising. 
They were the parents of nine children, all prominent and well-to-do members of 
society. 

When William was about seventeen years of age there was an unusual excitement 
over religion in his neighborhood, and yielding to repeated solicitations he put his name 
down as a probationer for six months. Shortly afterwards he heard a Mormon Elder 
preach the "new doctrine," as it was called. He did not immediately embrace the faith 
of the Saints, but read the Book of Mormon, compared it with the Bible, and for a year 
attended all Mormon meetings held in his vicinity. 

On his eighteenth anniversary his father gave him a thousand dollars, with the 
privilege of beginning life for himself, and soon after he accompanied some of his 
associates to the wilds of Michigan, intending to invest his money in land. Returning 
home, he found himself unable to command his capital immediately, it being loaned out, 
and so settled down for the winter and attended the district school. His opportunities for 
education had all along been very limited. In the spring still disappointed about his 
money he turned his attention to farming. 

During the following summer he again became interested in the doctrines of the 
Latter-day Saints. Renewed investigation resulted in his conversion, and in the fall of 
the same year he set out for Kirtland, Ohio, where he met the Prophet Joseph Smith 
and became a member of the Church that he had founded. The date of his baptism was 
October 23, 1833. 

On Majr 1st of the year following he married Phebe Scott, one of his early playmates, 
who was also a firm believer in Mormonism. She was baptized the same spring. In the 
autumn they moved to Kirtland, where they rented a house, purchased seventy acres of land 
and expected to remain permanently. There Mr. Miller was ordained an Elder and 
subsequently a Seventy of the Church. The latter ordination was under the hands of 
the First Presidency in February, 1835, when our subject became a member of the second 
quorum of Seventy. Then followed a preaching mission to his native State, where 
he organized several branches of the Church. 

In the spring of 1838 he removed to Far West, Missouri, and from beginning to end 
of the mob troubles in that State was in the very thick of the fray, constantly on duty, 
helping to protect the lives and property of his people. On one occasion he with others 
secreted from the anti-Mormon plunderers a printing press and valuable papers by 
placing them in a hole dug in the ground and covering them with a haystack. He was 
among those compelled to deed away their lands to defray the expanses of the war waged 
against them. February, 1839. found him at Quincy, Illinois, where President Sidney 
Rigdon counseled him and other exiles 'to scatter for the time being as a measure of 
safety. In Sangamon county he rented farms, and resided until the spring of 1841 at 
Booneville, where he baptized some twenty persons and raised up a branch. 

At Nauvoo, his next place of residence, he was taught the principle of plural marriage 
by the Prophet, and a few months after the martyrdom, on December 22, 1844, he married 
as a plural wife Marilla Johnson, daughter of Aaron Johnson, the marriage taking place 
in the presence and with the full consent of his first wife. Mr. Miller assisted in all the 
public works at Nauvoo, was present when the cornerstone and capstone of the Temple 
were laid, and officiated in the sacred house from its opening until the exodus. 

A remarkable and humorous episode occurred while he was laboring in the Temple 
in the latter part of December, 1845. It was a time of great peril for the Mormon leaders, 
especially Brigham Young, who as President of the Twelve Apostles had come to the 
front as successor to the martyred Prophet. The anti-Mormons, having accomplished the 
murder of Joseph and Hyrum. were anxious to get Brigham into their power, and 
repeatedly sent officers from Carthage to Nauvoo to arrest him. One day a posse was 
detected lurking around the Temple, and President Young, within, was informed that they 
were waiting for him. Seeing Elder Miller across the hall, .the President requested him 
to go down and impersonate him. The latter promptly complied, throwing on Heber C. 
Kimball's cloak, which was similar in size and color to the President's and descending 
the stairs to the Temple door, where Brigham's carriage stood in waiting. As he was 
about entering the carriage an officer stepped up to him and said, "You are my prisoner." 
Miller made no resistance, but requested the officer to accompany him to the Mansion 
House, that he might consult his lawyer, a Mr. Edmunds. The officer consented. As 
the carriage drove up to the Mansion House, quite a crowd gathered around, among them 
the sons of President Young and Apostle Kimball, who, shaking with inward mirth over 
the ruse that was being practiced, contributed to its success by shedding an abundance 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 155 

of crocodile tears while bidding their "father" farewell. Lawyer Edmunds agreed to go 
to Carthage with Mr. Miller and see him safe through. Entering the officer's vehicle, 
they forthwith set out for that place. When within two or three miles of it the posse 
halted, and rising in their wagons, shouted vociferously, "We've got him! We've got 
him!" On entering the town the supposed Brigham was put under a strong guard in an 
upper room of the principal hotel, and kept there until supper time, when he was taken 
to the dining hall. While eating he was pointed out to curious callers as Brigham Young. 
Finally a man named Thatcher, who had once been a Mormon, came in, and asked the 
landlord where Brigham Young was. "That is Mr. Young," answered the landlord, 
pointing to the prisoner. "Where?" inquired Thatcher "I don't see any one that looks 
like Brigham." The landlord told him that it was the stout man who was eating. 
"Oh hell!" exclaimed Thatcher, "That ain't Brigham Young; that's Bill Miller, my old 
neighbor." Upon hearing this the landlord informed the officer, who, much agitated, came 
and took Miller away. Having him alone he said, "Why in hell did'nt you tell me your 
name?'' "You didn't ask me my name," Miller calmly replied, "Well what is your 
name?" "My name is William Miller." The officer left the room in a rage, followed 
by his quondam prisoner, who walked off with Lawyer Edmunds, Sheriff Backenstos 
and other non-Mormon friends, who secreted him and subsequently saw him safe back to 
Nauvoo. It is needless to add that the joke was much enjoyed by the Mormons and by 
all friendly to them among the Gentiles. 

At the beginning of the exodus Mr. Miller was sick and did not leave Nauvoo until 
May, 1846. At Garden Grove he helped to fence, plow and put in crops, which he left 
for others to harvest, and continued on to the Missouri river, where he helped to found 
Winter Quarters. Bound for Utah, he crossed the river from Kanesville with his loaded 
teams April 25, 1849. He had taken a contract from Livingston and Kincaid to haul 
four thousand pounds of merchandise at ten dollars a hundred to Salt Lake City, and had 
received part of his pay in advance. He joined a company of one hundred wagons 
organized by George A. Smith, and headed by Orson Spencer, and was made captain of 
the first fifty, William Hyde being captain of the second fifty. At Loup Fork where they 
were detained a week on account of high water, several persons in the company died 
from cholera. 

Mr. Miller arrived at Salt Lake City on the 20th of September. He purchased a 
house and lot in the Sixteenth Ward and fenced a farm of thirty acres on the west side of 
the Jordan. The next spring he built a house of adobes. Spring had not come, however, 
when in response to a call from Governor Young he went with others to the relief of the 
settlers of Provo, who were attacked by Indians. He remained with the scouting parties 
in pursuit of the hostiles until the militia were recalled and discharged. 

About the middle of September, 1850, having been appointed one of the judges of 
Utah county under the Provisional Government of Deseret, he moved to that part in 
company with his father-in-law, Bishop Aaron Johnson. He settled first at Springville, 
the site of which he had selected during a previous visit. In the spring of 1851 he built 
the first adobe house at that place, and assisted to fence sixty acres of land, from which 
were raised that season four hundred bushels of wheat. The same spring he organized 
and was appointed captain of a company of cavalry for the protection of the settlers 
against Indians. In the ensuing August he was elected to the Territorial legislature. In 
the fall of 1852 he was called to Iron county to strengthen the new settlements in that 
section, which were threatened by Indians. He built a house and located a farm, 
expecting to remain, but a treaty having been made with the savages, he returned early 
in 1853 to Springville. He now became first counselor to Bishop Johnson, and during 
the next three years was occupied in farming, in canyon work and in the duties of his 
various offices. 

From April, 1856, until the beginning of 1858, he was absent upon a mission to 
England, crossing the plains, going, in a large company commanded by A. O. Smoot, 
himself acting as captain of the guard. They suffered many hardships, encountering 
severe storms, but finally got through in safety. During his journey to the Atlantic 
coast he made his last visit to his birthplace, where his brothers and sisters received him 
very kindly. Abroad he labored in the Birmingham conference, and was afterwards one 
of the Presidency of the Welsh Mission. Called home with other Elders, in consequence 
of the war troubles of 1857, he returned with Apostles Orson Pratt, Ezra T. Benson and 
others, traveling incognito owing to the anti-Mormon bitterness that prevailed. They 
landed at New York on the 25th of October, but learning that Johnston's army was then 
on the plains en route to Utah, they re-embarked and proceeded homeward by way of 
Panama and San Francisco, arriving here about New Year's day. 



156 HISTOEY OF UTAH. 

William Miller was next made Bishop of Provo, presiding also over the other settle- 
ments of the Saints in Utah county. This appointment came in July, 1860. He and his 
family were escorted from Springville to Provo by a company of cavalry and a brass 
band, the day of their removal -the 24th being the occasion of a big celebration of 
Pioneer Day at the latter place. During his administration the Provo meeting house was 
completed, furnished and dedicated, under great disadvantages, owing to Indian 
depredations and hard times. He paid into the meeting house fund over a thousand 
dollars, and also donated liberally toward the establishment of the Deseret Telegraph 
line. He built the house afterwards occupied by President Young's family in Provo, 
and now the residence of Judge Warren N. Dusenberrv. Bishop Miller sold this place to 
the President. Later he erected the Excelsior House in that town, and it was there that 
he died. The particulars of the outrage perpetrated upon him and other residents of the 
Garden city on the night of September 22, 1870, by drunken soldiers from Camp Rawlins, 
is related elsewhere (chapter 18, volume I). Bishop Miller was always a public worker. 
He was Mayor of Provo for several terms, and also an alderman of the city. In the 
militia organization he was quarter- master of both Provo and Springville. Sober, 
industrious, kind, sociable and jovial, he looked upon the bright side of life, was warm- 
hearted and hospitable to strangers, and as true as tried steel to his friends. 



THOMAS EDWIN RICKS. 



fHOMAS E. RICKS was born on the 21st of July, 1828, in Trigg county, Kentucky. 
His parents were Joel Ricks and Elenor Martin. They moved while he was yet 
an infant to Madison county, Illinois, where his boyhood was spent until he was 
eighteen years of age. His time was mostly occupied in assisting his father, who 
was a hard-working and prosperous farmer. On March 27, 1844, he had a thigh broken 
by being thrown from a horse, an accident that caused one of his legs to be much shorter 
than the other, thus making him a cripple for life; but for all that he was rery active and 
hard-working and remained so to the end of his days. Reared on the frontiers of 
Western Illinois, where educational facilities were very limited, he was able to acquire 
but little book learning, and what he did obtain was mostly at odd times by dint of his 
own unaided efforts at the home fireside. 

He wa baptized a Latter-day Saint February 14, 1845, and'in September of the same 
year went with his father's family to Nauvoo, where he worked on the Temple during the 
fall and winter. In October he was ordained an Elder under the hands of Jesse Baker. 
The following February, the exodus from Illinois having begun, his father sent him with 
a team to assist Charles C. Rich in moving West. He crossed the Mississippi on the 8th 
of that month, joined the camps on Sugar Creek and traveled with the family of Elder 
Rich to Council Bluffs. His father's family having arrived there, they went into Winter 
Quarters, remaining on the Missouri until the spring of 1848. 

The elder Ricks being in good circumstances, they were able to fit themselves out 
very comfortably for the journey across the plains, and also to lend considerable aid to 
others. They traveled under the direction of Apostle Heber C. Kimball, with whom, as 
well as with other leaders of the people, a close intimacy was formed. On the Elk Horn 
river, on the third day of June, while attempting to recover some stock driven off by the 
Indians, Thomas was shot by them, and for a time his life was despaired of, the doctor 
declaring, while probing for the three balls that had entered his body, that he could not 
live three hours. He was administered to by the Elders, however, and promised that he 
should live. He recovered, and for fifty-two years his life continued to be active 
and useful. 

He arrived in Salt Lake valley September 24, 1848, and settled first at Centerville in 
Davis county. In 1852 he moved to Farmington, where he made his home until 1859, 
when he removed to Logan, Cache county. There he resided for twenty-four years, and 
during this period was mostly engaged in farming and stock-raising. In 1883 he was 
oalled by the Church authorities to lead a colony into Snake River valley, Idaho, and 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 157 

there, at the town of Rexburg named in his honor after the original spelling of his 
family name he resided up to the time of his death. 

At various times he formed business associations and undertook enterprises which 
generally proved successful. For twenty years he was interested in milling at Logan, 
with William D. Hendricks of Richmond, and was also associated with him for several 
years in railroad construction. He was president of the Rexburg Milling Company and 
of the Rexburg Co-operative Store. 

Among the missions he fulfilled was one to the Indians at Los Vegas, New Mexico, 
in April, 1855. He left home in May of that year, and returned in September, 1856. In 
1863 and in 1866 he crossed and recrossed the plains, bringing emigrants to Utah. From 
October, 1869, to March, 1870, he was on a mission to the States, and from May, 1885, 
to November, 1886, on a mission to Great Britain. He took active part as an officer of 
the Church from his earliest connection with it and was advanced step by step until he 
became the President of a Stake. He was always generous and charitable with his 
means, and in the days of his greatest prosperity was styled "the friend of the poor." 

For many years he was a Colonel in the Utah militia, and during early troubles with 
the Indians was a minute man, ready to start at a moment's notice to defend the lives and 
property of the people. He was for several years sheriff of Cache county, and it was 
during his tenure of that office that the incident occured which formed the basis of 
the charge upon which he was tried and acquitted, as narrated in chapter twenty-seven, 
volume two, of this history. 

Thomas E. Ricks was always looked upon as a proper man to take charge of public 
enterprises, such as the construction of canyon roads, irrigation canals and ditches, 
especially in times when all was done by donation. Should his Bishop or the President 
of his Stake ask him to superintend such a labor, he would never shrink nor shirk, whatever 
sacrifice it entailed. He was always on hand to do his duty, and always respectful and 
obedient to his superiors in authority. He was President of Bannock Stake for many 
years, and after it was divided he continued to be President of Fremont Stake, holding 
that position unlil his death. He was married August 18, 1852, to Tabitha Hendricks; 
March 27, 1857 to Tamar Loader and Jane Shupe; December 6, 1863, to Ruth C. Dilley; 
and November 29, 1866, to Ellen Maria Yallop. His children number forty-three. 
President Ricks died at his home in Rexburg, September 28, 1901. 



JOSEPH PARRY. 

^ "''HE biography of Joseph Parry possesses much interest, not only for his family and 

ft D friends, but also for the general reader. Many incidents connected with the settle- 

< i ment of the north country by colonizers from Utah full details of which have never 

been published are noted in his journal. Among other matters, the opening of 

the Salmon River Mission, which has received but meagre notice thus far, is graphically 

described by Mr. Parry, and will appear in its proper place. 

Joseph Parry was the youngest of eight sons and five daughters, the children of Ed- 
ward and Mary Foulkes Parry. He was born April 4, 1825, at New Market, in Flintshire, 
North Wales. His parents were not rich in worldly goods, but were honest, industrious 
and frugal, and sought earnestly to impress those virtues upon the minds of their children. 
The father was a tenant farmer, and from the products of the field, supplemented by the 
earnings of a house kept for the entertainment of travelers, he supported his family. At 
the age of thirteen, death deprived Joseph of his mother, whom he loved devotedly, and 
four years later his father died. Thus early he began to fight the battle of life, unaided 
except by Providence, in whom he had an abiding trust. 

Soon after the death of his father he went to the city of Liverpool, landing there 
without money, and so far as he knew, without friends. It was not long, however,. before 
he met an old acquaintance, William Jones, through whose timely help he was soon able 
to provide for his own needs. Parry was a carpenter, and worked at his trade while in 
Liverpool. He had been in that city but a short time, when his uncle John Parry and 
family left Wales and settled at Birkenhead, where they became Latter-day Saints, and 



158 HISTOEY OF UTAH. 

were very desirous that he also should become one. On the 2nd of October, 1846, he 
attended a Mormon meeting in Liverpool, where he saw for the first time Orson Hyde and 
John Taylor, who were introduced to the congregation as Apostles, just arrived from 
America. The latter preached on the first principles of the Gospel, which he testified had 
been restored through Joseph Smith by an angel from heaven. Parry continued to in- 
vestigate until he became convinced of the truth of Mormonism, and was baptizd Decem- 
ber 31st of the same year by Elder Thomas Thomas, and confirmed by Elder Simeon 
Carter. 

In the spring of 1847, he was ordained by Elder Carter a Priest, and subsequently 
fulfilled a short mission to his native country. His brothers and sisters rejected his testi- 
mony, regarding him as deluded, and his sister Elizabeth, deeply distressed at his joining 
a people everywhere spoken evil of," declared that she would rather have followed him 
to his grave. Her Mormon brother told her that she would yet change her views, become 
a Latter-day Saint and follow him to Zion. This prophecy was literally fulfilled, not only 
his sister but her husband and children being afterwards converted, and coming to Utah. 
They were in the handcart emigration. 

September 1, 1848, was Joseph Parry's wedding day. He married Jane Payne. 
They desired to come to America, but not having sufficient means to pay both fares at one 
time, by mutual agreement the husband came first. It was only six days after his mar- 
riage when he sailed from Liverpool with two hundred and thirty other Latter-day Saints 
on board the ''Erin's Queen." The company was in charge of Simeon Carter. At New 
Orleans, where they landed on the 29th of October, Parry obtained employment and 
began to save money to send for his wife. In December the cholera broke out, and many 
thousands fell victims to its fearful ravages. He relates that during a seven days' trip up 
the Mississippi river to St. Louis, thirty-seven of his fellow-passengers died of the plague. 
Joseph himself escaped, but his wife, who sailed from Liverpool January 29, 1849, on 
board the "Zetland," and arrived at New Orleans on the 2nd of April, died seventeen 
days after a happy reunion with her husband. The same day his uncle John Parry, wife 
and son Caleb reached that port, but were unable to land long enough to visit their kins- 
man in his affliction. 

Soon after the death of his wife Mr. Parry went to St. Louis, where the cholera was 
also raging, thousands dying of it. In January, 1850, he formed the acquaintance of 
Miss Eliza Tunks of Herefordshire, England, and on the first of the following April she 
became his wife. In May they moved to Kanesville, (Council Bluffs) where he bought a 
lot, built a log house, and remained a resident until the summer of 1852, when he started 
for Utah. He was in William Morgan's ox-team company, the thirteenth of the season. 
July 1st was the date of his departure from the frontier, and he was about three months 
in reaching Salt Lake City. The journey was uneventful, barring a few deaths from 
cholera, and the loss of some horses and cattle stolen by Indians. 

Upon his arrival in "the valley" Mr. Parry was met by his uncle John, whose hos- 
pitable home he shared until he could provide for himself and family. He found employ- 
ment at the Temple block, taking his pay in provisions, money being very scarce and not 
even groceries obtainable. He witnessed the laying of the Temple corner-stones in April, 
1853, and in November of the same year was ordained a Seventy and united with the 
Thirty-seventh Quorum. He had been an Elder since the spring of 1852. 

Early in 1853 he moved to Ogden, and made that city his permanent home. He with 
others did the carpenter work on the first adobe house erected there the residence of 
Hon. Lorin Farr. The following spring he purchased a lot and built a log cabin as a 
temporary dwelling. The same year he formed a partnership with John D. Reese and 
Daniel Leigh, and erected a saw-mill on Boxelder Creek, above the site of Brigham City, 
which was not then surveyed. The mill was completed in 1855, and was the first one 
built north of Weber county. 

^ow came what Mr. Parry considers the most important and most interesting part 
of his history since arriving in Utah his Salmon River mission and the opening of the 
northern country to civilization; a work in which the Mormon people were some years in 
advance of any other white settlers. April 7th, 1855, was the date of his appointment, 
with twenty-six other Elders, organized under the Presidency of Thomas S. Smith, to 
take a mission to the northern Indians, and the 25th of the same month was the time they 
were set apart for that purpose by Apostle Lorenzo Snow at Ogden. May 17th was the 
day of their departure. They were under instructions to settle among the Flatheads, the 
Bannocks or the Shoshones. They were to teach them the arts of civilization and induce 
them if possible to abandon their savage customs and live at peace with each other and 
with the whites. The missionaries were also instructed to take provisions enough to last 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 159 

them at least one year, so as not to be a burden upon the natives. They were enjoined to 
be strictly honest in all their dealings with them, and were promised by the authorities of 
the Church that if they would go in humility and faith, and labor diligently to discharge 
their duties, the blessings of the Almighty would attend them in their ministry. 

Proceeding northward about four hundred miles, they camped, June 15th, upon 
the east fork of Salmon river, naming the place Port Lemhi. Throughout the jour- 
ney, which was intricate, and they were without a guide, they had made their own 
roads over the mountains and through the forests, and had bridged the intervening 
streams. The country was little known to the white man, though it formed part of Wash- 
ington Territory, and was inhabited only by savage tribes the Bannocks, Shoshones, 
Nez Perces and others, who were very numerous. George W. Hill was the interpreter 
through whom the colonists talked to the natives and made them understand that they 
were their friends and had come to help them to teach them how to till the soil, build 
houses and live in them like white people. They were asked if they had any objection to 
the missionaries settling among them at that place. They answered that they had no ob- 
jection; they received the Elders kindly and extended to them a hearty welcome, giving 
them permission to cut timber and occupy land, but not allowing them to kill their game 
or catch their fish large salmon, filling the streams. They could, however, have all the 
fish and game they needed for table use in exchange for such articles as they had to dis- 
pose of that were desired by the Indians. This was their fishing point, and the time the 
latter part of June their fishing season, when the salmon came from the ocean and 
traveled up the streams as far as they could, to spawn. During the season the Indians 
caught a large number of salmon daily, using willow traps for the purpose. Sometimes 
they would take from a hundred and fifty to two hundred at "a catch." In this way they 
soon laid in an abundant supply for winter food. 

The missionaries camped on a small creek flowing into the east fork of Salmon river, 
building a dam in the creek and bringing the water upon the land in order to plow and 
irrigate their garden crops of peas, potatoes, etc. This was the first planting and irrigat- 
ing done in the far north, comprising parts of the present States of Idaho and Montana. 
But the season was too far advanced for the crops to mature. The colonists next erected a 
palisade fort, and then put up their log cabins, also building strong corrals for the safety 
of their stock. While no hostility had been shown by the red men, the missionaries, who 
were few in number, deemed it wise to take every precaution against surprise or open 
attack. Wherever they went they were fully armed. Through the summer months they 
labored assiduously, late and early, to prepare for winter. During August some of them 
went home for supplies and seed for the next year, returning in the following November. 
David Moore brought his wife and his daughter Louisa, who was subsequently married at 
the mission to Lewis W. Shurtliff. Francello Durfee and Charles McGeary also brought 
their wives. These were the first white women to settle in that country. 

Winter set in as early as November, and this induced many of the Indians to camp 
near the fort, expecting the occupants to share their provisions with them. This they did, 
until they found they were getting very short themselves. At the opening of December 
President Smith discovered that they had only flour enough to last till March, and it would 
be necessary for some of the colonists to go at once for more supplies and return early in 
the spring. Joseph Parry, George W. Hill and seven others volunteered for this service, 
and began their perilous journey on the 4th day of December. The snow was nine inches 
deep, ana they had two mountain ranges to cross before reaching Ogden. Ascending the 
Salmon River pass, the altitude increased, and the snow became much deeper. The cold 
was intense, especially on the summit of the pass. Their outfit consisted of six yoke of 
oxen, three wagons and a small allowance of provisions. One of the wagons they were 
compelled to leave in the Bannock pass, on account of the deep snow. The 16th of the 
month found them at Fort Hall, without provisions. The snow there was about fifteen 
inches. Captain Grant, in charge of this trading post, received them kindly, but was 
unable to let them have any flour, his own supply being nearly exhausted. He furnished 
them, however, with all the beef they wanted, and let them have some groceries, blankets 
and moccasins. They were still one hundred and eighty miles from the source of their 
supplies, and had only beef to eat. On the Bannock mountains the snow was so deep as 
to greatly impede travel, and it became a serious question as to whether they could cross 
the range at all. They determined to try. One day they wallowed through the snow 
from early morning until late at night, and only made three miles. The whole of the 
distance the men had to tramp down the snow to make a road for the teams to travel in. 
That night they camped in the mountains in the midst of a fierce snow-storm, without 
wood, water, supper, or feed for their oxen. Their situation was perilous in the extreme! 



160 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Next morning they descended the mountains without breaking their fast, and camped 
near a large spring the head of Malad river. At that point the cattle were able to 
pick a little grass and crop a little sage-brush on the hillside, where the wind had blown 
away the snow. On the 21st they camped at Deep Creek, near where Malad city now 
stands, and the following night stayed with a few families who had settled near the line 
between Utah and Washington Territories, and who furnished them with supper and 
breakfast. These families were the first settlers in Malad valley. On the 23rd they 
reached Bear River, which they had hoped to ferry, but the ferrymen were gone, so they 
broke the ice, which was not thick enough to bear their wagons, and forded the deep and 
icy stream. They arrived at Ogden the day after Christmas. 

When starting upon this northern mission Elder Parry had left his family in what he 
deemed ''a deplorable state." His wife had been bed-ridden for six months. She had 
three small children, one an infant, and her only assistance was a little girl. But the 
brave woman murmured not; she encouraged her husband to fulfill an honorable mission, 
and was fully resigned to it. On returning he found his family in a much better condi- 
tion. The winter of 1855-6 was the severest yet known in Utah. During the previous 
summer the grasshoppers had destroyed the crops, and it was estimated that nine-tenths 
of the cattle, horses and other live stock died of starvation at least in certain localities. 
It was known as the "Hard Winter." Deep snow covered the ground from November, 
1855, to the middle of March, 1856. On the 28th of that month Mr. Parry again left his 
Ogden home in charge of the company returning to Fort Lemhi. A number of new 
colonists, also taking supplies, went with them to strengthen the mission. They reached 
their destination on the first of May, and found the colony in good health and spirits. 

That year they planted a great deal of grain and vegetables, but the grasshoppers 
devoured the crops and left the fields desolate. A few scattered hills of wheat escaped 
and matured, and this demonstrated that under favorable conditions grain could be raised 
in that altitude, which trappers and others had declared was too high for the purpose. 
During the summer the colonists suffered for lack of bread, though they had plenty of 
meat, fish, butter and milk. President Smith again found it necessary to send to Utah 
for supplies. The same year Joseph Parry, with David Moore and B. P. Cummings, Sr., 
built a small grist-mill. In the fall Parry and George W. Hill were sent to Utah to bring 
in the mails. They returned to Fort Lemhi in the spring. In the fall more men arrived 
with provisions, and more homes were built and other improvements made. 

The spring of 1857 opened bright and promising, and preparations were made 
for planting a large area with grain and vegetables. The missionaries had made 
some progress in studying the Shoshone language, and could now converse with the 
Indians and explain to them the Gospel. Two years before, they had baptized 
some of the natives, both men and women. They were treated by all with great 
kindness, and felt as safe among them as among their friends at home. It was difficult, 
however, to induce the red men to labor. They considered the whites better adapted for 
that purpose, and declined to study this branch of the education offered them. During 
the spring Presidents Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and Daniel H. Wells, with some 
of the Apostles and a large number of prominent Elders from Utah, visited the Mission. 
The President held several meetings and gave much valuable instruction, also expressing 
himself as well pleased with the labors of the missionaries and with the peaceable 
disposition manifested by the Indians. He reminded his brethren, however, that they 
were far from help, in the event of a hostile outbreak, and counseled them to be constantly 
on their guard, prepared for any emergency that might arise. He advised them to be 
patient, kind and generous to the red men, to be diligent and faithful in their labors 
among them, and by precept and example encourage them to lead better lives, doing 
nothing that would retard their progress or bring reproach upon them. Shortly after the 
departure of the President and his party several of the missionaries went home for their 
families, returning in October, accompanied also by some new missionaries and their 
wives. Another fort was now built farther down the valley, about three miles north of 
Lemhi. This year they had heavy crops of wheat and other grain, also potatoes and 
various vegetables, thus demonstrating that cereals of all kinds could be raised there. 
They had built the first houses and mills, dug the first water ditches, and inaugurated the 
irrigation system that has redeemed that land from sterility and made agriculture possible 
in Idaho, Montana and adjacent parts. 

In September, 1857, Joseph Parry and Gilbert Belknap carried the mail from Lemhi 
to Utah, and two days after their arrival home about the last of that month they were 
mustered into active service in the Nauvoo Legion and marched with a company of 
infantry to Echo Canyon to help repel Johnston's army. Later they served in the cavalry, 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 161 

under Lot Smith and Porter Rockwell. In the latter part of November they were honorably 
discharged to return home. 

The following winter witnessed the breaking up of the Salmon River Mission. Mr. 
Parry's account of this event is as follows: On February 25, 1858, a large number of 
Bannocks and Shoshones made an unprovoked raid on the stock herds of the misssion, 
firing on the herdsmen, badly wounding two (Andrew Quigley, left for dead, with his 
skull crushed in, and Fountain Welsh, stripped, beaten and also left for dead) and chasing 
the remaining one, Orson Rose, to the fort. President Smith and another man, who were 
out getting wood, saw the attack, hastened to the fort, procured help and started to head 
off the fleeing cattle. In this attempt George McBride was shot dead and scalped by the 
Indians, and President Smith was wounded in the arm. A bullet also passed through his 
hat and another cut his suspender. In their flight with the cattle down the valley the 
Indians met James Miller, Haskell V. Shurtliff and Oliver Robinson, coming up from the 
lower fort. They fired upon them, killing Miller and wounding the two others, whc 
succeeded in reaching Fort Lemhi. Two hundred head of cattle and thirty head of 
horses were driven off. At the time of the attack the colony comprised forty men, fifteen 
women and a number of children. They could not account for the abrupt outbreak. They 
had given the natives no cause for enmity, had treated them with uniform kindness from 
the first, and had aided them in every way as far as possible. It was believed that the 
raid was incited by unfriendly mountaineers and Indian agents. Ezra Barnard and 
Baldwin H. Watts were sent at once to Salt Lake City to report the matter to President 
Young, who immediately dispatched one hundred mounted men, with twenty baggage 
wagons, under Colonel Cunningham, to bring home the missionaries and their families. 
As soon as practicable after the arrival* of the relief expedition the colonists organized 
into two companies, and on the 27th of March the first company, with ox teams and a 
guard of horsemen, started out, the remainder following and overtaking them next day. 
B. F. Cummings, Sr., George W. Hill, Baldwin H. Watts, Bailey Lake and others were sent 
in advance to report the condition of the companies to President Young. The Indians 
pursued these messengers for several hundred miles, overtaking them at Cedar Springs, 
where they killed Bailey Lake and stole some of the horses. The others escaped unin- 
jured. The company following found the body of Lake, where he was killed. During 
this dangerous journey two girl babies were born, to the wives of H. Harmon and Israel 
J. Clark. The tragic ending of the mission left its members in an almost destitute 
condition. They had invested their all to establish it, and now had to begin life again. 
Besides their improvements, they left fifteen hundred bushels of wheat behind them. 
They arrived home only to find that their kindred and friends had gone south in "the 
move." Joseph Parry participated in this exodus. 

His life, after returning to Ogden, continued to be busy and useful. He held various 
prominent positions, sat for several years in the city council, both as councilman and 
alderman, was a member of the local board of education and President of the Third 
Ecclesiastical District of Ogden. In 1868 he with William N. Fife built by contract 
several miles of the Central Pacific railroad, west of and extending into Ogden. From 
May, 1870, to May, 1871, he was on a mission to his native land, where he presided over 
the Swansea Conference. 

His wife Eliza had died July 3, 1864. Before her death he had married Ann Malan. 
Afterwards he wedded Olive Ann Stone and Susan A. Wright Brown. His plural marriage 
relations made him liable to prosecution under the Edmunds law, and an indictment was 
found against him by the grand jury of the First Judical District. On December 24, 
1886, he went into court with bondsmen and surrendered, and having pleaded guilty to 
cohabitation with more than one wife, on January 8, 1887, he was sentenced by Judge 
Henderson to six months imprisonment in the Utah penitentiary and to pay a fine of three 
hundred dollars. He served his term and paid his fine. He is the father of twenty-three 
children, fifteen of them boys, and of these ten boys and five girls were living, at last 
accounts. 

Mr. Parry is still a prominent and prosperous resident of the Junction City, counting 
among his holdings, stock in the State Bank of Utah and Consolidated Wagon and Machine 
Company. He is a member of the High Council and a home missionary of the Weber 
Stake of Zion. A devoted and earnest advocate of his religious faith, he is known and 
recognized as a man of integrity, who would dare any danger, endure any toil or make 
any reasonable sacrifice to advance the interests of the sacred cause he has espoused and 
live up to his convictions of duty. 



WILLIAM NICOL FIFE. 



WIDE-AWAKE, useful career, thrilling and even tragic in some of its phases, is 
that of William N. Fife, a prominent citizen of Weber county, who has also been 
a colonizer in Arizona. A native of Scotland, he was born at Kincardine, Perth- 
shire, on the 16th of October, 1831. His parents were John and Mary M. Nicol 
Fife. The father was reared on a farm, but later in life followed surveying as a profes- 
sion. William received a good education, and at the age of fifteen was apprenticed to a 
carpenter and builder for a period of five years. 

At the end of his apprenticeship he found employment in the city of Glasgow, with 
the firm of J. Nairn and Sons, builders, and remained with them for nine months, after 
which he fitted out for Melbourne, Australia, to go into the building business with his 
uncle, Thomas Fife, who for eight years had been a resident of that land. 

He sailed from Glasgow August 2, 1852, and next day reached Liverpool, intending 
to travel through England and re-sail in the winter from London. At Manchester he 
entered into a contract with a building firm for one month, and took lodgings in a house 
which proved to be the Mormon conference house. There he met Alexander F. McDonald, 
Cyrus H. Wheelock and other missionaries from Utah, and was converted to their faith. 
He was baptized by an Elder named Lamb, and confirmed by one Elder France, on the 
first day of October. The course of his life was now completely changed; he thought no 
more of going to Australia, but made up his mind to emigrate to Utah. 

On the 7th of April, 1853, he sailed with a company of Latter-day Saints for New 
Orleans, where he arrived on the 2nd of June. There he met John Brown, the Utah 
Pioneer, who took charge of this the last company that crossed the plains to Salt Lake 
valley that season. Mr. Fife was the carpenter and a captain of ten among these emi- 
grants, whom he helped to fit out at Keokuk, Iowa. They started from that point on the 
27th of June fifty-five wagons, with two yoke of oxen to each wagon and reached Salt 
Lake City on the 20th of October. Seven lives were lost between Liverpool and the end 
of the journey. 

Mr. Fife's first employer in Utah was President Heber C. Kimball, with whom he 
remained, in charge of his building business, for eighteen months, and at whose house he 
married, July 9, 1854, his first wife, Miss Diana Davis, daughter of Daniel and Sarah 
Davis; President Kimball performing the ceremony. Their first child, Sarah Jane Fife, 
was born July 10, 1855, at her father's home in the Sixteenth Ward. 

In the fall of 1856, the Fife family moved to Ogden, the head of the house having 
entered into a contract to complete the Tabernacle in that city. His partner was Walter 
Thompson. The other parties to the contract were Chauncey W. West and Albern Allen. 
His first son, William Wilson Fife, was born at Ogden, August 16, 1857. This was the 
year of the Echo Canyon war, in which Mr. Fife, who had seen volunteer service in the 
Indian troubles of 1853, and had risen from corporal to second lieutenant in the militia, 
figured as first lieutenant and subsequently as quartermaster, with the rank of captain. 
He went with the Weber and Box Elder militia to head off Colonel Alexander, who was 
endeavoring to enter Salt Lake valley by way of Soda Springs; and afterwards served in 
Echo Canyon. Keturning Ifrom the "move," Mr. Fife next entered into building con- 
tracts at the military post founded by the government troops in Cedar valley. 

"This," says he, "brought a great amount of money into the Territory. In company 
with my old friend, Walter Thompson, I started for Camp Floyd, arriving there Septem- 
ber 15. 1858. We entered into a contract to put up government buildings at the post. 
We were treated with great courtesy by General Johnston and the other officers, and 
profited handsomely by our contract. In 1859 we built a tannery for West and Ham- 
mond at Ogden; also stables for Wells Fargo and Company, who were running a stage 
line from Salt Lake City to Montana. In 1860 I helped to finish the Seventies' Hall in 
Salt Lake; and later assisted to build the Ogden House for C. W. West, a store for 
William Jennings at Salt Lake City, and many other buildings of note. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 163 

In April, 1862, Mr. Fife was appointed city marshal of Ogden, succeeding James 
McGay, and was elected to the same office February 1, 1863, and re-elected for many 
succeeding terms. Subsequently he was coroner for Weber county and pound-keeper of 
his district. In April, 1863, he was a member of the High Council of Weber Stake. In 
the fall of 1864, he presided over the local dramatic association. 

All along he continued to be active and prominent in military matters. As regi- 
mental Adjutant, he organized the first company of militia in Ogden valley, July 24, 1862. 
In January following he witnessed the battle of Bear Eiver, where Colonel Connor anni- 
hilated the hostile Shoshones of Southern Idaho. Marshal Fife assisted in getting teams 
to convey the wounded soldiers to Ogden. On July 1, 1866, he became a Colonel of In- 
fantry in the Weber Military district. 

In 1868, when contracts were let to build the grade of the transcontinental railroad 
across Utah, he, with Joseph Parry, to whom he was second counselor in the third eccles- 
iastical district of Ogden, took a contract to build several miles of the Central Pacific 
road between Promontory and Ogden. Between September 28 and the following Decem- 
ber they completed the work, paying off their men and doing well for themselves. At 
the jubilation over the advent of the iron horse into Ogden Mr. Fife was marshal of the 
day. About this time he acted as a school trustee, and at all times did everything in his 
power for the improvement and advancement of the town. Concerning some of the events 
following the advent of the railroad he says : 

"In May, 1870, the smallpox was brought into Ogden, supposedly by an Indian 
squaw. The first person taken down with it, a Mrs. Eggleston, died, and later some of 
Walter Thompson's family were afflicted with it, and one died. John Murphy and his 
wife also fell sick, and Mayor Farr thought it best to move them up on Brick Creek. Ac- 
cordingly I erected a lumber room and moved them to it, furnishing them with food and 
other necessaries. The city was placed under quarantine, and I was instructed to follow 
up the disease with disinfectants and place a yellow flag in front of every afflicted house. 
I attended to this duty personally. By July forty cases were moved from their city homes 
to Farr's Grove on the banks of the Ogden river, the Mayor assisting me in this work. 
Very soon he was taken down with the disease, though in a mild form, and was also 
moved to the grove, where at the end of July I had eighty-nine cases. I got good kind 
nurses for the sick, and by strict regulations in the camp and the city the contagion was 
prevented from spreading any further. About half the people in camp I furnished with 
supplies from Z. C. M. I., at the expense of the city. A great portion of the time I was 
on the move day and night, and though handling most of the sick people in taking them 
to the grove, I was not attacked by the disease. Only seven of the eighty-nine cases 
proved fatal, and by the end of October all survivors were back in their homes. In 1876 
the smallpox again took Ogden by storm, and as city marshal I worked day and night to 
destroy the disease. It was practically a repetition of my former experience, though 
most of the sick were quarantined in their own homes. Many lives were saved, and by 
the 28th of December the quarantine was raised. The scourge lasted over three months. 
The city paid me well for my services, and many leading men of the town presented me 
with tokens of respect. 

"Many strangers from East and West had made their homes in Ogden; the hotels 
were crowded, and the railroads brought many bad characters. I had plenty to do, mak- 
ing many arrests, newly equipping the police force, furnishing and refitting the city hall 
and adding more cells for prisoners. Among the cases brought to justice was a man 
named Lee, living with some ticket brokers at the Ogden depot. He had committed a 
dastardly outrage on a Mrs. Farley, a lady from the East. I followed him to Tacoma, 
Nevada, and arrested him in bed in the presence of four of his friends; a local officer 
accompanying me. I hand-cuffed my man and brought him back to Utah, where he was 
tried, found guilty and sentenced to the penitentiary for four years.'' 

In the fall of 1873 Mr. Fife went on a mission to his native land, and at Glasgow 
hunted up and visited his relatives, whom he had not seen for twenty-three years. None 
of them knew him. He found his father and his grandmother, the latter in her ninety- 
third year. He describes it as "a great meeting." He fulfilled a successful mission, 
baptizing many, and having charge of the Mormon emigration from Glasgow to Liver- 
pool, by appointment of President Joseph F. Smith. He returned home in November, 
1874. From 1877 to 1880 he superintended the erection of various buildings, the last 
being the Central schoolhouse at Ogden, considered at the time the finest school building 
in the Territory. 

He next turned his attention to the South, starting early in November, 1880, with a 
view to exploring in Arizona and Mexico. He was accompanied by his second wife, a 



164 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

widow of Captain James Brown; and by her son Orson, her daughter Cynthia and his 
first wife's sons, John D. and Walter F. Fife. By way of Kane county they crossed the 
Buckskin mountains, the Big and Little Colorado rivers, and arrived on the Gila Februar3' 
1, 1881. After exploring a week in that vicinity they proceeded on through the San 
Simon valley, struck the S. P. R. R. (just completed) and thence by way of the Apache 
Pass reached the great Sulphur Spring valley, where Mr. Fife left his family while he ex- 
plored Sonora in Mexico; an account of which he wrote to President John Taylor. In the 
Sulphur Spring valley, at a place called Oak Grove, he located a fine ranch, and there, on 
the closing day of 1881, was joined by his first wife, Diana, his eldest son William W. and 
his daughter Agnes. 

The country in which they settled, which was grassy, wooded and fertile, was claimed 
by the Chiricahua Apaches, who because of their blood-thirstiness had been placed by the 
government on the San Carlos reservation. In the spring of 1882 these Indians broke 
away from the reservation, got into the mountains and went into Mexico, some of them 
also making a raid on the Arizona ranches. "My teams," says Mr. Fife, "were at the 
time in Pinery Canyon, nine miles above the ranch, at Lobley's logging camp; my son 
John D. being engaged in hauling logs to the silver mines at Tombstone. The Indians 
surprised them, killing Lobley and his partner, Fenroy. My son made for the hills and 
defended himself, fighting them alone, fifteen in number. He received two wounds; they 
tried to burn him out, but he made his escape ; the animals were run off by the Indians. 
He was taken to Rigg's Ranch, and afterwards to my home. We followed the Indians, 
who went through the mountains to Sonora. I now built an adobe house to supplement 
my frame house, and provided it with port-holes on three sides as a protection against 
Indians. Soon after this I was visited by Brothers Erastus Snow, Moses Thatcher and 
Christopher Layton, whom I assisted in exploring for the benefit of our people." Mr. 
Fife also aided General Crook, who had been sent by the government to put the Indians 
back upon the reservation. He speaks of him as a brave, wise and kind officer. The 
Indians yielded to his persuasions, and he did the country a great service. 

And now came an episode that cast a deep shadow over a career for the most part 
happy and prosperous. On the 10th of September, 1883, Mrs. Diana Fife was murdered 
at Oak Grove ranch by a Mexican desperado, whose purpose seems to have been plunder. 
The day before the deed was done Mr. Fife had gone to the nearest Wells Fargo Com- 
pany's office, forty-five miles away, to express money to some of his folks who had been 
to the St. George Temple and were expected home after visiting friends in Ogden. His 
sons John and Walter were down on the bottom lands, cutting hay, and the only ones at 
the ranch were his wife Diana, her daughter Agnes and a hired man, a worthy, kind- 
hearted Mexican, who chopped wood and did other work about the place. Choosing his 
time, the desperado, who had evidently planned the murder of all three, presented him- 
self at the door, and diverting Mrs. Fife's attention by saying "Look!" at the same 
time pointing to a window he drew a pistol and shot her. ' The ball passed through the 
upper part of her hip, and she fell mortally wounded. He then aimed at the daughter, 
but the gun would not revolve. At this moment the hired man sprang upon and disarmed 
the murderer, and as he fled fired several shots after him, none of which took effect. He 
made for the hills and escaped. Mrs. Fife died in a short time. Her husband arrived 
home at daybreak next morning, to receive, along with the terrible tidings, the sympathy 
of many kind friends who had gathered to offer aid and condolence. With characteristic 
promptness he had the news spread in all directions, and every available man and boy 
was soon in the saddle, scouring the country in quest of the assassin. By ten o'clock 
that forenoon he was run down, captured and brought back, wirhin half a mile of the 
scene of his crime, where he was examined, but would make no confession. A hundred 
men demanded his immediate death, and he was forthwith "strung up;" a horseman at 
one end of the rope being ordered to "take him off at full gallop." He hung for two 
days upon a tall oak tree, awaiting the arrival of the County officers. 

Another Indian outbreak is described by Mr. Fife, the result, in his opinion, of the 
ill-advised appointment by President Arthur, in February, 1885, of an incompetent Indian 
agent. The savages killed men and destroyed property wherever they could. General 
Crook again took the field, and under orders from President Cleveland, captured most of 
the Indians and shipped them from Bowie Station to Florida. General Miles finished the 
work, though he was not as successful as General Crook had been, and finally Geronimo 
and the rest of the savages were taken out of the country. The troops were stationed at 
and near the Fife ranch during much of the trouble. 

In 1887 Mr. Fife assisted Apostle Erastus Snow and others in exploring parts of 
Mexico, and subsequently sent one of his families to reside there. His third wife, Cyn- 



HISTORY OF UTAH. ]65 

thia, and her family took up their abode at Oak Grove ranch. He is at present among 
his children in Ogden. One of his sons John D. Fife is in business at Salt Lake 
City. 



ABRAM HATCH. 

eOLONIZER, merchant, missionary, legislator, Bishop and Stake President, the 
Honorable Abram Hatch has a career crowded with incidents of an interesting 
and instructive character. Though not, in a natal sense, a son of Utah, by far 
the greater part of his life has been identified with the growth and development 
of this commonwealth. He is a "Green Mountain boy," descended from a veteran of the 
Revolution Captain Jeremiah Hatch who served under the great Washington. A 
thorough American, his conduct through life has been characterized by a love for his 
country's institutions and the sacred rights of man for which his forefathers contended. 

Abram Hatch, son of Hezekiah and Aldura Sumner Hatch, was born Januarys, 1830, 
at Lincoln, Addison county, Vermont. He was educated in the common schools of 
Lincoln and Bristol until about ten years of age, when he moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, the 
headquarters of tne Latter-day Saints. This was in the fall of 1840. Early in that year 
his father's family and some of their immediate connections had been converted to Mor- 
monism through the preaching of Elder Peltiah Brown. Abram's mother died in the 
spring, and about six months later the family removed to Nauvoo. Hezekiah Hatch 
was a wealthy farmer in Vermont, and withal a man of education. He bought property 
in Nauvoo, built a fine brick house there, and opened a farm on the adjoining prairie. 
He died in 1841. After that Abram lived with his grandfather. His uncle Jeremiah 
came from North Carolina to administer the estate. At the death of the Prophet and 
the succession of President Young to the leadership of the Church, this uncle became an 
adherent of Sidney Rigdon's, married one of his daughters, and was one of his 
apostles; but the rest of the family, including Abram, his brothers, and the old Revolu- 
tionary grandsire, followed the fortunes of the main body of the Saints. 

During the mob depredations around Nauvoo, instituted for the purpose of 
compelling the Mormon people to leave the State, Abram Hatch was with the posse of 
three hundred men who made a tour of Hancock county in company with Sheriff Back- 
enstos, to arrest the leaders of the mob. In the exodus that followed he drove a team in the 
first company that moved west from the rendezvous on Sugar Creek, after the passage of 
the Mississippi. 

From Garden Grove he returned with others to Nauvoo for provisions. He found 
letters awaiting him there from his uncle Jeremiah, urging him to come to Greencastle, 
Pennsylvania, and complete his education. This had been the dream of his life, and 
he forthwith set out for that place. On arriving there, he found that his uncle had over- 
rated his ability to send him to college. Though deeply disappointed he did not despair, 
but immediately sought and found practical employment first in Ebenezer Robinson's 
printing office, where the Latter-day Saints' Herald was published in the interest of Elder 
Rigdon's church, and afterwards with a merchant named Newton, a member of that body. 
While at Greencastle, Abram saw the entire failure of the Rigdonite movement. 

His emplover's business having collapsed, he next sought to enlist as a soldier for 
the Mexican war, which was then in progress. He was rejected by the recruiting officers 
at Chambersburg on account of his youth and immature size, being only seventeen years 
old. He also tried to enter Girard college, but not being a native of Pennsylvania, was 
unsuccessful. Thwarted in his aspirations for a collegiate education, he again turned to 
the west, resolving in all the enthusiasm and buoyancy of youth, to push earnestly into 
practical life, leaving his further education to general experience under the dispensations 
of providence. 

At Pittsburg he found employment in a boat store and bakery, and soon afterwards 
secured a situation as cook on a t-oal boat plying between that point and New Orleans, a 
distance of two thousand miles. Returning from a successful voyage, he took his former 
situation at advanced wages, and shortly afterwards made tvro or three trips as cabin 



166 HISTOEY OF UTAH. 

boy on a steamboat running between Pittsburg and Cincinnati. After being employed 
upon the rivers for some time, he proceeded to rejoin his brother Jeremiah, who was 
living on Sugar Creek, in Iowa. In the fall of that year 1847 he went with his brother 
and family to Florence, Nebraska, then called Winter Quarters, to which point Presi- 
dent Young and many of the Pioneers had just returned after planting a colony in Salt 
Lake valley. 

Electrified by the accounts they gave of their journey and the country they had seen, 
Abram resolved. to emigrate to the Rocky mountains and establish a home for himself in 
the midst of his people. With this end in view he went to St. Louis in the summer of 
1848 and followed steamboating on the rivers, part of the time as cabin boy and subse- 
quently as deck hand, carefully saving his wages to purchase a suitable outfit with which 
to cross the plains. The following year he spent at St. Joseph, Missouri, accumulating 
means for the same purpose. 

It was in the spring of 1850 that he, with his brothers Jeremiah and Lorenzo, his 
sisters Adeline and Elizabeth, with others, crossed the Missouri river on flat boats and 
began their journey westward. The captain of their company was David Evans. Abram 
drove his own team. His outfit consisted of one wagon, two yoke of oxen, two yoke of 
cows, farming tools, clothing and a year's provisions. He took great delight in hunting, 
and assisted in killing buffalo to supply food for the train. On the 15th of September 
they entered Salt Lake valley. He and his brothers remained at Salt Lake City during 
the fall and winter, but in the spring of 1851 moved to Utah county, where Abram and 
Lorenzo assisted in building and were part owners of the first grist mill erected in the 
northern part of that county. 

'On the 22nd of September, 1852, Abram Hatch married Permelia Jane Lett, Bishop 
Isaac Houston performing the ceremony. He settled at Lehi and engaged in farming, 
merchandizing and trading. He also kept a hotel. In 1861 and 1863 he crossed and re- 
crosed the plains for the purpose of bringing emigrants to Utah and freighting merchan- 
dise for his store. In all, he traversed the plains eleven times as missionary, merchant 
and traveler. 

In the spring of 1864 Mr. Hatch was called to fulfill a three years mission to 
Europe. Leaving his business affairs in charge of his wife, he set out about the last of 
June with President Daniel H. Wells and Apostle Brigham Young, Jr., who, with their wives 
Mrs. Hannah C. Wells and Mrs. Catherine C. Young were also en route for Europe. 
The wagon train they traveled in was commanded by Captain John R. Murdock. By 
way of Chicago and Niagara Falls, Mr. Hatch reached New York, and sailed thence 
on an Anchor line steamer for Glasgow, where he landed and proceeded to 
Liverpool. He was appointed by the President of the European Mission, George Q. 
Cannon, to labor in the Birmingham conference under the presidency of Elder William 
H. Sherman, who tenderly nursed hini through an attack of- smallpox during 1 his ministry 
in that conference. His traveling companion was Elder Francis Platt. At a general 
council in December, at which were present Daniel H. Wells, then President of the 
Mission, Orson Pratt, Brigham Young, Jr. , William B. Preston, Moses Thatcher, and 
other notable Elders, he was appointed president of the Manchester district, including 
Liverpool, Preston and the Isle of Man. He was subsequently appointed to the Bir- 
mingham pastorate, including the Warwickshire, Staffordshire and Birmingham confer- 
ences. His health failing, he took a tour on the continent, visiting the principal cities of 
France, Switzerland and Holland. Returning to Great Britain, he completed his mission, 
from which he was released in December, 1866. 

Prior to his departure for home, he visited various points of interest in the British 
Isles, and in company with Heber John Richards and William W. Riter, passed over into 
Ireland. The Fenian excitement was then at its height, and on landing at Dublin, Elder 
Hatch, to his amazement, was arrested and conducted to the guard house on suspicion 
of being Stevens, the chief of the conspirators. He soon succeeded in convincing the 
officers that it was a case of mistaken identity, and was set at liberty. On emerging 
from the guard house, he and his friends were surrounded by a mob, shouting and yell- 
ing (for the people still supposed Hatch to be Stephens), and it reauired the assistance 
of a force of police to enable the three Elders to make their way through the dense and 
agitated crowd to their hotel. After two days in Ireland, they gladly returned to Liver- 
pool. 

It was on March 26, 1867, that Mr. Hatch set sail from that port, homeward 
bound. He took passage on the "Great Eastern," and had as fellow-passengers to New 
York such notables as Cyrus W. Field, of Atlantic cable fame, Paul Du Challieu, the 
African traveler and explorer, and Jules Verne, the French author, who in his "Floating 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 167 

City," afterwards published, made very favorable mention of "Mr. Hatch the Elder." 
whose announcement to lecture on Mormonism in the ship's saloon was cancelled "as the 
wives of the Puritans on board did not approve of their husbands becoming acquainted 
with the mysteries of Mormonism." Several interviews upon that subject, however, took 
place between Elder Hatch and Mr. Field, and this, too, at the latter's own seeking. He 
seemed greatly interested in what he heard. An accident occurred at the very beginning 
of the voyage, in which four sailors were killed and twelve others wounded. It occurred 
while raising the anchor with a steam engine, the catch breaking with fatal results. An- 
other incident of the voyage was a terrible storm, followed by a burial at sea, the dead 
man being a sailor, the captain's nephew, who died from injuries received during the 
tempest. 

At New York, where he landed in April, Mr. Hatch tarried several weeks, acting 
as Church advance agent (according to a request made of him at Liverpool by Brigham 
Young, Jr., President of the European Mission) and purchasing goods for his Utah 
store. He visited his relatives in Vermont, erected a marble tombstone over his mother's 
grave at Lincoln, and also visited Sidney Rigdon and family at Friendship, Western 
New York. During his interview with the once famous leader, whom he describes as a 
"grand looking old man, large and portly," who impressed him with his "intellectual 
importance;" Mr. Hatch said, "Elder Rigdon, it is reputed that you wrote the Book 
of Mormon; did you or did you not? What is your testimony your dying testimony?" 
The answer came without hesitation, "I did not write the Book of Mormon. It is the 
revelations of Jesus Christ." Mr. Rigdon still felt bad towards President Young, whom 
he accused of supplanting him and by his shrewdness depriving him of his rights as the 
lawful successor to Joseph Smith. Mr. Hatch regarded Rigdon as "an intellectual 
giant of a certain type," as "a man of extraordinary spiritual aspirations," yet "lack- 
ing in the elements of a great leader." 

Mr. Hatch arrived home in August, and in a few weeks was called by President 
Young to go to Wasatch county and act as a Presiding Bishop in that section. At this 
time he was a member of the 44th quorum of Seventies. President Young ordained him 
a High Priest, and set him apart for his Bishopric December 2, 1867. He had previously 
removed to his new home in Heber City, where he devoted himself to the task of build- 
ing up the town and county. He was for six years probate judge of Wasatch county, 
and for twenty-three years continuously represented the county in the territorial legisla- 
ture. In 1877, when the stakes of Zion were organized, Bishop Hatch was made President 
of Wasatch stake. He continued in the mercantile business and organized a co-operative 
store, the business of which has constantly increased. His two oldest sons are associated 
with him in merchandizing and stock raising. In addition to his other public duties, he 
has performed military service, leading a company of cavalry to the relief of the Salmon 
river settlement late in the fifties. 

In November, 1880, President Hatch was called upon to mourn the loss of his 
wife, who died after a lingering illness of four months, and was buried in the cemetery 
at Lehi beside their two sons, Rodolph and John, who died while their father was in 
England. In addition to these, she had borne him five children, namely, Joseph, the 
eldest, superintendent of the co-operative store; Abram C., who has charge of the horse 
and cattle herds; Minnie A., who is married to Captain Pardon Dodds, of Ashley valley; 
Emma Jane and Lucy Ann. In April, 1882, President Hatch married Miss Ruth Wool- 
ley, daughter of the late Bishop Edwin D. Wolley, of Salt Lake City. By her he has 
had four children John, Mary Ann, Fanny La Prele and Edwin D. 

In 1883 Mr. Hatch made a trip to Washington, D. C., for the purpose of getting a 
claim allowed by the government. In this he was successful. While there he attended 
a reception given by President Arthur, and to which he was accompanied by Mrs. Belva 
A. Lockwood, Washington's lady lawyer. He also formed the acquaintance of Senator 
Edmunds, Secretary Teller, Major Powell and other notable men. In 1885 he attended the 
St. Louis cattle convention, and by request officiated as chaplain. He was accompanied 
by his wife and by Judge Woolley and wife, of Washington county, Utah. After 
getting through with the business and festivities of the occasion, the party took train for 
Memphis, and from there floated down to New Orleans on a palace steamer to attend the 
Southern and Central American Exposition. 

Mr. Hatch is a natural humorist and is noted for his genial disposition. He has a 
happy home, which is always open to his friends. He is benevolent and charitable, and 
has ever been greatly interested in education. As a member of the Utah Legislature 
he brought in the bill setting apart a portion of the public revenue for the benefit of the 
common schools. He was also the member who first moved the passage of the woman 



168 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

suffrage act, afterwards repealed by the Edmunds law. He remained President of 
Wasatch Stake until 1901, when, on account of failing health, he was honorably released 
from his long and faithful service in that capacity. 



EDWIN D. WOOLLEY, JR. 

I NERGETIC, thrifty and prosperous, straight-forward, out-spoken and manly, of 
stalwart build and vigorous mentality, the name-sake son of Bishop Edwin D. 
Wolley has inherited many 6f the qualities of his worthy and distinguished father. 
He was born at Nauvoo, Illinois, April 30, 1845, and was a little toddling child 
when he came with his parents to Salt Lake valley. His mother's maiden name was 
Mary Wickersham. The family arrived here in the fall of 1848. 

In the Pioneer city of the Rocky mountains the Wolleys made their home, and here 
Edwin's boyhood and early manhood were passed. He spent the winter of 1865-6 at St. 
George, and saw service in the Navajo war, being one of a party who recovered the body 
of Dr. Whittnore, who was killed by the Indians near Pipe Springs. Returning to Salt 
Lake City the following spring, he served in the Blackhawk Indian war, under Colonel 
Heber P. Kimball. In 1867 he again visited St. George, spending the winter there. 

In the spring of 1868 he married Miss Emma Geneva Bentley, of that place, the 
ceremony being performed at Salt Lake City. The following winter he took up a permanent 
residence at St. George, where he employed his time in farming and freighting. 

In 1869 he went to California for goods for the St. George Co-operative store, but 
instead of returning with goods, he brought home the dead body of his brother, Franklin 
B. Woolley, who had been killed by Indians near San Bernardino, on March 21st of that 
year, while returning from a similar errand to that upon which Edwin had started. The 
latter held at St. George the offices of constable, deputy-sheriff and justice of the peace, 
and was also a member of the city council. 

When the United Order was organized by President Brigham Young, in 1874, Mr. Wool- 
ley took a prominent part in the movement. Three years later he married his second wife, 
Florence Snow, and in the spring of 1877 went upon a mission to Europe, where he labored 
in the British Mission. Returning thence after faithfully discharging his duty, he made 
preparations a few years later to change his place of residence from St. George to Upper 
Kanab, in Kane county. 

This change was effected in 18^2. He located a fine ranch in a beautiful picturesque 
spot known as "Wolley's," where the writer of this sketch had the pleasure some years 
later of visiting him and a portion of his estimable family and partaking of their bounteous 
and whole-souled hospitality. The other part of his household Mrs. Florence Snow Woolley 
and her children were living at that time in Arizona. Mr. Woolley turned his attention 
to farming, stock-raising and dairying, in all of which he prospered. 

In June, 1884, he became President of the Kanab Stake of Zion, being set apart 
under the hands of Apostles Erastus Snow and John W. Taylor. In 1889 he moved to 
Kanab, his present home, where he engaged in stock-raising and merchandizing. All 
that can be said of any one who has led a frontier life, breaking ground, fighting Indians, 
constructing roads, bridges, dams and ditches, erecting meeting houses and schoolhouses, 
and building up the country in general, can be said of the subject of this brief biography 
too brief to do full justice to a good and worthy man, the beau ideal of a colonizer, 
following in the footsteps of his honored sire, who was prominent among the founders 
of Utah. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIMHALL. 

(T^ROM childhood the life of George W. Brimhall was an eventful one. It began in 

"Tv" the far East, in the Chestnut Woods on Canada Creek, New York, where he was 

born November 14, 1814. When but five years old he fell from the limb of a cherry 

tree, thirty feet, and was picked up for dead, but was restored through the nursing and 

faith of his prayerful mother. He remembered that the following winter the snow drifted 

ten feet deep, covering the fences. During that period the family lived mostly on potatoes, 

roasted in the ashes ; the father being away most of the time. 

In October, 1827, the Brimhalls moved to Olean Point, and the next spring to Melville 
on Oswao Creek, which flows into the Alleghany river. There the father rented a saw 
mill, made and sold lumber at six dollars a thousand, shingles at one dollar a thousand, 
and paid twenty -four dollars a barrel for flour, beans, pork and maple sugar, shipped from 
what is now Pittsburg in large canoes, five hundred miles, through an Indian country. 
At this place George, by an accident among the logs, came near losing his life, and while 
out in the woods searching for a cow, narrowly escaped beirfg killed by a panther. Having 
about thirty thousand feet of lumber, and as many shingles, they prepared a raft eighty 
feet long, and loading everything upon it, including the entire family, they went down 
the Alleghany to Fort Diem Quesna (Pittsburg) , where they sold their lumber. Starting 
again with the raft they were soon on the Ohio river, finally landing at Lawrenceburg, 
Dearborn county, Indiana, twelve miles from which place they purchased a quarter section 
of lumber land and worked on it for ten years, making a good home. 

In 1835, being nearly twenty-one years of age, George was left in charge of the farm, 
and during the summer he joined a surveying party which surveyed the lands once occupied 
by the Miami Indians, who were being moved west across the Missouri. He tells of one 
old Indian whom he found sitting on a large log and looking very serious. When the 
staff was planted on the log and the chain men came up rattling the links, the old man 
gazed until his eyes were dimmed with tears and his bosom heaved with emotion. Without 
saying a word he hobbled away into the thick forest. The white man's progress was the 
red man's doom. 

The year 1837 found George and his father at Pleasant Grove, McHenry county, 
Illinois, where they bought out some squatters, securing three hundred and twenty acres 
of choice timber and prairie land, for which they afterwards paid the government. Here 
the son would have settled, but being disappointed in love, after building a house, fencing 
a farm and renting it, he went off, "oblivious of everything except his books and his 
music." He returned to visit his mother, and after roaming around considerably, finally 
married. Five years later a growing estrangement between him and his wife culminated 
in their separation. 

About this time, while bowed by the weight of that sorrow, he had a vision, which 
he thus describes: "Standing at my door 1 saw myself walking toward the West under 
a canopy of brilliant clouds that I had seen once before. I saw myself traversing undulating 
plains, crossing rivulets, creeks and rivers, rising higher and higher to the table lands of 
great and lofty mountains, whose peaks reached through the clouds. Often I wandered, 
climbing over craggy rocks, glaciers, clifts and snow-drifts, which had not ben disturbed 
for centuries, with and without road, trail or path, and descending with care over 
precipices seemingly impossible to pass without swift destruction. At last I emerged 
into a beautiful valley, six thousand feet above the level of the sea, lying north and south, 
between the Rocky and the Sierra Nevada mountains, uninhabited save by a few partly 
nude, desolate human beings, eating roots and insects for a subsistence." The same 
year he realized the fulfillment of his vision; for on the 10th of July he with his brothers 
John and Noah emerged from the mouth of Emigration Canyon and joined the early 
settlers of Salt Lake valley. 

In the winter of 1850-1 George W. Brimhall accompanied George A. Smith and other 
colonists to Iron county, touching en route at the Spanish Fork river, where afterwards 

11 



170 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

arose the settlement that became his permanent home. He speaks of the since noted 
mounds and inscriptions at Paragoonah, and of meeting with the Indian chief "Walker," 
concerning whom and his people, upon whose lands the colonists settled, Mr. Brimhall 
says: "This warlike chief held despotic sway over all the tribes of that region. Not a 
gun was discharged, not a deer killed or a fish caught without his say, when, where and 
the quantity. But the might of the despot was about to be broken. The cry 'Walker is 
coming!' helped to complete our fort in quick time, and he arrived only to be 
disappointed. A peace commission was sent to him, but he was found to be moody, as 
in deep reflection. Our animals were in the fort, our pickets posted, double guard on 
duty, composed of men who were not to be surprised and murdered by Walker's 
treachery. Next morning he came up to 'narrowap' (trade). He had three Indian 
child prisoners, whom he tied to the sage-brush to feed on grass, which they did with 
relish. A council of the whole colony was held, and we agreed to give Walker a beef, 
though we had none to spare, but thought it cheaper to feed than fight him. Mrs. Decker 
Smith and J. P. Barnard purchased the little prisoners with a horse, and they soon made 
progress in civilization. Clearing land, plowing and sowing, making ditches and watering 
was our next business. Every officer did his duty; no fees, no salary, the honor of the 
position being the only compensation for services. I wa* road commissioner and prose- 
cuting attorney, and was drawn to my highest tension. The county of Iron was then 
several hundred miles long and a hundred and fifty miles broad, containing probably 
about three thousand inhabitants, dwelling in log cabins, wagons and tents. Our wheat 
bid fair for half a crop and our cereals were excellent, but there was no threshing machine, 
no grist mill and no saw mill in that section. It was now the fall of 1851." 

Mr. Brimhall represented Iron county in the session of the Territorial legislature 
which convened at Salt Lake City, January 5, 1852. Clad in a new buckskin suit, he 
became known as "the buckskin orator." He served during three sessions. He was one 
of the early settlers of Ogden, moving there in November, 1854, and serving three 
years as a city councilor. Resigning that position in 1863, he moved with his family 
back to Salt Lake City. 

He was one of those called in 1864 to strengthen the settlements on the Rio Virgen 
river, and had some severe experiences in the heat and drouth of the southern country, 
receiving on one occasion a sunstroke. Says he; "I told my little boy, Geoge H., to 
take my body bac); with him when he went home to Salt Lake. He pi-omised he would, 
which was all I wished. I said good-bye to my wife and children. My spirit arose out of my 
body and was ascending from it very slowly, feeling perfectly happy and without pain. 
Looking down I saw Thomas Rhoades and another man with their hands upon my head, 
and I heard Brother Rhoades say, 'In the name of Jesus Christ come back into your body 
and live again.' I began to settle down, my spirit entering my body again, but not 
without much pain. In a few days I was well." 

Mr. Brimhall was instrumental in forming a treaty for the Mormon people with five 
nations of Indians. He and his brother Norman, assisted by John Cox, made the treaty, 
and neither party has ever violated it. Thd aged colonizer died September 30, 1895, at 
his home in Spanish Fork, holding the office of a Patriarch in the Utah stake of Zion. He 
is the father of numerous children, the most noted of whom, the son of his wife Rachel 
Ann Mayer, is Professor George H. Brimhall, of the Brigham Young Academy. 



JOHN CROOK. 

TOHN CROOK was born at Topping, a village of Lancashire, England, October 9, 1831. 

His parents were Dan Crook and Margaret Kay. When four years old he met with 
rg| a painful accident, the mark of which he bears to this day. He was playing on the 

hearthstone of his father's home, when his clothes caught fire; he ran into the open 
air, the wind fanning the flames, and only through the timely assistance of a lady who 
caught him and doused him in a rain barrel did he escape being burned to death. 

The parents were in moderate circumstances. The father had been reared on a 
farm, but after marriage had secured a position in the Eagley Mills, near Topping. The 
son received a common English education, attending a primary school until eight years 






HISTOEY OF UTAH. 171 

of age. At nine he with a sister was put to work in the factory, winding or filling spools 
for their father. John labored one half the day and attended school the remaining half; 
this being compulsory by law and by the master of the mills. The tuition was six cents 
a week, which amount was held out of the boy's wages. Children under thirteen were 
not allowed to work full time, but John, being large of stature, was passed by the medical 
examiner for that age when twelve. He was then apprenticed to William Cooper, in the 
same factory, for five years. He gained a knowledge of weaving braces and all kinds of 
broad tapes, for binding carpets, etc. During his apprenticeship his wages began at six 
shillings a week, and increased one shilling a week each year. After serving his time he 
engaged in piece-work, which increased his income to twelve or fourteen shillings. This 
employment the young man followed until he was eighteen years of age. 

On Christmas day of 1850 by which time the family had become Latter-day 
Saints John Crook, his father, his two sisters and a brother-in-law left their homes and 
took train for Liverpool, there to embark for America, their ultimate destination being 
Utah. They sailed on the ship "Ellen, " January 8, 1851. In the Irish Channel about 
midnight a schooner ran across the track of the "Ellen," becoming entangled in 
her jib-boom, and in swinging around broke the fore and main yardarms. The event 
created consternation on board, but the passengers were finally quieted. The vessel put 
into Cardigan Bay, North Wales, for repairs, and remained there two weeks on account 
of headwinds. The captain became impatient to again set sail, and for eight days or 
more was tacking about in the channel, finding it very difficult, as some punster observed, 
"to get clear of Cape Clear." During one night the wind shifted in the vessel's favor, 
and on the morning of January 31st she was on the broad bosom of the Atlantic, sailing 
westward at the rate of nine knots an hour. No further delay ensued until she was becalmed 
three or four days in the West Indies. She arrived at the bar of the Mississippi on the 
12th of March, and was towed across by a steam tug, reaching New Orleans early in the 
morning of the 14th; progress being slow on account of two other vessels attached to the 
tug. Five days later the company of emigrants in which the Crook family were traveling 
left New Orleans for St. Louis; a seven days 1 passage. On the 13th of April they left St. 
Louis for Kanesville, twenty days being consumed in the journey thither, as the Missis- 
sippi was very low. 

John Crook remained on the frontier until the summer of 1856. Meantime his father 
died in August, 1852, sadly disappointed at not being able to come to Utah that year; 
and John was thus left with the care of his single sister, younger than himself, on his 
hands. About this time also he was afflicted with chills and fever, from which he suffered 
intermittently for eight months. He became very weak, but between attacks managed to 
make barely enough to sustain life, by chopping cord wood. He was paid for his work 
in bad flour, sour and almost worthless. But better days came. His sister married, John 
prospered, and in 1856 he had a good outfit with which to cross the plains. 

Leaving both his sisters behind, they having joined the "Josephites," he started 
from Florence, Nebraska, bound for Utah, on June 5th of that year, coming by way of 
the Elkhorn, Loup Fork and North Platte, the route generally pursued by Mormon 
emigrants. P. C. Merril was captain of fifty, and E. B. Tripp captain of ten in the same 
company. The usual experiences of buffalo hunts and stampedes befell, and what was 
far more important to Mr. Crook, he formed the acquaintance of his future wife, who 
was also in the company. The passage of the plains thus became a pleasure trip, replete 
with romance. 

It was August 15, 1856, when they encamped on the old Union Square in Salt Lake 
City. Mr. Crook remained here but three days, and then proceeded to Provo, where he 
bought land and built a dwelling house. There he married on September 6th of the same 
year Mary Giles, the lady previously mentioned, Bishop J. 0. Luke performing the 
ceremony. During his three years residence at Provo occurred the "Echo Canyon war," 
in which he participated. 

May 1st, 1859, witnessed his removal to Timpanogas valley now Wasatch county 
which he had first visited in 1858 with Surveyor J. C. Snow and others, at which time 
they surveyed lands south-west of where Heber City now stands. John Crook was one 
of the founders of Heber, his being one of the first seventeen families in that place. On 
May 5th, 1859 he and Thomas Easband, with two yoke of cattle and a plow, turned their 
first furrow in Timpanogas or Provo valley. The weather was so cold, even in the vernal 
season, that they had to wear overcoats and mittens. The outlook was forbidding, but 
the doughty colonizers were not discouraged, and providence smiled upon their labors. 
Fencing, farming, fort and bridge building, and the construction of canyon roads were 
all included in the work of building up Wasatcb county. The early settlers experienced 



]72 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

much trouble from grasshoppers, and at times it was difficult to obtain flour, there being 
no grist mill at Heber. Mr. Crook was in the Blackhawk Indian war, and did considerable 
fighting. In the Wasatch military district in 1868 he was Adjutant of the First 
Battalion of Infantry. His life-record is filled with interesting experiences too numerous 
to mention in this narrative. A single page, description of his methods of dealing with 
the grasshoppers must suffice: "During the years 1868 and 1870 grasshoppers took 
almost all the crops in the valley. I saved five acres of wheat each year, by running a 
stream of water around the land. Early in the morning the whole family, including my 
wife, would go out with long willows and drive back the hoppers that had jumped the 
ditch, working all day to keep them back. We would drive them into the streams, having 
peeled willows slanting downward in the bank of the ditch. This worked them off down 
stream, away from the land. This was kept up for four weeks or more. The hoppers 
began to fly and then we quit. By this method we raised enough grain for bread until 
another harvest." Among other hardships of frontier life he mentions the fact that as 
late as 1862 there was no grist mill in the valley, the settlers taking their grain to Provo 
to grind. That year the Provo canyon road was washed out, leaving them to live on 
chopped boiled wheat until spring, when they took their grist to Hoytsville. 

John Crook was one of the first to introduce fruit culture in Wasatch county, where 
many disappointing experiences in this direction finally resulted in gratifying success. 
He has acted as corresponding secretary of Wasatch county to the Agricultural Bureau 
at Washington, D. C.; and for many years, and at last accounts, was a director and 
President of the Wasatch Agricultural Society. He has also acted as voluntary observer 
for the National Weather Bureau. Among other positions held by him are the following: 
Choir leader at Heber City for seventeen years; first counselor to Bishop William Forman, 
of the Heber West Ward, chosen July 2nd, 1877; and a High Councillor of Wasatch stake, 
set apart November 2nd, 1884. He has also served as a home missionary. He was a 
school trustee from 1864 to 1872, and road supervisor from 1868 to 1870. Since 1862 he 
has been connected with the Heber City dramatic company. 

In 1882 he became interested in the business of lumbering and quarrying with his 
friend Forman. Later the firm of Forman and Crook dissolved and was succeeded by 
that of J. Crook and Sons, quarrymen. Mrs. Crook died September 13, 1888. Mr. Crook 
has had nine children, seven of whom were living when the materials for this article 
were furnished. The worthy pioneer, fast aging, but firm as ever in his principles, 
still resides in the mountain-walled city of which he was one of the founders. 



EARLY MILITARY MEN 




' , i* iV . 



DANIEL HANMER WELLS. 

grander name adorns the pages of Utah's history, and few names are more 
illustrious in Mormon annals, than that of General Daniel H. Wells. He was 
emphatically a man among men. Like a granite mountain, its very ruggedness 
enhancing its sublimity, his great life and character loomed above the lives and 
characters of most of his fellows. He was a man innately great, one who needed not tne 
trappings and the suits of office, or even the glamour of splendid achievements, to make 
him seem great, and was so constituted that he could not be flattered into the idea that 
his soul was any larger on a mountain top than in a valley, in office or out of it; or that 
honor, happiness and success depend necessarily upon the admiration and plaudits of the 
world. He was willing to sacrifice even his good name far more to him than wealth or 
titles to win the approval of his conscience and the favor of his Maker; and he made 
that sacrifice, freely and voluntarily, when he associated himself with the unpopular 
people and religion which to him were the people and religion of the Most High God. 

Daniel H. Wells was the only son of Daniel Wells by his second wife Catherine 
Chapin, and was born at Trenton, Oneida county, New York, October 27, 1814. He had 
an only sister, Catherine Chapin Wells, and five half-sisters, the issue of his father's first 
marriage. On the paternal side he was descended from Thomas Wells, the fourth 
governor of Connecticut, and on the maternal side from David Chapin, a veteran of the 
Revolution, who served under Washington and was a scion of one of the oldest and most 
distinguished familes of New England. 

When Daniel was twelve years old he was left, by the death of his father, with the 
care of his mother and younger sister upon his hands, the other members of the family being 
beyond the need of help. Large of stature and strong of limb, he did a man's work, it is 
said, while receiving a boy's pay; laboring at this period upon a farm. At the age of 
eighteen, in the settlement of his father's estate, he and his sister received a little means, 
which enabled them to migrate with their mother to Marietta, Ohio, where Daniel taught 
school one winter, and the next spring moved to Illinois, settling at a little place called 
Commerce, where afterwards arose the beautiful Mormon city of Nauvoo. 

It was here that he came in contact with the Latter-day Saints; not immediately, 
however, their headquarters being still a* Kirtland, Ohio, when he settled on the banks 
of the Mississippi. Taking up virgin land, he cleared it of timber, built a small house, 
farmed, planted orchards, and otherwise developed and beautified his new home on the 
borders of the western wilderness. He supported his mother and sister until they 
married, and he himself had entered the state of wedlock. His wife's maiden name was 
Eliza Robison, sister to the late Lewis Robison, of Salt Lake City. They married about 
the year 1835, and a year later a son whom they named Albert was born to them. They 
prospered, accumulated large tracts of land, and laid the foundation for future wealth 
and independence. 

Before attaining his majority, Mr. Wells had entered upon his official career, being 
first elected constable and then justice of the peace. He was an officer in the first 
military organization of Hancock county. In politics a staunch Whig, he merged into a 
Republican and remained one to the end of his days. He was active and prominent 
in the political conventions of that period, and though not a professor of religion, was 
much esteemed by men of all creeds and parties. As a private citizen he frequently 
arbitrated his neighbors' differences, and as "Squire" Wells became noted for his 
wisdom, impartiality and high sense of justice. His name was a synonym for courage 
and integrity. An affectionate husband and father, a true and faithful friend, he was 
broad-minded and charitable to all men, a lover of his country, a fearless champion 
of freedom, and a foe to oppression in all its forms. 

He was in his twenty-fifth year, when, in the spring of 1839, the outcast Mormons, 
expelled from Missouri, began gathering at and around Commerce, Hancock county, 



176 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Illinois. With characteristic generosity, he at once befriended the homeless people and 
extended to them a cordial and hearty welcome. His American pride, patriotism and 
sense of justice were outraged by the cruel and inhuman treatment to which they had been 
subjected. He might have speculated out of their necessities, but would not. Platting 
his land into city lots, he let them have it almost on their own terms. On a portion of 
eighty acres that had belonged to him, on a bluff above the village, was built the 
Nauvoo Temple. 

Though not connected with Mormonism until after the death of its founder, Daniel H. 
Wells was always a faithful friend to the Prophet and his associates, and at the first 
municipal election held under the Nauvoo charter, February 1, 1841, he was chosen an alder- 
man and a member of the city council. He was also a regent of the university, and 
became brigadier-general in the Legion. He was ever a wise counselor, and the Prophet 
often advised with him regarding measures and movements for the welfare of the people. 
Though re-elected alderman in 1843, he does not seem to have been present at the 
fateful meeting of the city council, June 10, 1844, when the municipal authorities 
decreed the abatement of the Nauvoo Expositor, the event that precipitated the murder 
of the Prophet and the Patriarch. "Squire" Wells heard the case for and against the 
defendants, after they had been liberated on habeas corpus by the municipal court, and 
after examining, discharged them, their course in relation to the "Expositor" being found 
strictly legal under the charter and ordinances of the city. 

After discharging the Prophet (who was mayor of Nauvoo) the "Squire" advised 
him to go to Carthage and be tried before an anti-Mormon magistrate, urging this as the 
most prudent and politic course that could be taken, and as the best means of disarming 
prejudice and opposition. "I believe he could have gone then in safety," said General 
Wells, relating this incident in after years, "but instead he started for the Rocky 
mountains. Returning, he went to Carthage, but at a time when I would no more have 
advised it than I would have advised him to enter the mouth of hell." He recognized, 
however, that it was the Prophet's destiny that was leading him. The hour of martyrdom 
had struck, and the pre-destined victim was ready for the sacrifice. 

"Squire" Wells' indignation at the cowardly crime which robbed the Latter-day 
Saints of their foremost leaders, was only equalled by the strength of his stern protest 
against the demand made by Governor Ford for the arms of the Nauvoo Legion. He 
did not become a Mormon until two years later, when the exodus of the Saints from 
Illinois was well nigh complete, and the remnant left in the doomed city of Nauvoo were 
threatened by armed mobs who came against them in violation of the most solemn treaties. 
In this hour of extreme peril, when cowards would have quailed and most men hesitated, 
Daniel H. Wells east in his lot with the plundered and oppressed people, resolving to 
share in their persecutions and die if need be in their defense. He was baptized 
August 9, 1846. 

In the seige and battle of Nauvoo, which began on the 12th of September and continued 
for several days, General Wells played a prominent and valiant part, acting as aid to 
Lieutenant-Colonel Cutler in command of the citizen force, which after a hard fight 
succeeded in repulsing Brockman and his "regulators." During the whole of the fighting, 
he on his white charger was a conspicuous mark for the rifles and cannon of the enemy, but 
escaped unhurt. When the city surrendered, he departed, with others, and after reaching 
the Iowa shore was still a mark for the artillery of the invaders, who had again broken 
their pledges and begun to plunder and abuse the defenseless citizens. General Wells 
picked up one of the cannon balls and sent it with his compliments to the Governor of 
Iowa, whose Territory had thus been assailed. In a one-horse buggy he rode day and 
night to reach the companies ahead and represent the situation at Nauvoo, so that teams 
might be sent back for the relief of those who had been expelled from the city. 

In embracing the faith and following the fortunes of the Saints, Daniel H. Wells made a 
sacrifice before which the heart of man stands still ; he sundered the strongest and sweetest 
of human ties and laid his tenderest feelings upon the altar. His wife, whom he dearly 
loved, refused to follow him, and when he. broken-hearted over the separation, left Nauvoo, 
she and her little son, their only child, remained behind. He gave them all his property, 
retaining only the outfit with which he traveled West. He reached Winter Quarters, joined 
the general emigration of 1848, and acted as aide-de-camp to President Brighain Young 
on the second journey of the great Pioneer to the Rocky mountains. 

As he had been intimate with the Prophet Joseph Smith at Nauvoo, so he became 
the familiar associate of President Young and the other Mormon leaders prior and 
subsequent to the founding of Salt Lake City. He resided first in the Eighth Ward, but 
in accordance with President Young's desire afterwards moved into the Eighteenth Ward, 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 177 

where the President himself resided. In a small adobe house east of the old Deseret News 
corner, most of his children were born. He afterwards purchased the corner upon which 
the Templeton building now stands, with a large house erected by Apostle Ezra T. Benson, 
who had moved to Cache valley. In Salt Lake and Utah counties he also acquired 
valuable farm and city properties. He promoted various industries, and engaged in 
sundry enterprises. He was the first to develop the coal mines of Summit county, and 
for many years owned and operated lumber mills in Big Cottonwod canyon. The 
manufacture of nails was successfully carried on under his management. In 1872 he 
established the Salt Lake City gas works, the forerunner of the present Utah Light and 
Power Company, and for years bore almost unassisted the heavy burden of that then 
unremunerative enterprise. 

At the organization of the Provisional Government Daniel H. Wells was attorney- 
general and subsequently chief justice of Deseret. He sat in the first legislative council. 
In the Territorial legislature he was a member of the council for many terms, and a 
member of most of the constitutional conventions preceding statehood. He was 
a natural legislator, and his advice and assistance in the framing of public documents and 
the adoption and execution of public measures and policies were invaluable. He had 
clear perceptions of legal points and was familiar with constitutional principles. He like- 
wise possessed great executive ability, a fact recognized by his repeated elections to the 
mayoralty of Salt Lake City, which he held for ten consecutive years, beginning with 
1866. Up to 1882, when disfranchised under the operations of the Edmunds law, he was 
a member of the city council. 

As early as 1848 he was appointed superintendent of Public Works a semi- 
ecclesiastical position and acted in that capacity at the laying of the corner stones of the 
Salt Lake Temple in 1853, and for many years thereafter. He superintended the building 
of the old Council House, in which the courts of Utah were originally held, and which 
became the temporary home of the University of Deseret. Of that institution he was one 
of the first regents, and from 1869 to 1878 was its chancellor. This was the period of 
the University's revival, and virtually the beginning of its career. Though not himself a 
scholar, he was a zealous friend and promoter of education. A constant reader, -he 
delighted in music, poetry and the drama. Though a good writer, a terse and logical 
reasoner, he was but an indifferent orator, the matter of his public discourses being much 
superior to the manner of their delivery. 

In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints he held the offices of Elder, High 
Priest and Apostle; and on the 4th of January, 1857, became one of the First Presidency, 
chosen to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Jedediah M. Grant, second counselor to 
President Brigham Young. He held this position for twenty years and until the death of 
President Young, when he became a counselor to the Twelve Apostles, who had succeeded 
to the Presidency. 

It is as General Wells that this great man will be best remembered by the non-Mormon 
citizens of our State. His military career was replete with stirring incidents, from the 
battle of Nauvoo down to the disbandment of the Nauvoo Legion, as the Utah militia 
was originally styled. He it was who, with General Charles C. Rich, supervised the 
organization of the militia at the inception and under the direction of the Provisional 
Government of Deseret. Daniel H. Wells was elected major-general by the State 
Assembly, May 26, 1849, and received the rank of lieutenant-general a title first borne 
by the Prophet Joseph Smith and subsequently by President Brigham Young 
March 27, 1852. Under the Territorial militia law he was re-elected lieutenant-general, 
April 6, 1857, and as such commanded the forces that opposed the advance of General 
Johnston into Salt Lake valley during the ensuing fall and winter. Cool-headed, 
courageous and tactful, Daniel H. Wells was a born commander, and his great abilities 
never shone to better advantage than in the famous Echo Canyon campaign, conducted 
by him, under the ever wise direction of Governor Young, with consummate skill. During 
the Indian troubles in Utah and Sanpete counties General Wells took the field in person, 
routing the savages at every point. His spirited contention with Governor Shaffer for the 
rights of the Legion, when some of its officers were arrested for carrying arms in a 
Fourth of July celebration, was one of many incidents in which his patriotic liberty- 
loving spirit was manifested. 

President Wells spent the greater part of the years 1864 and 1865 at Liverpool, 
presiding over the European Mission, returning in the fall of the last-named year to Utah. 
In 1868, at the death of his associate President Heber C. Kimball, he succeeded him in 
charge of the Endowment House, which served the purpose of the present Salt 
Lake Temple. 



178 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

In October, 1871, he was arrested on a trumped up charge made by the notorious 
cut-throat Bill Hickman, who confessed to the killing of one Richard Yates, at the mouth 
of Echo Canyon in 1857, and was induced by certain anti-Mormon agitators to implicate 
General Wells and other prominent Mormons in his crime. It was recognized that the 
real cause of the prosecution was President Wells' high position in the 'Mormon Church, 
and a judicial warfare against prostitution, gambling and liquor-selling instituted by him 
as mayor of Salt Lake City against friends of the carpet-bag coterie. At Fort Douglas, 
where the veteran was temporarily held in durance, he was treated most courteously by 
General Morrow, the commander of the post, who had no sympathy with the vexatious 
proceeding. Two days after his arrest, which was on Saturday, the 28th, the defendant 
made application by his attorneys (who had advised him that it would be vain) to be 
admitted to bail. To the surprise of every one, Judge McKean granted the application, 
accepting bail in the sum of fifty thousand dollars, though the prosecution demanded half 
a million. The whole affair was quashed by the Englebrecht decision of 1872. 

Mayor Wells was the central figure of an exciting and perilous tumult in the summer 
of 1874, when at a general election held on the 4th of August (George Q. Cannon and 
Robert N. Baskin being the rival candidates for delegate to Congress) the United States 
Marshal, General Maxwell, attempted to take control of the election. The trouble occurred 
in the Fifth Precinct, the polling place of which was the old City Hall, where a large 
force of armed deputy-marshals, backed by a mob, came into collision with the police, 
who arrested several disorderly persons, and were themselves arrested by Maxwell's 
deputies. Excitement rose to fever heat. Mayor Wells, endeavoring to suppress the 
tumult, was assaulted and his coat torn to ribbons, before the police could rescue him and 
force back his ruffian assailants. The front doors were now closed, shutting out the mob, 
while the police, a goodly array of determined stalwarts, thronged the hallway, awaiting 
the word of command, which soon came. The tall, angular figure of the lion-hearted 
mayor, stern as a statue of fate, now appeared upon the balcony, above the howling 
crowd, whom he commanded to disperse. The answer was a storm of yells and hisses, 
with shouts of "shoot him! shoot him!" intermingling. "Officers, do your duty," 
exclaimed the mayor, and the next moment the great doors opened and out came the 
police, with the force and impetuosity of a mountain torrent, striking right and left with 
their clubs as they passed through, scattering the confused mob in every direction. Broken 
heads were plentiful that afternoon, though there were no fatalities, and the mayor 
and police remained victors of the scene. They were arrested next day and placed under 
heavy bonds, but nothing came of the attempt made to prosecute them for their stout and 
effectual vindication of the law. Their conduct was overwhelmingly approved by the 
citizerls, and the affair was soon forgotten by the public, though remembered for life by 
certain individuals, who had had it impressed upon them physically as well as 
mentally. 

President Wells, with Presidents Young and Kimball did a great deal of traveling 
through Utah, locating and organizing settlements and counseling the people for their 
general welfare. In the summer of 1876 he was placed in charge of a company to visit and 
encourage the newly founded settlements of the Saints in Arizona, and while on the trip 
narrowly escaped drowning in the Colorado river. He was crossing that stream at 
Lee's Ferry, when the boat containing his traveling wagon and outfit, with himself and a 
number of his party, was capsized into the rushing waters. President Wells was a poor 
swimmer, and was weighed down with his boots and 'clothing, but he calmly struck out 
for the shore, and succeeded in reaching it by what seemed to him a miracle. He felt 
while in the water as if he were buoyed up by invisible hands. Bishop Roundy, another 
of the party, who was an expert swimmer, was drowned. 

An event that portrayed in glowing colors the character of Daniel H. Wells was the one 
leading to his imprisonment for alleged contempt of court, in refusing to disclose upon 
the witness stand, in the Miles polygamy case, the sacred mysteries of the Endowment 
House. During his examination before Associate Justice Emerson, he was asked to 
describe the apparel worn in the house by persons who went there to be married. He 
declined to answer and was remanded to the custody of the marshal. Next day, being 
again questioned, he replied, "I declined to answer that question yesterday, and do so 
to-day, because I am under moral and sacred obligations not to answer, and it is inter- 
woven in my character never to betray a friend, a brother, my country, my religion or my 
God." He was fined one hundred dollars and imprisoned for two days in the Utah 
Penitentiary, to which place he had previously of his own volition accompanied President 
Young, when the latter, in March, 1875, was imprisoned for alleged contempt of court 
by order of Chief Justice McKean. At the expiration of his forty-eight hours of durance, 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 179 

General Wells, on May 6, 1879, was escorted from the Penitentiary to Salt Lake City by 
a triumphal procession of about ten thousand people, shouting his praises and applauding 
his heroism. 

At the outbreak of the anti- polygamy crusade he was the husband of seven wives, whom 
he had married since coming to Utah, and the father by them of thirty-seven children, 
twenty-four of whom were living. . He was therefore liable to prosecution under the 
Edmunds law. The course he would have taken had he been brought before the courts 
on account of his marital relations, is perfectly clear to all who were acquainted with the 
man. There would have been no weakening; it would have been fine and imprisonment, 
or even death, before dishonor. But in December, 1884, he was sent to preside again 
over the European Mission, and remained there laboring energetically, though in feeble 
health, until honorably released in January, 1887. He then returned to America, and 
after visiting relatives in the Eastern States, reached home in July of that year. He was 
not molested by the crusaders, and appeared in public with perfect impunity, though the 
anti-polygamy movement was still in progress. 

His next appointment was as President of the Manti Temple, in May, 1888. The 
choice of such a man for such a place was a most happy one. He had been familiar with 
Temple work for many years, and had taken great delight therein. The doctrines of 
Mormonism embracing salvation for the dead one of the main purposes for which 
Mormon Temples are erected were the ones that originally attracted him, and the per- 
formances of sacred ordinances in behalf of his kindred and friends who had passed away 
gave his generous and philanthropic soul unalloyed happiness. He had been present at 
the dedication of the St. George, Logan and Manti temples, and had offered the dedicatory 
prayer when the first named building was consecrated. The peaceful atmosphere of the 
House of God was most congenial to him in his declining years and the gradually failing 
condition of his physical health. He officiated in the Temple and as counselor to the Twelve 
Apostles until stricken with his final illness. 

Perhaps nothing gave the venerable leader greater satisfaction in a material way 
than the fact that he was able to leave his family, whom he fondly loved, in com- 
fortable circumstances. He had been heavily involved financially for many years prior 
to 1889, having pledged all his property for the success of the gas works which he had 
founded. An affectionate and indulgent husband and father, liberal to friends and 
employes, and lavish in his hospitality, all these had combined to embarrass him, and 
he had seen his large possessions slip piece by piece into the vortex, represented by his 
liabilities, until from a position of comparative wealth he was reduced to one almost of 
distress. By a superhuman effort, marvelous at his time of life, he succeeded in 
extricating himself and saving a portion of his property. Selling at a most propitious 
time the remnant of his real estate, he paid off debts amounting to hundreds of thousands 
of dollars, and then purchased homes for his families, in which he left them when he 
departed. He also gave to his numerous sons and daughters, such as were in a position to 
avail themselves of it, the precious legacy of a good education, besides doing all in his 
power to make them good and useful citizens, honorable, upright, exemplary members 
of society. 

General Wells died at Salt Lake City, which had been his home for upwards of forty 
years, March 24, 1891, the immediate cause of his death being pleuro-pneumonia. He 
departed peacefully, without pain, and conscious to the last. His family is one of the best 
known and most distinguished in the State. He was the father of Heber M. Wells, the pres- 
ent Governor of Utah; of Rulon S. Wells, one of the First Council of Seventy; Junius F. 
Wells, a prominent business man and pioneer worker in the great Mutual Improvement 
cause: Melvin D.Weils, a High Councillor of the Salt' Lake Stake of Zion; and Lieutenant 
Briant H. Wells, U. S. A., a West Point graduate, who was wounded at the battle of 
Santiago de Cuba, and is now serving his country in the Philippines. The eldest son, the 
Rev. Albert Wells, is an Episcopalian minister, residing at last accounts in Grand Rapids, 
Michigan. Among the other sons are Joseph S., Gershom B., Victor P., Louis R. and 
Charles H., all well known business men. The best known of the living daughters are 
Mrs. Abbie C. Young, Mrs. May W. Whitney, Misses Kate, Lyde and Emmeline Wells, 
Mrs. Emily W. Grant, Mrs. Annie W. Cannon, Mrs. Nettie Culmer, Mrs. Clara Hedges and 
Mrs. Edna W. Sloan. The surviving widows of General Wells are Mrs. Martha G. H. 
Wells, Mrs. Lydia A. Wells, Mrs. Susan H. Wells, Mrs. Hannah C. Wells, and Mrs. 
Emmeline B. Wells, all women of worth and integrity. 



JAMES FERGUSON. 

fOLDIER, actor, orator and lawyer, one of the brightest and most versatile minds, 
and from what his friends say of him, one of the most winsome and loveable 
natures, James Ferguson was a native of Belfast, Ireland,' born on the 28th of 
February, 1828. His parents were Francis and Mary Patrick Ferguson, and he 
was the second son and eldest but two of their seven children. The family were in humble 
cicumstances, but the children were sent to school and were also carefully trained in the 
religion of their parents, staunch Methodists. When James was a little over nine years 
old, his mother died an event touchingly referred to in his journal and before he was 
thirteen he bade farewell to home and friends and went to Liverpool, having accepted a 
situation there, procured for him through the kindness of Mr. Phillip Johnston, one of his 
father's friends. 

Tuesday, December 29, 1840, was the date of his departure from Ireland. Accom- 
panied by his father, he took passage on the steamer "Falcon" and arrived at Liverpool 
between five and six o'clock the same evening. The business house by which he was 
employed was that of Steains & Rowley, afterwards Steains, Kowley & Co., tea dealers; 
and at the beginning of 1841 he was bound to them as an apprentice for seven years. He 
resided at the home of John Clements, 13 Skelhorne Street, and through him and his son 
Gilbert became acquainted with the Latter-day Saints, who had a flourishing branch in 
Liverpool and were holding regular meetings at the Music Hall in Bold Street. Young 
Ferguson was naturally of a religious turn, and in his childhood had often been impressed 
with the eloquent sermons delivered by the expounders of his parents' creed. What had 
most affected his tender mind was "the awful hell" pictured by them as the eternal 
abode of unrepentant sinners. True to the teachings of his parents, and influenced more 
or less by the terrible portrayals of the preachers, he led a godly life, and taking the 
"penitent form" at the Methodist meetings, tried hard to convince himself that he was 
converted and saved. He was not clear upon the point, however, and became entirely 
unsettled after hearing a sermon by a Mormon Elder George J. Adams delivered at the 
Hall in Bold Street. 

During his sojourn in Liverpool James revisited the scenes of his childhood, and soon 
afterward his father and his youngest brother, John Patrick Ferguson, with an uncle and 
aunt, emigrated to America, sailing for New York February 22, 1842, to be followed a 
year and a half later by his brother Francis and his sisters Margaret, Jane and Mary 
Ann. The parting advice which James Ferguson received from his sire was to continue 
attending the Methodist olass meetings and not go near the Latter-day Saints. 

This advice, however, the boy found it impossible to obey. He was drawn irresistibly 
to the Mormon meetings, and some of his most esteemed associates were converts to that 
faith. One incident that had a great effect upon him was hearing a woman speak 
in tongues at an outdoor meeting in Toxteth Park, a meeting he had reluctantly consented 
to attend at the request of Mr. Clements, who desired him to accompany his son thither. 
The father and son were Latter-day Saints, but the mother was much opposed to 
Mormonism, and made it decidedly uncomfortable for Gilbert and his friend "Jim" after 
they began attending the Bold Street meetings. 

James Ferguson joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in May, 1842, 
being baptized on the 25th of that month by Elder John Lindsay in the river Mersey. He 
was confirmed the Sunday following May 29th. He received the gift of tongues and 
frequently used it in the meetings of the Saints. He, Gilbert Clements and George Q. 
Cannon, boys together, were members of the Bold Street choir. His father wrote to him 
from Staten Island, expressing the hope that he was still attending his class meetings 
(Methodist, of course) and James answered, informing him that he had become a Latter- 
day Saint and advising him to do likewise. At the same time he dutifully submitted to 
his sire his reasons for taking that important step. 

Ordained a Priest April 16, 1843, he became a zealous and efficient missionary in 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 181 

Liverpool and the surrounding region. Winning in manner, talented to an unusual 
degree, quick-witted and eloquent, he rendered valiant service to the Mormon cause 
during the remaining years of his sojourn in that land. Among his most valued friends 
was Elder John Webster, his Nestor in the Church and a second father to him, who sailed 
for America in March, 1844. He afterwards became a protege of Wilford Woodruff, the 
Apostle, by whose advice and assistance he finally reached the haven of his hopes, the 
"Land of Zion." At Newton, near Warrington, some miles from Liverpool, he became 
acquainted with and enamored of Miss Jane Robinson, whom he afterwards married. She 
was a Mormon girl and like himself an "exile of Erin." In a manuscript book of poems 
dedicated to her in October, 1851, are many tender stanzas addressed to her. 

At the opening of 1846 James Ferguson left the employment of Steains, Rowley & Co., 
with whom he had served five years, and on the 16th of January went on board the ship 
"Liverpool," bound for New Orleans. On the same vessel were Elder Elijah P. Sheets, 
returning from his English mission, and his wife Margaret Hutchinson, who was married 
to him on board by Apostle Woodruff, who, after performing the ceremony, returned 
with Elders Reuben Hedlock and Amos Fielding to Liverpool, leaving the company of 
Saints to begin their voyage. The only exciting incident of the sea journey was after the 
ship arrived at New Orleans and was being towed into harbor. It was the 23rd of March. 
In crossing the bar, the "Liverpool" ran foul of the "Thomas Perkins" lying at anchor, 
and carried away the jib-boom and part of the rigging. The "Liverpool's" fore-top 
mast was broken and her rigging badly damaged by the collision. Down upon her 
deck came the jib-boom of the other vessel, nearly all the passengers being on deck at the 
time and on the side where the -damage was done. "The mercy of God alone," says 
Ferguson, "preserved us from much loss of life." 

Landing on the morning of the 25th, he took steamer on the night of the 27th for 
St. Louis, reaching that city on. the evening of April 3rd. He there met his old friend 
John Webster, and wept to find that he had been disfellowshiped from the Church. 
"May God grant," says he, "a sweet termination to so bitter a matter." Continuing 
his journey northward, he reached Montrose, crossed the Mississippi in a skiff, and 
arrived at Nauvoo on the 6th of April. Apostle Orson Hyde was then in charge of the 
Saints in the half-deserted city, President Brigham Young and most of the Twelve, at 
the head of a company of about two thousand souls, having departed for the West. 

On the 13th of April Apostle Woodruff arrived from England, and it was in his 
company that James Ferguson joined the general exodus. He speaks of meeting at 
Nauvoo the Cannon boys and others whom he had known in Liverpool, and concerning 
his occupation while at Nauvoo, says, "I am getting acquainted with a variety of 
employments, such as milking, chopping, feeding, driving oxen and mules, and several 
other minor requisites." He left Nauvoo April 30th, with two wagons, two yoke of oxen, 
two cows and a calf belonging to Apostle Woodruff. The weather was rainy and dismal, 
progress slow and difficult, and conditions anything but comfortable. 

He reached Mount Pisgah on the 15th of June, and was there when Captain James 
Allen of the United States army arrived with a letter from President Polk, requesting the 
Mormon authorities to furnish five hundred men "to go as pioneers and plant the 
standard of the United States in California," then a province of Mexico. Captain Allen 
was referred to President Young and the authorities at Council Bluffs. Ferguson con- 
tinued on his way and arrived at the Bluffs on the 9th of July. 

A week later he enlisted in the Mormon Battalion, and on July 21st started with his 
comrades for Fort Leavenworth, where they were armed and equipped for the campaign. 
He was enrolled in Company "A," Captain Jefferson Hunt, and held the rank of 
sergeant-major. His ready pen was serviceable in making up the muster rolls of the 
Battalion, and having been appointed by Dr. Willard Richards "the historian of the 
campaign," he kept a graphic account of the movements of the volunteers throughout 
their long and toilsome tramp to the Pacific Coast. A prayerful, devout spirit pervades 
his record from beginning to end. Cromwell and his "Ironsides," though more sancti- 
monious were not more truly religious than these Mormon volunteers, who with the 
blessing of their Apostolic leaders upon their heads, went forth to do service in their 
country's cause. An interesting feature of their camp life was a debating society, in 
which, we may be sure, young Ferguson almost a Robert Emmett in eloquence shone 
with lustre. His wit and humor enlivened every scene, and he was a universal favorite. 
The details of this unparalleled infantry march so designated by Colonel Cooke, who led 
the Battalion from Santa Fe into Southern California cannot be given here. Suffice it, 
that after untold hardships and privations, incident to the traversing of an untrodden 
wilderness, Sergeant Ferguson and his comrades reached their destination, and after a 



182 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

year's faithful service the term for which they had enlisted were honorably discharged 
at Los Angeles, July 16, 1847. 

James Ferguson remained in California until 1848, in October of which year 
he arrived at Salt Lake City, where he established a permanent home. Soon after 
his arrival he was elected sheriff of Salt Lake county, and held that office for several 
years. In the original organization of the militia he was second lieutenant of Com- 
pany "A," first regiment, Nauvoo Legion, and subsequently captain of company "B" 
in the same regiment. They were known as "Life Guards" or "Minute Men." He 
was with Captain George D. Grant's command, which, in February, 1850, operated 
against the hostile Indians in Utah county, (see chapter 22, volume I) and was 
a member of the dashing cavalry squad which, at Prove river, stormed and captured a 
strongly fortified position, thus turning the tide of battle against the savage foe. 
His rise was rapid, his rare and varied gifts, which were much in demand, readily 
paving his way to positions of honor and responsibility. At the organization of the 
Utah legislature in December, 1852, he was elected (not for the first time) secretary of 
the council, and served in that capacity during one or more sessions of the Assembly. 
Earlier in the year, when the office of Territorial attorney-general was created by the 
legislature, he was the original incumbent of that position. He was also a member of 
the legislative council. As natural a lawyer as he was an orator (though self-taught in 
both) he took first rank among local members of the legal profession, and bid fair to 
become famous as a jurist far beyond the borders of this isolated, mountain-girt common- 
wealth. He began to study law about the time of his arrival in Salt Lake valley. He 
read much, had a retentive memory and his brilliant intellect speedily mastered any 
subject upon which he bent its energies. 

He was early identified with the Deseret Dramatic Association, and on New Year's 
day, 1853, at the opening of the Social Hall Utah's chief home of the drama until the 
Salt Lake Theatre was built he delivered an address in behalf of that organization. 
According to his diary he made his first professional appearance at the Social Hall on the 
evening of January 17, 1853, enacting the title role in "Don Caesar de Bazan; " a farce 
entitled "The Irish Lion" supplementing the main performance. Two nights later he 
appeared as "Claude Melnotte" in "The Lady of Lyons," and through the remainder of 
the season was busy mastering and interpreting such characters as "Rolla," "Hamlet," 
"lago," "Petruchio," etc. During much of this time he was occupied during the day in 
the legislature; also with prosecuting cases in court and discharging his duties as 
sheriff. 

The night before the corner-stones of the Salt Lake Temple were laid it devolved 
upon him to post guards about the grounds as a preliminary to the ceremony of the 
day following. He was occassionally called upon to guard President Young and other 
Church leaders in their travels to and fro, especially through the Indian country. He 
was not only trusted but beloved by the President and his associates, who much enjoyed 
his society and were often made merry by his witticisms. General Daniel H. Wells was 
particularly fond of him. He was once heard to say that he never loved man more than 
he loved James Ferguson. Among his most intimate friends were Horace K. Whitney, 
Robert T. Burton and James M. Barlow. 

At the General Conference in April, 1854, James Ferguson was appointed upon a 
mission to his native land. He now held the office of a Seventy. Prior to his departure 
he was given a complimentary benefit by the Deseret Dramalic Association, in con- 
junction with three other members of that organization, namely, John T. Caine, William 
C. Dunbar and James M. Barlow, who were also going upon missions. The four 
benefits took place at the Social Hall, Elder Ferguson's on the night of April 22nd, when 
he appeared as "Ingomar" and recited "Phaudry Cahore." Ferguson's recitatons were 
famous, particularly his "Phaudry Cahore," and as an actor he was gifted above the 
many. "Claude Melnotte" was perhaps the most noted of his impersonations. No player 
was better qualified to speak his lines "trippingly on the tongue." His voice vas 
musical, his manner winning, and in his soul burned the true dramatic fire. 

He started upon his mission May 1st, 1854, in company with Cyrus H. Wheelock, 
William C. Dunbar, Seth M. Blair and other Elders bound for Great Britain. They sailed 
from New York on the 24th of June and landed at Liverpool on the 5th of July. Apostle 
Franklin D. Richards was then presiding over the European Mission, and he and his 
brother Samuel were the first to meet and welcome the missionaries from America. Elder 
Ferguson speaks appreciatively of their great kindness to him. He was made pastor of 
the Church in Ireland, and barring travels in Scotland and other parts of the British 
Isles, spent most of his time there. Having accomplished his mission, during the last few 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 183 

weeks of which he was in the London pastorate with Elder W. C. Dunbar, he was honorably 
released, and on March 21, 1856, was appointed president of the company of emigrating 
Saints that sailed two days later on the ship "Enoch Train." Edmond Ellsworth and 
Daniel D. Me Arthur were his counselors. The company landed at Boston April 29, and 
on May 19 reached Iowa City, the outfitting point for the journey across the plains. There 
President Ferguson and his counselors received from the company a unanimous vote of 
thanks for the able and faithful manner in which they had discharged their duties. At 
parting with the Saints in Ireland, Elder Ferguson, whose military record was well 
known, had been presented with a handsome cavalry sword, as a mark of admiration 
and esteem. 

Released from his presidency at Iowa City, he with Apostle Franklin D. Richards, 
Elders Daniel Spencer, Cyrus H. Wheelock, Joseph A. Young, William H. Kimball and 
other returning missionaries, preceded the several companies congregated on the frontier 
to Salt Lake valley. It was the year of the awful handcart disaster. Learning after 
his arrival home that the emigrants who had started too late in the season were 
perishing in the snow along the Platte and Sweetwater, James Ferguson at once joined 
the relief corps that went to the rescue of the unfortunates. 

In January, 1857, Lieutenant-general Wells, commander of the Nauvoo Legion, was 
authorized by the Legislature to choose six or more commissoned officers and with their 
assistance draft a system of laws and regulations for that body. He selected among others 
James Ferguson, whom he subsequently named as a member of his staff, with the rank 
of adjutant-general. This was shortly before the opening of the famous Echo Canyon 
campaign, in which he figured prominently. He accompanied his chief to the front in 
September of that year, and remained until far into the winter. A fragment of his 
eloquent letter to Colonel Phillip St. George Cooke, U. S. A., the old commander of the 
Mormon Battalion, who was with General Johnston in the invasion of Utah, may be found 
on page C60 of the first volume of this history. After his return home and up to and 
during the "Move," his time was occupied with the usual routine of business in the 
adjutant-general's department. He was one of those left on guard at the Bee-Hive house 
when Johnston's army passed through Salt Lake City. 

In the summer of 1859, in conjunction with Seth M. Blair and Hosea Stout, General 
Ferguson established the journal known as "The Mountaineer," m opposition to "The 
Valley Tan," an anti-Mormon paper that had originated at Camp Floyd, but was then 
being published at Salt Lake City. The "Mountaineer" issued its first number on the 
27th of August. Besides attending to his editorial duties, he continued practicing in the 
courts. We find him in January of this year, defending himself, and that successfully, 
before Judge Sinclair, in the district court, against a charge of intimidating Judge Stiles 
in November, 1856; one of the charges cited to sustain the false theory of a Mormon in- 
surrection and justify the sending of Johnston's army to Utah. 

His last appearance in court was on the 13th of August, 1863, when he assisted in 
the' defense of a man named Dives, on trial for larceny. General Ferguson was ill, and 
on the adjournment of court returned home and never again left it alive. His health had 
been failing for several years, and though he was scarcely in his prime between thirty-five 
and thirty-six years of age his death had been anticipated. He expired at 12:45 a. m. 
Sunday, August 30, 1863, at his home in the Fourteenth Ward. His decease was much 
lamented. The members of the bar met on the day of his funeral, August 31st and 
passed appropriate resolutions to his memory. The funeral was attended by President 
Young and other Church dignitaries and prominent citizens, and in the presence of a 
vast throng the remains were laid to rest in the city cemetery. 

General Ferguson was four times married. His wife Jane Robinson has already been 
named. His wife Lucy Nutting, whom he met in California was one of the "Brooklyn" 
company who landed there with Elder Samuel Brannan in 1846. Another wife was 
Margaret Gutteridge, a talented singer at the Social Hall entertainments. His wife Phillis 
Hardy, whose acquaintance he formed in Scotland, was a handcart heroine. He was 
the father of thirteen children, ten of whom are living, namely: Mrs. Julia F. Brown, of 
Liberty, Idaho; Mrs. Lucy Fox, of Lehi, Utah; Hon. James X. Ferguson, of Salt Lake 
City; Mrs. Sarah Clark, now in Oregon; Mrs. Mary P. F. Keith, of Salt Lake City; 
Daniel H. Ferguson, a well known mining foreman; Mrs. Kathleen F. Burton, of Salt 
Lake City; Mont Ferguson, of Park City; Barlow Ferguson, of the law firm of Ferguson 
& Cannon, and Fergus Ferguson, of Salt Lake City. 



ROBERT TAYLOR BURTON. 

*AMOUS in Utah history as General Burton, and equally noted in later Mormon 
history as Bishop Burton, the subject of this sketch, one of the Presiding Bishop- 
ric of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, was born at Amersberg, 
Canada West, October 25, 1821. The son of Samuel and Hannah Shipley Bur- 
ton, he was the tenth in a family of fourteen children, seven of whom were born in 
England, and the others in America. His grandparents, Samuel and Mary Johnson 
Burton, were of Yorkshire, England, whence his parents emigrated in the year 1817, 
sailing from the port of Hull. Arriving in America, they settled at Poultneyville, 
Ontario (now Wayne) county, New York, where they resided two or three years, and 
then moved to western Canada. Thence they returned in 1828 to the United States and 
settled on a farm of one hundred and sixty acres near the mouth of the Maumee river, 
where the city of Toledo now stands. After a few years residence in Ohio they removed 
to Adrian, Michigan, where they were among the very earliest settlers. Finding it 
impossible to dispose of his Canadian property to advantage, Robert's father returned 
with his family to that country. 

Some time in the autumn of 1837 two Mormon missionaries came into the neighbor- 
hood where the Burton family resided. As usual they were shunned by the various 
religious denominations and refused permission to preach in the churches and public 
buildings. Resenting this inhospitable treatment of the strangers, Robert T. Burton, 
then only about sixteen years of age, but always a lover of justice and fair play, per- 
suaded his father to entertain the two Elders and provide a place in which they might 
expound their views. Soon after this the youth' visited some relatives in the State of 
Ohio, spending the winter at school, and the next summer helping his widowed sister, 
Mrs. Jane Layborne, upon her farm. During his absence from home his father's family 
were converted to Mormonism. He was informed of this fact by his mother, who in 
September visited him and her kindred in Ohio and reauested him to accompany his par- 
ents to Far West, Caldwell county, Missouri, where the Latter-day Saints were gathering 
in large numbers. He consented to do so, though not without some reluctance, the re- 
sult of certain rumors unfavorable to the Saints then afloat in northern Ohio. Returning 
to Canada, he was himself converted to the faith which his parents had espoused, -and 
was baptized by Elder Henry Cook, October 23, 1838. 

In the latter part of that month he left with his father's family for Far West, and 
had got as far as Walnut Grove, Knox County, Illinois, when he learned of the terrible 
persecution of the Saints in Missouri. He therefore concluded, with others, to remain 
at Walnut Grove, where a Mormon branch was organized, and where the Burton family 
resided for about two years. They then migrated to Nauvoo, and resided there until the 
exodus. From June, 1843, until June, 1844, Robert T. Burton, then an Elder of the 
Church, was absent from home on a mission in Illinois, Michigan and Ohio, in company 
with Elder Nathaniel V. Jones. Having baptized a goodly number and organized several 
branches they returned to Nauvoo, Elder Burton's arrival being just two weeks before 
the martyrdom of the Prophet and the Patriarch. 

At this time he performed his first military duty, enlisting in Captain Gleason's 
cavalry company, Nauvoo Legion. He was on guard in Nauvoo at the time of the 
Carthage jail tragedy, and for some time afterwards was constantly on duty there and in 
the vicinity, endeavoring to protect the oppressed Saints from rapine and robbery. A 
lover of music, and talented in that line, he became a member of the Nauvoo brass band 
and Nauvoo choir, besides performing other public duties. In January, 1845, he was 
called on a special mission, with Elder Samuel W. Richards, and traveled through some 
of the central counties of Illinois, seeking to allay the bitter prejudice prevailing against 
his people. 

He returned from this mission in time to be married on December 18th of the same 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 185 

year, to Miss Maria S. Haven, the ceremony uniting the young couple being performed 
by President Brigham Young at the home of the bride's parents in Nauvoo. The nearest 
approach to a wedding tour experienced by Mr. and Mrs. Burton was the exodus of the 
ensuing February, when the Saints began leaving Nauvoo upon their long and toilsome 
pilgrimage into the unknown West. The Burtons were in one of the first companies 
that started, crossing the Mississippi river on the ice, February llth, and encamping on 
the western bank. The snow was about eighteen inches deep, and the weather extremely 
cold so cold that many of the homeless pilgrims were compelled to cross and re-cross 
the frozen river several times, with teams and wagons, for additional supplies of clothing, 
bedding and provisions. 

The Burtons left Sugar Creek in the general move westward. Owing to the absence 
of roads and the wet weather, progress was slow and difficult. The country was covered 
with water and mud almost the entire distance to the Missouri river, where they arrived 
about the middle of June. The main camp was at Council Bluffs, but Mr. Burton, with 
his wife and his aged parents, made a temporary home at a point lower down the river. 
There his mother died, a victim of the hardships of the enforced exodus, and was buried in 
a lonely grave on the banks of the Missouri. The survivors of the family, after accumu- 
lating the necessary teams and supplies, left their Missouri home and on May 20, 1848, 
rejoined the main body of the Saints at Winter Quarters. 

By this time the Pioneers had been to the Rocky Mountains and had returned, and 
President Young and his associates were now organizing the main emigration. Robert 
T. Burton and his family were in the company led by President Young, with whom they 
came to Salt Lake Valley, arriving here in the latter part of September. During the 
journey Mr. Burton acted as bugler of the camp. He lived in the Old Fort until January, 
1849, when Salt Lake City having been laid out, he moved into the Fifteenth Ward, first 
living with his brother-in-law, William Coray, but removing on the 15th of August to the 
corner of Second West and First South Streets, where he still resides. 

In the fall of that year the local militia was organized, under the reminiscent title of 
"Nauvoo Legion." Robert T. Burton was appointed bugler in the first company of 
cavalry that was formed the one commanded by Captain George D. Grant. In Febru- 
ary, 1850, this company was called into active service to defend the settlers in Utah 
county against hostile Indians. Leaving Salt Lake City on the evening of the 7th, they 
traveled all night, arriving at Provo early in the morning. They found the Indians 
strongly entrenched on the south bank of Provo river, where for three days they stoutly 
defended themselves against Captain Grant's minute men and others of the militia. On 
the third day a little squad of cavalry made a determined assault upon the enemy's posi- 
tion, and after receiving the Indian fire, which momentarily checked their impetuous 
charge, rallied, swept on and captured a barricade formed by a double log-house, from 
which the savages flea precipitately. In the very thick of the fray, two of the cavalry- 
men Robert T. Burton and Lot Smith heedless of the bullets that whistled past their 
ears, rode round to the front of the house and spurred their horses into the passage way 
between the log buildings. They were the first of the troopers inside the house, most of 
their comrades sawing through the logs at the rear. The campaign was very successful, 
the Indians being driven into the mountains. 

In September of the same year Mr. Burton was one of a company ordered north 
against the Shoshone Indians, and in November he and his comrades were again in Utah 
county, operating against the remnant of the tribe they had fought there the previous 
spring. W'hile on this campaign he was elected lieutenant. In December he was ordered 
to Tooele county, in pursuit of marauding savages. This trip was a very trying one, the 
company having no tents, no shelter of any kind, and being without sufficient bedding or 
clothing. After a hard experience they returned, having accomplished very little. In 
June, 1851, he accompanied another expedition against the Indians on the Western desert, 
and though the men suffered for want of water, they were entirely successful. In a battle 
fought at the edge of the desert west of Skull valley nearly all the hostiles were killed. 

The next spring he took a small company of men to Green river, to serve papers 
issued from the district court, and protect the settlers in that part from Indians and rene- 
gade white men. In 1853 he was elected captain of Company "A" the original cavalry 
corps and on March 1, 1855, received his commission as major. Two years later, on 
the 12th of June, he was commissioned colonel. 

In October, 1856, he accompanied the relief corps that went out to meet and help in 
the belated handcart companies, struggling through the snow five or six hundred miles 
east of Salt Lake City. The weather was intensely cold, and not only the immigrants, 
but their rescuers ran short of provisions and were reduced to one-fourth rations until the 

12 



186 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

arrival of further relief. After the companies had been provided for as well as possible 
under the circumstances, Major Burton was placed in charge of the train and conducted 
it to Salt Lake, arriving here on the last day of November. "This," says he, "was the 
hardest trip of my life; many of the immigrants died from cold and hunger and were 
buried by the roadside." 

The next fall and winter found him in the thick of the trouble known as the "Echo 
Canyon War." As early as the 15th of August, pursuant to orders previously issued, he 
started eastward at the head of about eighty mounted men, to assist the immigration then 
en route to Salt Lake valley, take observations as to the movements of the government 
troops also on the way to Utah, and report the information to headquarters. He faith- 
fully carried out his instructions. Meeting, at Devil's Gate, on the 21st of September, 
the vanguard of Johnston's array, commanded by Colonel E. B. Alexander, Colonel 
Burton and his scouts hovered in 'their vicinity, watching and reporting their movements, 
until they arrived on Ham's Fork, twenty miles northeast of Fort Bridger. At the latter 
point Colonel Burton joined General Wells, the commander of the Legion, now opposing, 
by order of Governor Young, the further advance of the invaders. About the middle of 
October, Burton, with a heavy force of cavalry, intercepted Alexander, who, finding his 
way through Echo canyon blocked with ice and snow and barred by hostile militia, at- 
tempted a detour northward, presumably to enter Salt Lake valley by the Fort Hall route. 
He was compelled to return and camp on Black's Fork, wherein November he was joined 
by General Johnston. The Federal army having gone into winter quarters at Fort 
Bridger, Colonel Burton rejoined General Wells in Echo canyon, remaining there until 
the 5th of December, when he returned to Salt Lake City. In the spring of 1858, when 
the people moved south to avoid a possible collision with the United States troops, who 
were preparing to march through the city, Colonel Burton was left with a force of militia 
to guard the property of the absent community. 

In 1862, by order of Acting- Governor Fuller, he proceeded with a company of picked 
men to the Platte river, for the purpose of protecting the mails from Indians and lawless 
white men, who, taking advantage of the outbreak of the Civil War, were attacking and 
burning mail stations, driving off stock, waylaying stage coaches, killing passengers and 
committing other depredations. In June of the same year occurred the "Morrisite War," 
in which Colonel Burton, as deputy of the Territorial Marshal, commanded the posse sent 
against the rebellious Morrisites by order of Chief Justice Kinney of the Third District 
court. The details of this affair, including General Burton's trial on a trumped up charge 
of murder, with his triumphant acquittal (March 7, 1879) by a jury composed equally of 
Mormons and non-Mormons, are fully related in the second and third volumes of this 
history. Robert T. Burton received his commission as Major-General from Governor 
Durkee in 1868. Up to the disbandment of the Legion in 1870, he, under Lieutenant- 
General Wells, was one of the principals in perfecting the organization and directing the 
operations of the Territorial militia.- 

In addition to his military offices he has held civic positions as follows: Constable 
of Salt Lake City in 1852; United States deputy. marshal in 1853 and for many years after; 
sheriff, assessor and collector of Salt Lake county for twenty years from 1854; Territorial 
deputy- marshal from 1861 until several years later; United States collector of internal 
revenue for Utah, by appointment of President Lincoln, from 1862 to 1869; assessor of 
Salt Lake county in 1S80; member of the city council from 1856 to 1873, and member of 
the Legislative Council from 1855 to 1887. While sen-ing in the Legislature in 1876, 
Hon. Robert T. Burton, Hon. Abraham 0. Smoot and Hon. Silas S. Smith were appointed 
a committee to arrange, compile and publish all the laws of the Territory of Utah then in 
force. From 1880 to 1884 General Burton was one of the Board of Regents of the Uni- 
versity of Deseret. 

His ecclesiastical record since coming to Utah is as follows: In 1859 he was ap- 
pointed counselor to Bishop Andrew Cunningham of the Fifteenth Ward, and in 1867 he 
became the Bishop of that Ward. In November, 1869, he went upon a mission to the 
Eastern States, during which he spent some time in the city of Washington, assisting 
Utah's Delegate, Hon. William H. Hooper, in the interests of his constituency. In May, 
1873, he left for Europe, to fulfill a mission, and while absent visited various parts of 
Great Britain and the Continent. Returning to England, he was appointed president of 
the London conference. July, 1875, found him again in Utah. During that year, and 
while still in England, he had been chosen second counselor to Edward Hunter, the Pre- 
siding Bishop of the Church, but he continued to act as Bishop of the Fifteenth Ward 
until 1877. After the death of Bishop Hunter, he became first counselor to his successor, 
Bishop William B. Preston. The date of this appointment was July 31, 1884. Since 
that time he has continued to act in this capacity. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 187 

Bishop Burton was one of the first of our citizens to engage in home manufacture. 
He with Abraham 0. Smoot and John Sharp built the Wasatch Woolen Mills on Parley's 
Canyon creek, southeast of Salt Lake City. He has a fine farm on State street, in the 
southern suburbs, and for many years has engaged in farming and stock-raising. 

General Burton has been thrice married, and is the father of a numerous family, 
mostly sons. The best known of these are William S. Burton, contractor and builder; 
Charles S. Burton, cashier of the State Bank of Utah and adjutant-general in the 
militia; Bishop Henry F. Burton, of Farmers' Ward, Salt Lake county; Willard Burton, 
prominent in Sabbath school work, and Theodore Burton, of the Burton Coal and Lumber 
Company. His eldest daughter, Teresa, is Mrs. Lewis S. Hills. In his eighty-second 
year, the General is still active in his labors, and is daily at his post of duty in the office 
of the Presiding Bishop. Courage, uprightness and fidelity are among the most promi- 
nent traits manifested by the esteemed veteran during his long and eventful career. 



JAMES BROWN. 

@APTAIN JAMES BROWN was a native of Roan county, North Carolina, and was 
born September 30, 1801. His parents were James and Mary Williams Brown. 
The father was a veteran of the Revolutionary war, having fought under General 
Francis Marion. While the father farmed, the mother spun, wove and made all 
the clothing of the family. Their circumstances were only moderate. James in early 
boyhood helped his father upon the farm and at intervals attended school, receiving a 
common English education, supplemented by general reading and wide practical experience. 
He was inclined to literary pursuits, taught school in his early manhood, was a Baptist 
preacher for a time and served two or three terms as sheriff in the county of Roan. He 
had a natural leaning towards the law, but never studied it so extensively as to prepare 
himself to practice. He was married in 1823 to Martha Stephens. 

In the year 1834 he migrated from North Carolina and settled in Brown county, 
Illinois, where he built a home, but subsequently sold out and moved into Adams county, 
where about the year 1837 he took up a farm and built. The following year he became 
a Latter-day Saint. On September 28, 1840, his wife died, leaving him with eight sons 
and one daughter, the youngest, his son Moroni, only three days old. About the 1st of 
January, 1841, he married again, and then took up his residence at Nauvoo, where he 
was soon called into the ministry. He filled a mission to the Southern States, visiting 
his relatives in North Carolina, and also spent a great deal of time in gathering means for 
the building of the Nauvoo Temple. He formed a business partnership with a man 
named Mofftt, owning a mill at Augusta, Iowa. 

He was with the Saints in their exodus, and at Council Bluffs in the summer of 1846 
enlisted in the Mormon Battalion, becoming captain of company "C." At Santa Fe he 
was placed in charge of certain detachments of the battalion, disabled by their long and 
arduous march to that point, and was ordered to Pueblo to pass the winter, while the 
main body, under Colonel Philip St. George Cooke, pushed on to the Pacific coast. The 
next spring Captain Brown and his command prepared to march thither, but instead of 
taking the southern route, pursued by their comrades, they traveled by way of Fort 
Laramie and South Pass, thus falling in with the Pioneers under President Brigham 
Young and following immediately behind them to Salt Lake valley. 

They arrived here on the 29th of July. By this time the battalion's term of enlist- 
ment had expired, and Captain Brown determined to tarry and rest his teams, while 
awaiting further orders from his military superiors. Early in August he set out for 
California, taking the muster roll of his detachment for the purpose of drawing the pay 
due from the Government to the men of his command ; the battalion having been honor- 
ably discharged at Los Angeles. 

Returning from San Francisco in December, 1847, he purchased from Miles M. 
Goodyear, an old frontiersman, a log fort and lands on the Weber river, paying for them 
the sum of three thousand dollars. Thither he removed in January, 1848, his sons Jesse 
and Alexander accompanying him. In the spring of that year they plowed and sowed a 
few acres with wheat and also planted corn, potatoes, cabbage, turnips and watermelons.. 



]88 HISTOEY OF UTAH. 

The spot upon which they located was a portion of the site of the present city of Ogden, 
the first settlement in Weber county, of which Captain Brown may be considered the 
pioneer and one of the principal founders. He was not only first upon the ground 
barring the primitive occupancy of Mr. Goodyear, who had a Mexican land grant and was 
in no way connected with the Mormon community but he encouraged others to settle in 
that part, generously allowing his brethren to build and plant upon portions of the tract 
he had purchased, and taking no pay from them for that privilege. The government was 
less generous to him, for many years later, ignoring Goodyear's grant from the Mexican 
government supposed to have been confirmed when this region was ceded to the United 
States it assumed ownership of the land, gave to the Union Pacific railroad on its subsidy 
each alternate section of the tract and required the old settlers, including Captain Brown's 
immediate descendants, to repurchase the homes and farms that they had held for twenty 
years. 

Captain Brown built the first bridges over the Weber and Ogden rivers, and was 
proprietor of the same from 1849 to 1853, having a charter from the Legislature to build 
these bridges and collect toll for the term of five years. He was assessor and collector of 
taxes in 1850 and 1851, and a member of the Ogden city council from 1855 continuously 
to the time of his death. During most of that period he acted as justice of the peace. He 
also served a number of terms in the Legislature in the early "fifties," and was intimately 
associated with Presidents Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and most of the Church 
leaders of his time. 

In the fall of 1852 he went upon a mission to British Guiana, proceeding to San 
Diego, California, thence by sailing vessel to the Isthmus of Panama, and across it to his 
place of destination. Finding conditions unfavorable for the introduction of the Gospel 
in that land, he returned home, coming back by way of St. Louis, where he assisted in 
the Church emigration of 1853 and 1854. He took charge of a company across the 
plains, and arrived at Salt Lake City in October of the last-named year. When the Weber 
Stake was organized he became first counselor to President Lorin Farr. 

Captain Brown's main characteristics were honesty, truthfulness and integrity. He 
fearlessly stood by and maintained whatever he believed to be just and right. He was an 
excellent judge of human nature, and detested a hypocrite, a thief and a liar. Out-spoken 
and even hot-tempered when provoked, he was nevertheless tender-hearted and ready to 
forgive on the slightest show of repentance. He was gifted as a speaker, upright as a 
judge, and would go as far in defending the rights of a beggar as of a man in high station 
or worth his millions. His sympathies were always with the poor and down-trodden, 
especially when they had justice on their side. His many acts of benevolence and charity 
in the early days of famine and poverty are proverbial among the old-time settlers of 
Weber county. 

After the death of his first wife, Captain Brown married four times, the names of his 
wives being Susan Foutz, Esther Rapier, Sally Wood and Mary Black. Mary Black 
Brown is reputedly the pioneer cheese maker of Utah. He was the father of twenty- 
eight children, sixteen of them boys. A number of his sons have risen to prominence, 
both in ecclesiastical and civil capacities. The captain died at his home in Ogden, Sep- 
tember 30, 1863, the sixty-second anniversary of his birth. His death was the result of 
an accident which had befallen him five days previously. He was working at a molasses 
mill, expressing the juice of the sugar cane, when his arm caught in the cogs of a roller 
and was so lacerated that mortification set in and death was inevitable. 



WARREN STONE SNOW. 

GENERAL WARREN S. SNOW, the son of Gardner and Sarah Sawyer Hastings 
Snow, was born at Chesterfield, Mew Hampshire, June 15, 1818. His father was 
a farmer and carpenter, and the family were in good circumstances. At four 
years of age Warren moved with his parents to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, and 
remained there until he was fifteen. 

His education was such as the common schools of the period were able to impart. 
He was noted as a woodsman and bear hunter an excellent preparation for his after 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 189 

career as an Indian fighter but as a regular vocation he chose the more peaceable and 
lucrative employment of cooper. 

St. Johnsbury was a town to which Mormonism penetrated at an early day. It was 
the birthplace of Erastus Snow, who became a leading light of the Church, and was one 
of the places visited by the Mormon Apostles on their first mission from Kirtland, Ohio, 
in 1835. Warren Snow, a preacher at fifteen years of age, there embraced the Gospel. 
He was in no way related to Erastus Snow or Lorenzo Snow, the two Apostles. 

He removed to Kirtland in June, 1836, and thence to Lima, Hancock county, Illinois, 
in 1840. He was a captain of militia in Cole county, and a lieutenant in the Nauvoo 
Legion. 

Warren Snow was not in the exodus of the Saints from Illinois; it was six years after 
that event that he moved westward through Iowa toward the main emigrant rendezvous 
on the Missouri river. The date of starting was May 10, 1852. From the Missouri he 
led a company of fifty wagons across the plains to Utah. He was comfortably outfitted 
with ox team and all the necessary equipment, and the journey, barring some sickness 
and two deaths in the company, was pleasant and prosperous. Three births occurred on 
the way. There were sixty cases of cholera among the emigrants, but none of them 
proved fatal. 

He arrived at his journey's end on the 12th of November, 1852, and settled first at 
Salt Lake City. Two years later he removed to Manti, Sanpete county, which became 
his permanent home. Before coming to Utah he had worked at cooperage and had done 
some freighting. Both thes vocations, appropriate to life in a new country, found 
plenty of exercise after his arrival here. 

Warren Snow soon rose to prominence; his rustling, energetic nature, commending 
him for promotion. He was made a Bishop, and presided as such from 1853 until 1859 
over all the settlements of Sanpete county. He was city marshal of Manti in 1853, and 
in 1855 was a member of the Utah legislature, serving three terms in the House and two 
in the Council. In 1857 he was a major in the Utah militia, and operated in Echo canyon, 
assisting to repel Johnston's army. In April, 1861, he took a mission to Europe, from 
which he returned in November, 1864, leading a company of emigrants across the plains. 

The year 1865 witnessed the beginning of the Black Hawk Indian war, in which 
Warren S. Snow, then general in the Sanpete County military district, figured promi- 
nently and won enviable laurels. A full account of the conflict, and incidents of his 
connection therewith, is given in Chapter IX, Volume II, of this history. 

In 1865 he entered into the mercantile business; Hon. George W. Peacock being in- 
terested with him. The same year he was elected mayor of Manti, serving for two years 
in that capacity. From 1871 to 1872 he was a member of the Manti city council. 

His wife, Mary Ann Voorhees, whom he married December 23, 1841, bore to him 
eight children, named in their order as follows: Joseph Smith, Gardner Elisha, Warren 
Franklin, Elizabeth Ann, Samuel Perry, Mary Ann, Melissa Jane and Luella. He also 
had other families, the names of whose members are not accessible at this writing. 

General Snow died at Manti, September 21, 1896. His prevailing characteristics 
were courage, energy, candor (even to bluntness) and an authoritative manner and dis- 
position that many deemed arbitrary. Hence he made enemies as well as friends. Despite 
his military brusqueness, he was jovial and good-natured, and was esteemed for many 
excellent qualities. Without much education, he was nevertheless an able business man, 
and as a frontiersman and Indian fighter he shone with lustre. 



JOHN RIGGS MURDOCK. 

JOHN R. MURDOCK was born on the 13th day of September, 1826, in Orange town- 
ship, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, about fourteen miles east of the city of Cleveland. 
His parents were descendants of some of the oldest families in New England, who 
did their share in the establishment of a civilization on this western continent, and 
bravely aided the colonial patriots in their struggle for independence. His father was 
John Murdock, and his mother, before marriage, Julia Clapp, daughter of Judge Orrice 
Clapp of Mentor, Ohio, a direct descendant of Captain Roger Clapp, who came from 



190 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

England in 1630 and was captain of Fort Independence in Boston Harbor for a period of 
twenty-one years. There were five children in the family Orrice C., John R., Phoebe, 
Joseph and Julia, the last two being twins. At the birth of these babes, the mother died. 

"Fresh in my memory," says Mr. Murdock, "is the death of my mother, which 
occured at Warrensville, adjoining the place where I was born. I was only six years 
old, and we children had been staying with some neighbors. When father came and told 
us the sad news, it was heart-rending to hear little Phoebe, only two years old, cry as 
if her heart would break, for her dead mother. After disposing of his household 
effects, father gave us into other hands to be cared for, and went into the mission field, 
where he labored continuously for five years." 

Joseph and Julia were given to the Prophet Joseph Smith and his wife Emma, who 
had just buried twin babes, and it was while assisting his wife with these adopted children, 
who were sick, that the Prophet was dragged from his bed by a mob at Hiram, 
Portage county, on the night of March 25, 1832, and cruelly maltreated. As a result of 
this outrage, one of the sick infants the boy died a few days later. For some time 
the children all remained near their native place. The three older ones were put under 
the care of Caleb Baldwin, who soon migrated to Missouri, settling at Independence, 
Jackson county. There Bishop Edward Partridge secured places for them in different 
families. 

John was sent to live with Morris C. Phelps, who had no son. Consequently his 
young protege was often entrusted with duties, the performance of which could scarcely 
have been expected of a maturer person. But he was always treated with the utmost 
kindness, and considered himself fortunate in being placed in a good home, though 
among strangers. He remained in the Phelps family until the year 1838, by which time 
they had moved from Jackson county into Clay county, and thence into Caldwell. Mr. Phelps 
being much away, the care of the farm and stock was left almost wholly in the hands 
of young Murdock, who was still a mere lad. He was intimately associated with the 
stirring scenes and incidents of Mormon history at that period, and a sharer in the suf- 
ferings of his people. While at Independence, he drove one of the teams that plowed 
the ground preparatory to the laying of the foundations of the projected Temple. He 
was present when the Prophet and other prominent men, Mr. Phelps among the number, 
were seized by the Missiourians and thrown into prison. Educational advantages were 
extremely limited with the people of the West at that time, and especially to a boy who 
was compelled almost from infancy to be self-supporting. But the spirit of his Puritan 
ancestors was strong within him, and he was endowed by nature and experience with 
the requisite qualifications for the life that lay before him. 

When the Phelps family left Missouri in May, 1839, the head of the house was still 
in prison, and among their possessions were a hundred head of cattle, which had to be 
driven across the country a distance of three hundred miles. This task was assigned to 
John B. Murdock, and was successfully performed by him. He always had a remark- 
able aptitude in the care of horses and cattle. Arriving in Illinois, John's father 
insisted upon his leaving the home of Mr. Phelps and taking up his residence under the 
paternal roof. This was a severe trial to the young man, for, as stated, Mr. and Mrs. 
Phelps had always been very kind to him. However, he obeyed his father, and with his 
brother Orrice opened a new farm in Adams county, Illinois. Thence they moved to 
Nauvoo, where also he assisted his father in farming. 

During this time the family was visited by a relative, Levi Murdock, from Indiana. 
He prevailed upon the father to allow John to go back home with him in the fall. The 
latter remained in Indiana about eight months, spending most of his time making 
maple sugar from the sap. In the spring, becoming very homesick, he decided to return 
to Nauvoo, though he had no way, except walking, to accomplish the journey, one of 
three hundred miles through a new, thinly settled country. He started out alone, with a 
little bundle on his back and $ 1.25 in his pocket, and at length reached home. 

After working sometime for a man named Garner, he went to live with Cornelius P. 
Lott, who had charge of the Prophet Joseph Smith's farm. John soon became very much 
attached to the family and they to him. It was here that he met the beautiful girl who 
afterwards became his wife Almira Henrietta Lott, the third daughter of the household. 
He continued to work on the farm until the Saints left for the West. In speaking of the 
Prophet Mr. Murdock says: "He was one of the most admirable of men, both for 
physical and mental attractions. Anyone with him would feel that he was in the presence 
of a superior; and yet he was so genial, kind and loveable! He often came out to his 
farm and brought his family, as they were on terms of great intimacy with Father 
Lett's family. We all learned to love and revere him. He used to relate to us many 



HISTOEY OF UTAH. 191 

incidents of his life. In all kinds of farm work he was an expert, and scarcely ever met his 
equal as an athlete. How well I remember the day he called at the farm and bid us 
good-bye he was then on his way to Carthage!" 

In the exodus John R. Murdock assisted Father Lott and his family to move to 
Council Bluffs. On the 16th of July, 1846, he enlisted in the Mormon Battalion, and 
marched with his comrades to California. Before leaving he and Almira became en- 
gaged. He pays this pretty tribute to her constancy: ''She, who was so greatly admired 
for her beauty and intelligence, that her hand was sought by many, while separated from 
me for over two years, and in the greatest uncertainty as to whether I would ever 
return, remained true to her promise." Mr. Murdock was one of the youngest men in 
the Battalion. He tells many interesting stories of its camp-life, forced marches, etc. 
He was in the Government service for a year, and shortly after being mustered out, left 
California for Salt Lake valley, arriving here on October 12, 1847. He found his father 
and family, who had come into the valley a month before. 

In the spring of 1848, he was called to go with Captain Ira Eldredge to meet 
President Brigham Young and company on the Sweetwater. They also met President 
Kimball's company, in which was Father Lott's family, and John was once more with his 
sweetheart. The young couple were married in Salt Lake City, November 12, 1849, 
President Kimball performing the ceremony. Their first home was in this part, where 
Mr. Murdock was an energetic laborer in developing the country. He was in the Prove 
Indian campaign of 1850, and in the spring of the year following moved with his family 
to Lehi, where were very few settlers at that time. The people had much trouble with the 
Indians, and were on guard day and night. Mr. Murdock was one of the first mayors 
of that town. In 1853 he went upon a mission into Southern Utah to preach the Gospel 
to the red men and teach them the arts of civilization. The efforts of himself and fellow 
missionaries were rewarded with fair success. In 1856 he was one of the relief party 
sent out to assist the belated hand-cart immigrants into Salt Lake valley. 

The year of the "Echo Canyon War," 1857-8, he made two trips from Salt Lake City 
to Independence. Missouri, accomplishing some marvelous feats of early day travel. 
The entire distance of twelve hundred miles was covered in fifteen days, with only three 
changes of animals; and this without injury to the teams, owing to Mr. Murdock's 
extensive knowledge of horses and his skill in caring for them. At this time he was 
the bearer of very important messages to Governor Brigham Young. Before and after his 
removal south, he brought several companies of immigrants across the plains, and was one 
of the most successful in such undertakings. His knowledge of the country, his courage 
and hardihood, his skill with animals and his military training, made him an exceptionally 
good commander. 

The year 1864 witnessed his removal to Beaver, where he has ever since resided. 
He went at the call of President Young, to be a Bishop in that part. He held the office 
for ten years, during which time he was unceasing in his labors to build up the country. 
When the Beaver stake was organized, Bishop Murdock was made its President, and 
served in that capacity until recent years. To mention the enterprises with which he 
was connected would be to name nearly all that have grown up in that section. A co- 
operative store and the Beaver Woolen Mills were among the first with which he was 
associated. He has also been interested in some of the leading business concerns of the 
State, and in addition to mercantile and agricultural pursuits, has engaged extensively in 
cattle and sheep raising. During the Indian troubles of that region he took an active 
part in defending the settlers, and at the same time was popular with the Indians, being 
able to speak their language. He was probate judge of Beaver county for four years, 
during which time he entered the townsites of Greenville, Adamsville and Minersville. 
For a great many terms, he was Beaver's representative in the Territorial legislature, 
and in the State legislature of 1899 was the senior member of the house of repre- 
sentatives. He sat in the Constitutional Conventions of 1872 and 1895, helping to frame 
on the latter occasion the constitution upon which Utah was admitted into the Union. 
Formerly a member of the People's party, at the division on national party lines, he 
announced himself a Republican, and since then has been a staunch member of that party. 
He has been connected with the National Republican League and the Republican 
State central committee. At the World's Fair in 1893 he was one of the agricultural 
commissioners from Utah. 

Though no longer President of Beaver Stake having been honorably released from 
his long and useful service in that position Mr. Murdock is still a prominent and 
influential citizen, taking active interest, as ever, in religious and benevolent as well 
as political movements. He has donated liberally toward the construction of temples and 



192 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

other public buildings. His ecclesiastical labors comprise a mission to the Southern 
States in 1880. He has always been a promoter of education, his own limited oppor- 
tunities at school increasing rather than diminishing his interest in tbat direction. On the 
abandonment of Fort Cameron as military post, he with his son-in-law, Hon. Philo T. 
Farnsworth, purchased in connection with the Church that property, and in 1897 the two 
gentlemen gave their interest therein to the Brigham Young Academy, which has 
established at that point about two miles east of Beaver a very successful branch of 
that noble institution of learning. 

Hon. John R. Murdock is now in his seventy-seventh year; his life has been one of 
unceasing toil, yet he is still in the possession of all his faculties. He is the father of 
nineteen children, eight of them by his first wife, Almira Lett, who died in 1878, after 
being an invalid for many years. She left four sons and one daughter, three of her boys 
having preceded her into the spirit world. By his second wife, Mary Ellen Wolfenden, 
he has had ten children; and by his third wife, May Bain, one. 




WILLIAM HOLMES WALKER. 

subject of this narrative was a member of the Mormon Battalion and virtually 
one of the pioneers of Utah. The son of John and Lydia Holmes Walker, he was 
born at Peacham, Caledonia county, Vermont, August 28, 1820. His parents 
were members of the Congregational church, and he was trained in all the tenets 
of the same. When, in the spring of 1832, his father joined the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints, William, who at that time was from home, living with an uncle and 
attending school, shared with his devout mother and other relatives the astonishment 
and disgust experienced by them on learning of what had taken place. John Walker, 
a carpenter by trade and something of a machinist, went soon after his baptism to 
Stanstead Plains, Canada, where he had charge of a manufacturing establishment, 
putting in improved machinery. During his absence his wife made a diligent and 
thorough investigation of Mormonism, with the result that she herself was converted. 
After her husband's return home, she and her children in 1834 accompanied him to 
Ogdensburg, New York, where there was an organized branch of the Church. They 
resided there three or four years, and in 1835 William, one of his brothers and two 
sisters embraced the faith. 

In the spring of 1838 the Walkers with several other families left Ogdensburg for 
Western Missouri, where they arrived just as the anti-Mormon troubles were at their 
height. While traveling through the State they were surrounded by an armed mob who 
searched their wagons, robbed them of their rifles and ammunition and warned them that 
they would be killed if they went any farther. Terrified by these threats two families 
stayed behind, while the others continued on to Shoal Creek, camping five miles below 
Haun's Mill. William's father visited that ill-starred settlement in quest of information as to 
the true state of affairs, and was there when Comstock's murderous ruffians fell upon the 
defenseless settlers and massacred nearly a score. Mr. Walker was wounded, and 
while hiding under some slabs that projected over or leaned against the bank of the creek 
near the mill, witnessed the brutal butchery of the revolutionary veteran, Father 
McBride, who, while pleading for mercy, was hacked to pieces by a stalwart Missourian 
with an old corn-cutter. Refugees from the mills reported the 'massacre to the campers 
on Shoal Creek, who supposed Mr. Walker to be among the slain. To their great joy 
they learned to the contrary after moving their camp about one hundred miles, when 
William sought and found his sire and brought him back to his family and friends. In 
November, while temporarily occupying a log house, the Walkers, father and son, assisted 
President Joseph Young and family, refugees from Haun's Mill, a distance of a hundred 
and fifty miles, on their way to Illinois. 

The Walker family left Missouri early in 1839 and settled near Quincy, Illinois, where 
the father obtained work at his trade, while his sons William and Lewis tilled a farm 
that he had rented. During his subsequent mission through the Middle States, it was 
their labor that supported the family. William Walker's first meeting with the Prophet 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 193 

Joseph Smith, with whom he became very intimate, was in the spring of 1840, when he 
was sent by his father to transact some business with him at Nauvoo. He arrived at the 
Prophet's home about nine o'clock in the evening, just as the family were singing 
before the usual evening prayer; Emma Smith, the Prophet's wife, leading the melodious 
chant. "I thought," says he, "I had never heard such sweet, heavenly music, and I was 
equally impressed with the prayer offered by the Prophet." 

William and his parents having moved to Nauvoo, he was welcomed into the 
Prophet's home, where he remained during the next three years as a member of the 
household. As early as January, 1841, if not earlier, the Prophet spoke to him about 
the principle of plural marriage, and in the spring of 1843, Father Walker being absent 
on a mission, Joseph asked and obtained William's consent to marry his sister Lucy. His 
sire subsequently sanctioned the proceedings. William says of the Prophet: "The 
more extensive my acquaintance and experience with him, the more my confidence 
increased in him. I worked in the hay field with him, when he assisted in mowing grass 
with a scythe, many a day putting in ten hours work. Very few if any were his superiors 
in that kind of labor. I was entrusted by him with important business. The Urim and 
Thummim was once in my charge for the time being. On one occasion when he was the 
mayor of Nauvoo, it became his duty to fine a negro for selling liquor in violation of the 
city ordinances. The negro begged for leniency, stating that his object in selling the 
liquor was to raise money to send for his family. The mayor would not shrink from 
his duty; he fined him seventy-five dollars, but added that if he would honor the law in 
future, he would make him a present of a horse to aid him in his purpose. The gift was 
gladly accepted and the required promise made. When the Mansion House was finished 
and furnished and the Prophet and his family moved into it, I had charge of it under his 
direction. In regard to his private life, as to purity, honesty, charity, benevolence, 
refinement of feeling and nobility of character, his superior did not exist on earth. 
An incident occured at the Mansion House to illustrate his contempt for and detestation of 
anything low and vile. Not long after the house was opened as a hotel, a stranger came 
and registered his name. Just before supper he insulted one of the hired girls. The Prophet 
' heard of it after the stranger had retired, and next morning met him as he came down 
from his room. 'Sir,' said he, 'I understand that you insulted one of the employes of 
this house last evening.' The fellow began to make all kinds of apologies, but the 
Prophet cut him short by telling him to get into his buggy and leave the place at once, and 
this in such unmistakable language and in such a tone as to almost make the man's hair 
stand on end. He offered to pay his bill, but his money was refused. 'I want you to 
get out,' said the indignant proprietor. 'I want none of your money, nor the money of 
any man of your stamp.' Thereupon the stranger made a hasty exit." 

November 1st, 1843, witnessed the marrige of William Holmes Walker with Olive 
Hovey Farr, daughter of Winslow and Olive Hovey Freeman Farr. He and his wife 
boarded at the Mansion House for six months, and then moved into a two-story brick house 
on Parley Street, belonging to the Prophet. William's mother was now dead, his father 
was on a mission, and five of his younger brothers and sisters were living with him. He 
still continued in the Prophet s employ, loaded and hauled rock for the Temple and officiated 
as president of the young men's and young ladies' relief society, organized to supply the 
needs of the poor. 

When the Prophet was about to go to Carthage to give himself up for trial, he sent 
William Walker to Burlington for an important witness, whose affidavit was secured and 
sent to Carthage by express. The same day it was returned to him with the request 
that he go again for the witness. He started immediately, rode all night, and while 
taking breakfast with George J. Adams at Augusta, heard the awful news of the 
massacre in Carthage jail. He returned to Nauvoo in time to meet the dead bodies of 
Joseph and Hyrum on their arrival there. In the fall of 1845 he assisted to quell the 
mobs that were burning Mormon property around Nauvoo, and during the remaining 
months of his residence there made preparations to accompany his people in their 
westward flight. 

The date of his departure from Nauvoo was February 21, 1846. He crossed the 
Mississippi (two miles wide) on the ice, and joined the migrating Saints on Sugar Creek. 
The camp was so organized that all able-bodied men who could possibly be spared went 
ahead and took contracts for splitting rails, building fences, or any other work that could 
be had, in order to supply the camp with grain. Mr. Walker, with his brother-in-law, 
Aaron F. Farr and Lorenzo D. Young, went into northern Missouri to trade their horses 
for oxen, which were found much better than horses for the journey. From that time 
he was actively engaged in hauling supplies through the storms that beat upon the 



194 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

travelers, almost incessantly, as they wended their way towards the Missouri river, where 
he arrived with the advance company about the middle of June. 

Next came the call for the Battalion. "I enlisted," says Mr. Walker, "more as a 
necessity than as a volunteer. It was a heavy draft upon the camp, and it required 
much effort upon the part of President Young: and others to meet the demand." He 
was in Company "B," Jesse D. Hunter, Captain. From Fort Leavenworth to Santa 
Fe he suffered much with chills and fever, and experienced rather harsh treatment from 
some in command, who did not realize his weak condition and required service impos- 
sible for him to perform. Finally the medical examiner passed upon his case, excused him, 
and he was sent with the disabled portion of the Battalion to Pueblo, where he passed the 
winter. This detachment left Pueblo late in May, 1847. Mr. Walker with a few others 
went on in advance and overtook the Pioneers at Green river, from which point he 
returned with a number of them on horseback to meet his family in the following emi- 
gration. He rode for days barefooted, (his moccasins being worn out), with a handker- 
chief wrapped around the foot that was exposed to the sun. Near Fort Kearney he 
met his wife, who had driven two yoke of oxen most of the way from the Missouri river, 
and was now sick, worn out with fatigue. They arrived in Salt Lake valley on the 
first day of October. 

His wagon box was his first abode, but he lost no time in going to the canyon for logs 
to build a house, into which he moved in December. "Aaron F. Farr and myself cut 
the logs and sawed the first lumber in Utah, and I made the first three-panel doors. I 
also worked on the first grist-mill, a corn cracker, run by water power, and built by 
Charles Crismon on City Creek. I then hewed timber and framed a saw mill for Heber 
C. Kimball. Subsequently I worked on Neff's flouring mill. I drew a lot one mile north 
of what is now called Holladay, and after getting the ground broke, sent my oxen back 
to the Missouri river to help the immigration. In 1848 I fought the crickets, and the next 
year moved my house out of the Fort onto my city lot in the Sixteenth ward. I traded with 
the Indians and gold diggers, the latter on their way to California, and at the same time 
cultivated my land. In November of that year my brother Edwin, a member of the 
Battalion, who had served in the second enlistment, arrived from California. In the 
Provo Indian campaign of February, 1850, I drove the old cannon called 'Long Range.' 
I was in the thick of the fight on Provo river and in the final combat at the head of Utah 
Lake, where the hostiles were almost annihilated. On the 28th of the following April, I 
married Mary Jane Shaddtng, and next day went to Farmington to build and open a 
farm. In the fall my father arrived from Winter Quarters. The next year I built a two- 
story house at Salt Lake City, and in December, with my father-in law, Winslow Farr, 
and my brother-in-law, Aaron F. Farr, began opening a road, building bridges and 
hewing timber for a saw-mill in Little Cottonwood Canyon. Our mill was just ready to 
raise, and I had started for Salt Lake to get men to help us put it up, when I learned that 
I had been called on a mission to South Africa. Instead of taking out men to raise the 
mill, I took one out to purchase my interest therein." 

Elder Walker started upon his mission about the middle of September, 1852, 
accompanied by Jesse Haven and Leonard I. Smith. He left his affairs in the hands of 
an Englishman named Hill, a bad man who had been recommended to him as a good one, 
and who wasted his substance, mistreated his family and absconded before his employer's 
return. While the latter and his companions were crossing the plains an attempt was 
made, presumably by Indians, to run off their horses, quite a numerous band, as they 
were traveling in company with many other Elders, bound for missions in various parts. 
They had just made camp one evening on the Platte, when a strange horse, saddled but 
riderless, came galloping in from the darkness. A powder horn and a tin cup were tied 
to the horn of the saddle, and every jump made by the horse produced a peculiar ring 
and rattle. The unusual noise frightened the other horses, and quick as a flash they 
started on a stampede and were chased for six miles before they could be checked and 
turned. Proceeding on their way the missionaries soon met a band of Pawnees, three 
thousand strong, who divided to the right and left and allowed them to pass, showing 
no signs of hostility, though they had burned the grass for a distance of a hundred and 
fifty miles. 

At Kanesville Elder Walker made arrangments for the emigration of his youngest 
sister, Mary, the next season. He then went on to Illinois to visit his brother Lorin, 
who had married the eldest daughter of the martyred Patriarch Hyrum Smith. He spent 
two days with the Prophet's family, at Nauvoo, and was kindly received by them. Emma 
Smith had remarried, and was then Mrs. Major Bidamon. He found his brother at Mace- 
donia, where also dwelt the Prophet's sisters, Catherine and Sophronia, both widows. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 195 

All were glad to see him. He assisted Lorin in his preparations to emigrate to Utah. 
At Washington, D. C., he visited both houses of Congress, by invitation of his friend, 
Delegate Bernhisel, and on the 16th of December sailed from New York, landing at 
Liverpool on the 3rd of January. Elder Walker had his first experience in public speaking 
at Preston, the birthplace of the British Mission. Having visited Wales and various parts 
of England, he sailed from London for the Cape of Good Hope on the llth of February. 
Crossing the Equator, he and his party escaped the usual experience meted out to 
neophites in Neptune's realm i. e., a salt water douse, a lathering with tar and a shave 
with an iron hoop by informing the sea-god, or the sailor impersonating him, that tney 
were missionaries. A small present was accepted as a substitute for the usual ceremony 
of initiation. 

Elders Walker, Haven and Smith landed at the Cape of Good Hope April 19, 1853. 
The usual storms were raging in that locality. They preached in Cape Town and other 
places and met with much opposition, being mobbed repeatedly and slandered almost 
incessantly. The first six months they baptized forty-five persons and organized two 
branches of the Church. In November Elder Walker visited the Eastern province, on the 
borders of Kami-land, and at Beaufort baptized nine and organized a branch. He also 
held some interesting meetings at Grahamtown and other points, laboring arduously 
against great opposition. Subsequently he was joined by his companions. At the close 
of his ministry in that land two conferences had been established at Beaufort and Port 
Elizabeth. One of his converts was Charles Roper, a wealthy rancher at Wintberg, who, 
when the ship-owners formed a league refusing to carry Mormon emigrants out of the 
country, purchased with others a ship called the "Unity" and placed it at the disposal of 
the missionaries. Thereupon the ship-owners gave notice that they would carry all 
Mormon emigrants that wanted to go. Elder Walker had been sustained as president 
of the South African Mission, Elder Smith had been released to take the first company to 
Utah, and Elder Haven was on the point of sailing for Liverpool, to report progress to 
the Presidency of the European Mission, when a letter came from President Brigham 
Young honorably releasing them to return home. 

Sailing from Cape Town November 27, 1855, their ship, the "Unity," on December 13 
touched at St. Helena, where they viewed Napoleon's tomb and preached under the 
shade of some trees on one of the streets of the town. Subsequently Elder Walker 
preached on board, the captain and crew paying respectful attention. The ship arrived 
at the London docks, January 30, 1856. Elder Walker left it at Gravesend, and took 
train for London, thence proceeding to Liverpool, where he met in council with President 
Franklin D. Richards, Daniel Spencer, George D. Grant, William H. Kimball, John Kay, 
Thomas Williams, James Little, Edward Tullidge and others, and after reporting his 
mission, discussed with them the subject, "Wheel-barrow or Handcart Emigration." 
Late in February he sailed from Liverpool on the ship "Caravan," with a company of 
Saints presided over by Daniel Tyler, to whom he acted as first counselor; Ed ward Bunker 
and Leonard I. Smith being the other counselors. From New York, where they landed 
late in March, Elder Walker had charge of the company to Iowa City, which was reached 
early in April. While waiting the word to start across the plains he visited relatives and 
friends in Illinois, among them the venerable Lucy Smith, the Prophet's mother, who was 
nearing the end of her life. He assisced President Daniel Spencer in emigrational 
matters on the frontier, and was preparing to follow the handcart companies, with his 
brother Lorin and family, but found it. impossible to secure teamsters that late in the 
season ; it being about the first of October when he reached Winter Quarters. He there- 
fore remained on the Missouri, and escaped the disaster that befell the companies on the 
plains. At the head of a company of emigrants he reached Salt Lake City September 1st, 

1857, having been absent from home five years, lacking fifteen days. 

Scarcely had he greeted his family when he was called to take part in the "Echo 
Canyon war." He was all ready to go, when he was assigned the duty of selecting and 
forwarding supplies to his comrades at the front. Returning from the move in July, 

1858, he purchased a farm four miles west of Ogden. August 30th of that year was the 
date of his marriage to his third wife, Olive Louisa Bingham. He now added to agri- 
culture the occupation of dairying. He also established a carding machine at Farmington, 
freighting the machinery from the East. He had barely put up his buildings for this 
industry when he was called upon a mission into Southern Utah. 

In company with his wife Olive H. he started upon this mission in May, 1862. At 
Toquerville, where they settled, he planted cotton, sugar cane and grape vines. In July 
he returned to Salt Lake to procure a cotton gin, but found no machinist who could 
make one. He next engaged in freighting from California and the East. In the spring 



196 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

of 1863 he sent two four-mule teams to the States, with baled cotton for William S. 
Godbe, his wagons bringing back new card clothing for his carding machine. With four 
of his teams his brother Edwin freighted between Salt Lake, Boise City and Southern 
California. In 1864 he and his little son Simeon went to the Missouri river, taking pas- 
sengers and bringing back freight. At Deseret he put up a flouring mill and in Oak Creek 
canyon a saw mill. On April 24, 1865, he married his fourth wife, Harriet Paul, who 
went to "Dixie" to live, his wife Olive L. going to Deseret. In the spring of 1866 he 
arrived at Salt Lake City from the south, with two tons of cotton for President Young's 
Deseret Mills. He was now released from the Dixie mission, sold out his interests there, 
and concentrated his energies upon his mills. 

In the fall of 1872 Mr. Walker sold to the Utah Central railroad company a lot in 
Salt Lake City for eight thousand dollars, and purchased with the greater part of the 
proceeds the Farr estate on Big Cottonwood, resolving to turn his attention to farming 
and initiate his sons in that line. A serious accident befell him about this time, a young 
horse rearing up and striking its hoof on his shoulder, knocking the bone down into the 
armpit. L>rs. Bernhisel and Benedict reduced the dislocation, but it was six months 
before the patient could raise his hand to the top of his head. In June, 1874, he 
became interested in a stamp mill at Ophir, and for a short time was business manager 
of the concern. In March, 1875, he began building his first house at Big Cottonwood, 
where he afterwards built two others. On completing the structure he fitted up a room 
as a school, hired a teacher and had fifteen of his children taught there. The neighbors 
also sent their children to this school, which was quite successful. In February, 1876, 
he was elected senior school trustee for the district and during his term of office a new 
school house was erected, for which he took the contract, advancing means for the 
materials. He also made the desks and other furniture, did the painting and varnishing, 
and provided a large bell for the cupola of the building. His last act as trustee was to 
have the school-house grounds fenced, leveled, sown to grass and planted with shade 
trees; also to arrange for the care and cultivation of the same during the next five years. 
William Walker was one of the first stockholders in Z. C. M. I., and also took stock in 
the Sixteenth ward co-operative store. He is now a stockholder in the Utah Sugar 
Company. 

In April, 1884, he accompanied four of his married sons to Idaho, where they 
purchased and took up lands at Lewisville. There he settled with a portion of his 
family, and with his sons William A. and Don C. opened a small store, which was after- 
wards closed out to Z. C. M. I. He left Utah just in time to escape the beginning of the 
anti-polygamy crusade, but soon found that he was not much safer in Idaho, since the 
crusade began there about the same time. To avoid the prowling deputies he went into 
retirement for a season, camping out in the woods in an ingeniously planned retreat 
which he finally had to abandon as danger drew nearer. 

During the winter of 1885-6, and at intervals during the next five years, he worked 
in the Logan Temple, where his sisters, Lucy, Jane and Mary assisted him in sacred 
labors for their dead ancestors. Leaving Logan in February, 1891, he worked during 
the next few weeks on the Salt Lake County Seminary, making a donation of half his labor 
to the institution. He was then engaged for six months on the Salt Lake Temple, laying 
floors, donating half his labor in like manner. He had the same tools that he had 
used on the Nauvoo Temple fifty years before. In July, 1893, he began working in the 
Salt Lake Temple, and until recently was regularly engaged there. 

On May 20, 1892, the worthy veteran, a Seventy since December, 1844, and one of 
the presidency of the Fifty-seventh quorum since July 27, 1869, was ordained a High 
Priest and Patriarch, under the hands of Presidents George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. 
Smith, the latter pronouncing the ordination. He still resides at Holladay, whence he 
reported himself in 1897 to the Utah Jubilee Commission, and from them received due 
recognition as one of the pioneer founders of the commonwealth. 



JOHN D. T. MCALLISTER. 

fCTIVE and eventful has been the life of John D. T. McAllister. A native of the 
State of Delaware, where, in the town of Lewis, county of Sussex, he was born 
February 19, 1*27, he came to Utah in the year 1851. Save for periods of 
temporary absence, in response to the calls of duty, he has ever since resided here. 

His father, William James Frazier McAllister, was a blacksmith, who, burned out at 
his home in Delaware, moved to the city of Philadelphia, where he continued to ply his 
trade. His mother before marriage was Elizabeth Thompson. She was a pilot's daughter, 
and was employed by the government in making clothes for the soldiers and marines. 
They were honest, hardworking people, and trained their son in habits of morality and 
industry; a training he has never dishonored. Their home in "the Quaker City" was 
near the Navy Yard, and the Yellor Cottage grounds, where John's chief delight, as a 
child, was to watch the parades and maneuvers of the military. 

He attended the Christ Church Sabbath school and the common schools of Philadel- 
phia. At eight years of age he folded papers in the office of the "Saturday Courier," and 
also worked at the "Messenger" office and for a book publishing company, as "roller 
boy" and "flyer." When old enough he was sent to learn farming with his relatives in 
Delaware. Subsequently he followed blacksmithing, carpentering and shoe-making in 
Philadelphia. Energetic and progressive, he was at work whenever he was not in school. 

On the 12th of October, 1844, he joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
his baptism taking place in the Delaware river, near Gloucester, New Jersey. Elder 
Albert Lutz baptized him, and shortly afterwards the young convert was ordained a Priest 
and officiated as such in the Philadelphia branch of the Church. While thus engaged the 
"spirit of gathering" came upon him, and he decided to emigrate to Utah. Leaving his 
old home, he proceeded to Kanesville, Iowa, the Mormon outfitting point, and there for 
a season kept store for Joseph E. Johnson. About this time he was ordained to the office 
of an Elder. 

It was on June 20, 1851, that Mr. McAllister, now a married man, (having wedded 
Miss Ellen Handley, July 5, 1847) set out for the Rocky mountains. He had the usual 
emigrant outfit ox-team, wagon, clothing, bedding, provisions, and cooking utensils. 
He was appointed clerk of a company of fifty wagons, commanded by Alfred Cordon. 
Owing to high water, a new route was taken, heading the Elk Horn. Many interesting 
incidents occurred on the way. At times the buffalo were so numerous as to impede travel, 
and it was necessary to call a halt in order to let them pass. An accident befell a boy 
who was driving for Allen Stouts; the fore wheels of his wagon, which was heavily 
loaded with plows, suddenly dropped into a "buffalo wash," and he was thrown out 
and run over diagonally from head to foot; he was quite seriously injured, but after 
being blessed by the Elders recovered. The McAllister family were "dumped out" un- 
ceremoniously on one occassion, their wagon turning bottom side up down "a sidling 
place," burying its occupants under the load. None were injured, though the little ones 
emerged purple in face, but the fresh air soon revived them. Mr. McAllister states that 
they had but to hang their cans of milk to the wagon and the contents were churned 
into butter by jogging over the rough roads. The tables were often supplied with 
antelope, prairie-chickens and other game, and in places fish were caught. The men 
built bridges or waded the streams, carrying when necessary the women and children 
on their backs. Salt Lake valley was reached on the 1st of October. 

Mr. McAllister settled in Salt Lake City, buying and selling land and building homes 
in various parts: one upon the block now occupied by the O. S. L. railroad depot, one in 
the "Big Field" south of the city, and another on the spot where the fire department 
now stands. Like most of his fellows, he worked at various employments in those early 
times. He helped to build mills in the canyons and dwelling houses in the city and other 
places. For a time he taught school in the Eighth ward. 



198 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Soon after his arrival in Utah he was ordained a Seventy, and as such undertook 
his first foreign mission, to which he was appointed on the 8th of April, 1853. He 
labored in the south of England, in the Wiltshire and Landsend conferences; also as 
president of the Belfast conference, embracing the province of Ulster in Ireland. He 
likewise visited Scotland and Wales. The date of his return was October 4, 1856. In 
January, 1857, he became one of the presidency of the 16th quorum of Seventy. 

Though a man of peace, Mr. McAllister had a military spirit and bearing. Tall, straight, 
and well proportioned, in his youth he was an ideal officer, seemingly born to command. 
Soon after returning from Europe, he was commissioned by Governor Young to raise a 
company of Life Guards, and on June 27, 1857, was elected major of cavalry in the Great 
Salt Lake military district. He served in that capacity during the ''Echo Canyon war." 
This was the beginning of his military record, which extended to past the year 1877. 

In September, 1860, he went upon another mission first to the States, where he 
presided over all the branches of the Church east of the Rocky mountains, and afterwards 
to England, where he presided three months over the Birmingham conference, and was 
then released to conduct a company of emigrants to Utah. He returned to Salt Lake 
City in October, 1862. 

In January following, by the joint vote of the Legislative Assembly, John D. T. 
McAllister was elected territorial marshal, an office held by him through re-election until 
late in the "Seventies." In the discharge of his duty, he traveled much on foot, the 
emoluments of the marshalship not being sufficient to justify the expense of a conveyance 
at all times. In all his experience as an officer of the peace, he was never under the 
necessity of using a weapon, not even a club. 

Beginning with February, 1866, he was marshal of Salt Lake City for ten years, and 
during the same period was chief of the fire department. In January, 1869, and in 
January, 1870, he was sergeant-at-arms for the legislative council, of which he had 
formerly been foreman, and was marshal of the day at the celebration, January 10, 1870, 
in honor of the driving of the last spike of the Utah Central railroad. As city marshal 
he was present at the breaking and dedication of ground for the city water works, Sep- 
tember 3, 1872. These ceremonies took place in City Creek canyon. Among those 
present were President Brigham Young, Mayor Daniel H. Wells, Hon. George A. Smith, 
the members of the municipal council, and other city officials, Surveyor Jesse W. 
Fox, Engineer William J. Silver, Superintendent John Sharp, U. C. R. R., and Super- 
intendent Feramorz Little, U. S. R. R. The dedicatory prayer was offered by Alder- 
man Isaac Groo. Mayor Wells moved the first shovelful of earth, and he and George 
A. Smith were the speakers of the occasion. 

During much of his official career, Mr. McAllister was counselor to Bishop Elijah F. 
Sheets, of the Eighth ward, and was Acting-Bishop during the latter's absence upon a 
mission. This service began early in 1865. In business he was connected with the 
Eighth Ward Industrial Society and the Eighth Ward co-operative store; also holding 
stock in Z. C. M. I., the parent institution. In 1876 he took charge of President Young's 
woollen factory, and was also in business with C. M. Donelson. 

Concerning one of his experiences while chief of the Salt Lake fire department he 
thus writes: ' A little after ten o'clock at night, October, 24, 1873, I was awakened 
by the fire alarm. The Clift House roof was on fire. When I arrived on the scene 
the boys had a line of hose up in the attic, but the smoke was so dense that I ordered 
the hose men out upon the roof. I also ordered the gas turned off, but the pipes of the 
upper story burst before it was done, and this set a flame rolling through that story. 
I took position on the east cornice, top of the building, pipe in hand, throwing water 
into the flames, three of the firemen with me. We did good work. The cornice under 
our feet took fire, and we had to change our position. In doing so, the hose rope caught 
my leg, throwing me on my back. Had I fallen a few inches either way. I would have 
gone into the flames or down upon the side-walk. I arose at once to a sitting posture, and 
caught the top of the ladder as the hose dragged me along, its weight of water hanging 
on my left ankle and spraining it very badly. I remained on duty until eight o'clock 
next morning, when the fire was all out. The first and second stories were preserved. 
My assistants, Andrew Burt, Henry Dinwoodey, and Engineer Thomas Higgs were men 
in the right place. Indeed I may say as much of all the brigade. Assistant Dinwoodey 
had a narrow escape from death. Captain Burt was in the thickest of the work. Howard 
Spencer was bruised on both arms. W. Hall, of the Alert Hose Company, of which my 
brother Richai'd was foreman, became insensible from exhaustion, his clothing being 
frozen on his body. At half past eight I walked home. I was laid up for several 
days." 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 199 

In October, 1876, Mr. McAllister moved to St. George, where he engaged in 
Temple work, for which an extended experience in the Endowment House had well 
qualified him. On the 5th of the ensuing April, he was chosen to preside over the St. 
George stake of Zion, being ordained for that purpose a High Priest by President 
Brigham Young. This was one of the latest ordinations performed by the President, 
who died in the following August. While at St. George, President McAllister did 
considerable missionary work among the Indians. He was there elected a brigadier- 
general of militia, having previously reached the grade of lieutenant-colonel. He was 
connected with the Rio Virgen Manufacturing Company, operating a woolen and cotton 
factory, and for a number of years was its president. He also presided over the local 
dramatic association, and was prominent in other organizations. He was still a resident 
of St. George when he received a call from the Church authorities to preside over the 
Manti Temple, as successor to Apostle Anthon H. Lund, who had been appointed to 
preside over the European Mission. The date of President McAllister's appointment 
was May 4, 1893. 

President McAllister stands at the head of a patriarchal household, having early 
entered into the practice of plural marriage. He has had nine wives and is the father 
of thirty children. He now resides at Manti, still active in the performance of his duties 
as president of the Temple there, and at each recurring General Conference, his still 
stately figure is a familiar sight upon the streets of Utah's capital. 



THEODORE MCREAN. 

'HE quiet little village of Allentown, Monmouth county, New Jersey, was the 
\ birthplace of Colonel Theodore McKean; the date of his birlh, October 26, 1829. 
* i His parents were Washington McKean and Margaret Ivins. The family home was 
at Toms River, New Jersey, where the father kept a store ; but the mother, when 
Theodore was born, was visiting at the home of the parental grandfather in Allentown. 

The boy's school days began very early, and by the excessive application to study 
required of him by one of his teachers, he so weakened his physical organization that for 
some time his life was in a critical state. After partly recovering his health he returned 
to school, but only for two or three terms. His studies were continued under able but 
less exacting preceptors, and during the intervals his time was employed principally in 
his father's store, where he obtained a knowledge of the mercantile business. When he 
had reached the age of sixteen, a friend of his parents, Professor William Mann, at 
Mount Holly Academy, Burlington county, New Jersey, took charge of his education. 
Along with other studies, a thorough course in theoretical and practical surveying and 
civil engineering was given to young McKean. 

Having received a good education, he returned to Toms River, where he clerked for 
his father, and was then employed as bookkeeper by his uncles, Thomas W. and Anthony 
Ivins, who were extensively engaged in shipping and merchandising. It was during this 
period that he married; his choice as a wife being Miss Mary P. Gulick, daughter of 
Captain Stephen J. Gulick, a lady whom he had known and admired from his early youth. 
He built a house at Toms River, and there he and his wife resided. 

His acquaintance with Mormonism began when he was a boy, his mother having 
joined the Latter-day Saints in the year 1839. He attended many meetings with her, 
and heard Sidney Rigdon, Wilford Woodruff and other Elders preach, but not being 
religiously inclined, he was not baptized until November 27, 1851. Thirteen days later 
he was ordained an Elder. 

He now began to think of "gathering to Zion," and on the 5th of April, 1853, set 
out for Utah, in company with his grandmother, Mrs. Ivins, his uncles Israel and Anthony 
Ivins and others. By way of St. Louis, where they met Apostle Orson Pratt and Horace 
S. Eldredge, they proceeded to Independence, Missouri, and there purchased their outfits 
for the passage of the plains. Starting with mule teams on the 24th of May, they 
arrived at Salt Lake City on the llth of August. Mr. McKean remained here only 
long enough to assist his uncle Anthony in arranging and disposing of the merchandise 
he had brought with him, and then returned East, arriving at Toms River on the 8th of 



200 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

October. He spent the winter with his family, and in the spring assisted his uncles 
Thomas and Anthony Ivins to purchase goods in Philadelphia. June 27, 1854, found him 
back at Salt Lake City, whither he was accompanied by John E. Bobbins and John 
Needham. 

From September, 1854, to July, 1857, Theodore McKean was in the East, purchasing 
goods for his uncle, Mr. Ivins, who had opened a store at Salt Lake City. He presided 
in 1855-57 over the Toms River branch of the Church : having been appointed to that 
position by Apostle John Taylor, who had charge of the eastern branches and was 
publishing "The Mormon" in New York City. His family was still with him. He 
labored at various employments, surveying, clerking, etc., and was appointed deputy 
sheriff of Ocean county, New Jersey. 

Having sold his home at Toms River, Mr. McKean, accompanied by his wife and three 
children, on June 1st, 1857, set out for the West. They left Westport, Missouri on the 
13th of that month, in a carriage drawn by four mules, and started to cross the plains 
alone. The Indians were very troublesome and many emigrants had been killed by them. 
After journeying for several days, they were overtaken by Colonel P. W. Lander, in 
charge of a government surveying expedition, with whom they traveled very pleasantly 
as far as the Sweetwater. This being the year of the "Echo Canyon war," Colonel 
Lander was apprehensive that the Mormons would capture his stock. He had been warned 
to beware of Porter Rockwell as a dangerous man to encounter. As luck would have 
it, Porter came along with the mails about this time, and was introduced by Mr. 
McKean. The latter afterwards introduced Colonel Lander to President Young at Salt 
Lake City. 

Mr. McKean did not arrive in time to take part in the opening phases of "the war," 
but in March, 1858, he accompanied an expedition led by General George D. Grant and 
Colonel William H. Kimball against the hostile Indians in Skull valley. They encountered 
a very severe snowstorm, pursued and exchanged shots with the retreating redskins, but 
were unable to follow them farther on account of deep snow and other obstacles. In the 
"move," he and his family went to Springville. He had two teams, one of which was 
driven by his wife. Returning to Provo, he erected a small log house, and was just about 
to occupy it when word came that the trouble was over and that the people might return to 
their homes. The McKeans resumed their residence at Salt Lake City. 

The rabble that followed Johnston's army made things very uncomfortable in and 
around the capital for some time, and it was with difficulty that order could be maintained. 
To help keep the peace a great many special police were sworn in, among them Theodore 
McKean. On April 29, 1859, he joined the second battalion of cavalry, "Life Guards," 
Major J. D. T. McAllister commanding, and early in May was ordered with others to the 
mountains west of the city, to watch the movements of the government troops at Camp 
Floyd, it being rumored that they contemplated an attack from that direction. The 
expected event did not take place. 

On September 30th of the same year Mr. McKean was appointed to fill a vacancy in 
the city council, and in February, 1860, was elected to the same position. He was a 
city councillor continuously for sixteen years; acting also as chairman of the board of 
inspectors of school teachers, superintendent of the city asylum and hospital, and super- 
intendent of water works. In 1872 and again in 1873, he visited various eastern cities in 
the interest of the waterworks department. In January, 1860, he had been given by 
the Legislature the office of territorial road commissioner, which he held until it was 
abolished. In August of that year he was elected surveyor of Salt Lake county, and in 
September was appointed county treasurer, to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
James W. Cummings. He held this office by repeated elections until August, 1876. 

About September 1st, 1860, in company with President Daniel H. Wells, Robert T. 
Burton, Briant Stringham and Stephen Taylor, he explored the Weber river region for 
coal. With General Burton and Mr. Taylor he discovered in Grass Creek canyon a vein 
of coal ten feet, eleven inches thick. Later in the month he visited the Grass Creek coal 
beds with President Young and party. 

The same month witnessed his appoinment by Governor Alfred Gumming as 
territorial marshal, in which position he was succeeded by Henry W. Lawrence, under 
whom he subsequently served as a deputy. In that capacity he accompanied the posse 
led by his associate deputy, Robert T. Burton, against the rebellious Morrisites, June, 
1862. In November of the same year he was appointed by General Burton, then collector 
of internal revenue for Utah, his deputy, a position held until June 1st, 1869, when he 
served three months as deputy collector for the first division. 

His title of colonel dates from Februry 1st, 1868, when he was commissioned by 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 201 

Governor Durkee as colonel and adjutant of the first division, Nauvoo Legion, Major- 
General Burton commanding. Prior to this he was lieutenant of Company "C," first 
cavalry, Captain Brigham Young, Jr., and had succeeded Captain Young in that 
command. 

From November 15, 1869, to February 22, 1870, he was absent upon a mission to the 
Eastern States, from which he was recalled to give testimony as a witness in a case then 
pending in the district court. His aged mother accompanied him to Utah. In 1875-6 he 
filled another mission to the East, visiting the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. 

In August, 1876, came his election as sheriff of Salt Lake county, which position he 
held continuously until October, 1883, when he resigned. In business he had become 
connected with Z. C. M. I. as a director in October, 1872, and a year later was vice- 
president of the institution, re-elected in 1876. He also took an active part in politics, 
was a member of the central committee of the people's party at the time of its organiza- 
tion, and held the office of secretary until the summer of 1876. He was also a school 
trustee in the sixteenth district for a number of years. 

Ecclesiastically he was no less active and prominent. Some of his early labors in the 
ministry have already been mentioned. He held the office of a Seventy from April, 1859, 
and for a long time was clerk of the eighth quorum, of which, in March 1863, he 
became one of the presidency. He also served as a ward teacher and a Sunday school 
superintendent. On November 23, 1868, he was set apart as a High Councilor of the 
Salt Lake stake of Zion. On January 17, 1872, he became counselor to Bishop Kesler of 
the Sixteenth ward. His ordination as a High Priest came in June, 1877. He continued 
to act as counselor to Bishop Kesler until December, 1884. After retiring from the 
Bishopric he became a home missionary of the stake, and in July, 1891, went upon a 
mission to Europe, from which, owing to ill health, tie was released in the following 
autumn. 

After this array of facts and figures, it is not necessary to say that the life of 
Theodore McKean was a very busy one; neither need it be told that it was a life of 
honor and usefulness. He was a genial gentleman, a faithful official and a man much 
esteemed. He had three wives, two of them simultaneously, and was the father of 
twenty-two children, sixteen of whom were living when this sketch was written. Colonel 
McKean died at Salt Lake City, July 9, 1897. 



HIRAM BRADLEY CLAWSON. 



^^"EW men are better known in the Mormon community, or have been more active in 

"wv" the social, commercial, professional and military life of Utah than General H. B. 

Clawson. He is a native of Utica, Oneida county, New York, and was born 

November 7, 1826. What education he received, outside the hard but effectual 

school of practical life, was at the Utica Academy. He was but a child when his father 

died, and not yet in his "teens" when his widowed mother joined the Latter-day Saints. 

About three years later, in 1841, Mrs. Clawson and her family of two sons and two 

daughters migrated to Nauvoo. 

It was there that young Clawson began his dramatic career, which extended over a 
period of many years, dating from his initial performance at, Nauvoo, where the Prophet 
Joseph Smith fostered the drama in its purity, to the time of his retiring from the 
management of the Salt Lake Theatre, built and owned by President Brigham Young. 
Hiram Clawson was a born actor, and in the line of parts usually essayed by him 
comic or character roles displayed ability of no common order. Many of his children 
have inherited his dramatic talent, and have shone with lustre upon the local stage. He 
was a pupil of Thomas A. Lyne, a tragedian of the Edwin Forrest school, who played at 
Nauvoo under the patronage of the Prophet, during Mr. Clawson's residence at that 
place, and afterwards at Salt Lake City, under the management of his former protege. 

Mr. Clawson's residence here dates from his arrival with President Brigham Young 
and the general immigration of 1848. In common with most of the early settlers he had 
to turn his hand to almost any kind of labor in order to earn a livelihood, and luckily 

13 



202 HISTOEY OF UTAH. 

had picked up a knowledge of several trades, which he found very useful in the building 
up of the new country. He had charge of the masons who erected the old Council House, 
and previously a little adobe office adjoining that structure on the south, the latter the 
first adobe building in Salt Lake valley. At one time he acted temporarily as architect 
of the Salt Lake Temple, during the absence of Truman 0. Angell upon a mission. He 
was early called into President Young's office as a clerk, and was soon put in charge of 
his private business, which he managed for many years. 

As early as 1850-51 he resumed his dramatic career, playing "Jaques Strop" to John 
Kay's "Robert Macaire" at the primitive theatre known as the "Old Bowery," on Temple 
Block. His future wife, Miss Margaret Judd, took part in the same performance, being cast 
for the role of "Clementina." He subsequently played at the Social Hall, which at the 
opening of 1853 superseded the Bowery as the main Thespian temple in these parts. In 
1862, when the Salt Lake Theatre was completed, he was placed in charge of it as 
manager, being one of the original members of the Deseret Dramatic Association. He 
soon retired from the stage, but maintained his managerial connection with the Theatre, 
in conjunction with John T. Caine and others, for many years. 

General Clawson's military record began about the year 1850. He was at the Provo 
Indian fight in February of that year as related elsewhere and subsequently became 
aid-de-camp to General Daniel H. Wells, the commander of the Nauvoo Legion. At the 
time of the disbandment of the Legion, in 1870, he had risen to the rank of adjutant- 
general, having succeeded General James Ferguson, deceased, in 1863. As early as 1864 he 
was treasurerof Salt Lake City, and was also an early member of the Territorial legislature. 

For many years prior to 1865 Mr. Clawson had charge of President Young's 
private store, but in the spring of the year mentioned he engaged in the mercantile 
business on his own account, as junior partner to Horace S. Eldredge, having bought 
out the interest of William H. Hooper in the firm of Hooper and Eldredge. As 
purchaser for the new bouse Mr. Clawson made various trips to the East, and continued 
in business with General Eldredge until the firm closed out to Zion's Co-operative 
Mercantile Institution, organized in October, 1868. Of that mammoth concern, Mr. 
Clawson was the first general superintendent. He retired fron the superintendency in 
1873, but at the expiration of eighteen months, when his successor, Captain Hooper, 
resigned, he again became superintendent. It was during his second term that the 
institution built and moved into its large store on Main Street. On October 4, 1875, he 
again resigned the superintendency of Z. C. M. I., having bought out its agricultural, 
hide and wool departments, which he continued to own and conduct during the next 
ten years. 

One cause of his retiring from the mercantile business was his indictment for 
unlawful cohabitation under the provisions of the Edmunds law. At the beginning of 
the anti-polygamy crusade he had four living wives and a numerous and interesting 
family of children. The details of his severe arraignment before Chief Justice Zane and 
his sentence by that magistrate to the full extent of the law six months imprison- 
ment and a fine of three hundred dollars and costs are given in Chapter XV, Volume III 
of this history. Bishop Clawson for he had been Bishop of the Twelfth ward for 
some years could have escaped fine and imprisonment by promising to obey the law; 
but as this involved a repudiation of the sacred relationships he had entered into with 
his plural wives, he chose to use his own words "prison and honor" rather than "liberty 
and dishonor." 

The names of his wives were Ellen Spencer Clawson, Margaret Judd Clawson, Alice 
Young Clawson and Emily Young Clawson ; the first a daughter of Hon. Orson Spencer, the 
second the Miss Judd previously mentioned, and the other two daughters of President 
Brigham Young. All were living at this time excepting Mrs. Alice Clawson. 

After his emergence from the penitentiary where, as usual with such cases, the 
term of his sentence was materially shortened by good behavior Bishop Clawson took 
an active part in bringing about the changed conditions which have resulted in the 
amicable adjustment of local troubles and the giving of Statehood to Utah. For the 
purpose of using influence to that end he went East repeatedly, visiting Washington, 
D. C., in company with President George Q. Cannon, Colonel Isaac Trumbo and others, 
and the fact that peace now reigns in Utah is due in no small degree to their energetic 
efforts to secure the precious boon for themselves and their fellow citizens. Specially 
commissioned by the Church authorities, Bishop Clawson also visited Arizona, at the 
outbreak of the crusade, and through the good offices of Governor Zulick of that Territory, 
succeeded in establishing relations favorable to his people, which have ever since 
been respected and adhered to by the officials of that commonwealth. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 203 

Of late years Mr. Clawson has been enganged in mining. Aside from this he is no 
longer in business, though he looks after his vested interests with his old time sagacity. 
In his seventy- seventh year, he is hale and hearty, is still Bishop of the Twelfth 
ward, and active in the performance of his duties. He is the father, by his first wife, of 
Hon. Spencer Clawson, a well known business man, ex-chairman of the Utah Pioneer 
Jubilee Commission; by his second wife, of Rudger Clawson, the Apostle; and by his 
third wife, Alice, of J. Willard Clawson, the artist. He has other sons and daughters, 
both prominent and talented, but the members of his household are too numerous to 
be mentioned, all, in a sketch of this character. 



WILLIAM L. N. ALLEN. 

jf VILLIAM LAND NUTTLE ALLEN came to Utah in 1853 and died in 1893, thus 
Itl completing a round of forty years as a resident of this commonwealth. He was 
'"' by birth an Englishman, the place of his nativity being Kingston-on-Hull, York- 
shire; the date thereof May 22, 1825. The only child of Thomas Allen and his 
wife Mary Nuttle, he was left an orphan in his infancy, his mother dying when he was 
seventeen months old. at which time his father was absent on a sea voyage from which 
he never returned. At the death of his mother his father's aunt, Miss Susannah Land, 
took him to her home in Cambridgeshire, where he remained for a few years, and was 
then placed at school in Hull, remaining there until he was twelve years of age. After 
leaving school he became an errand boy in a butchering establishment, receiving half a 
crown .a week for his services. Before he was fifteen he had three narrow escapes from 
drowning, the first when he was a mere child, and the others at twelve and fourteen 
respectively. In the first and third instances he fell into a river, and on the latter 
occasion was rescued by a companion when he was sinking the third time. 

At fourteen he was bound apprentice for seven years to William Barry, of Hull, to 
learn the trade of cabinet- making. The first two years he received no salary, the next 
two years he received five shillings a week, the fifth year six shillings, the sixth year 
seven shillings, and the seventh year eight to twelve shillings a week. His great aunt, 
Miss Land, boarded and clothed him. 

He had served about three years of his time, when he and three of his fellow 
apprentices came to the conclusion that thirteen hours a day was more labor than should 
be imposed upon them. They accordingly headed a movement for the relief of them- 
selves and their "fellow slaves and apprentices of the cabinet trade!" A call addressed to 
all such was posted up in the market place one Saturday evening and resulted in bringing 
out about two hundred apprentices and hundreds of their sympathizers to a meeting 
held at noon on the following Monday. Speeches were made and the apprentices then 
formed two abreast and marched through the streets, carrying banners inscribed, 
"Twelve hours to constitute a day's work." They visited the various masters, some of 
whom conceded the point at issue and their hands returned to work. Others refused, 
Allen's master backing up his refusal with an oath and a threat to have his hands 
arrested. 

This he proceeded to do, about twenty-five of them being served with warrants. 
Allen gave himself up the next day. The magistrate, after hearing the complaints of the 
apprentices, ruled that the thirteen-hour regulation, which, though not originally legal, 
had crystalized into a custom of twenty years standing, was just as binding as if provided 
for by law. However, he informed them that they would be pardoned if they would 
return to work and serve the hours required by their masters. They declined, deeming 
it unjust, and were forthwith sentenced to hard labor in Hull jail, some for thirty days 
and others for six weeks. Allen and his mates, the instigators of the move, were given 
three months. All were marched off, followed by an immense throng of sympathizers, 
who cheered the prisoners as the jail doors closed upon them. They were at once put to 
hard labor, Allen and the other leaders being placed on the tread-mill, an act which 
aroused the indignation of the townspeople who heard of it, including the masters 
who had sought to punish the boys. The harsh treatment they received did not 



204 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

humiliate them, but instilled hatred and revenge into their hearts. They had broken no 
law, and felt that they had asked nothing unreasonable merely an hour each day for 
recreation and reading and to be punished as criminals when they had been guilty of no 
crime, seemed more than they could bear. 

Young Allen, as he pondered over the situation, grew desperate, and one day, being 
almost exhausted, and feeling a sense of fierce wrath which had never before and never 
after possessed him, he threw himself backward off the wheel, imperiling his own life 
and unknowingly the lives of others. He fell clear of the wheel, struck his head on the 
pavement below, and was picked up for dead. A physician was summoned, who 
pronounced him alive, but physically incapable of the tread-mill strain. He was never 
put upon the wheel again. During this time the townspeople were exerting themselves 
to have the boys liberated, and a mammoth petition for their pardon was sent to her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, then in the eighth year of her reign. The result was that all 
were pardoned, after a month's incarceration. They returned to work, the masters 
conceding to them half an hour a day, making the time twelve and a half hours instead 
of thirteen, as before. Allen served his full apprenticeship and was honorably discharged 
in August, 1846. 

He came of a respectable middle-class parentage, his father being a purser on an 
English merchantman. The great aunt who reared him was a maiden lady in com- 
fortable circumstances, who well filled the place of a mother, and gave him from his 
sixth to his twelfth year as good an education as the common schools of Hull could 
afford. He was endowed with more than ordinary intelligence and made the best of his 
opportunities. Thoroughness and skill were characteristic of him. Having become a 
first-class cabinet maker, he followed that pursuit, both at Hull, his birth place, and in 
the neighboring town of Goole. At the latter place he spent about a year, from the spring 
of 1848, and while there made the acquaintance of Miss Hannah Jackson, a well-to-do 
farmer's daughter, whom he married on August 14th of that year. 

It was at Goole, in October, 1848, that he first heard of Mormonism from one of its 
disciples, Thomas Jackson, a fellow- workman, who was an Elder of the Church. Con- 
verted to the faith, he was baptized by thisjElder on the 27th of that month. A few weeks 
later he was ordained a Teacher and began his ministerial labors at Goole, putting his 
whole soul into the work. In January, 1849, he was ordained an Elder. In April 
following he returned to his native town, where he continued laboring in the local ministry, 
at the same time working at his trade. Two of his favorite places for open-air preaching 
were at the statue of King William in the market place of Hull, and on the Dock Green, 
opposite the jail in which he had been imprisoned. At these places he could be seen 
every Sunday, discussing with ministers and laymen of other denominations, and even 
with atheists, but in such an amiable and kind spirit that offense was impossible. He 
would always part with his opponent with a friendly hand-shake and an invitation to come 
again. Magnetic to a degree, he could gain the ear of the most cultured and the most 
skeptical. He. was an impressive speaker, an excellent singer, and would often pour 
forth his sentiments in original verse. He was energetic and enthusiastic in his search 
for knowledge. Every moment that could be spared from business was devoted to study. 
He was seldom seen on the street alone, without an open book in his hand and his mind 
absorbed in its contents. A friend once remonstrated with him saying, "Such intense 
application will ruin your eyesight." William replied, "If I get my mind well stored 
with knowledge, I shall not miss my sight." In March, 1851, he was appointed to 
preside over the Hull Branch, and served zealously and untiringly in that position for 
about two years, when he emigrated to America. 

January 17, 1853, was the date of departure from Liverpool. He was accompanied 
by his young wife and infant son. The ship in which they sailed was the "Ellen Maria." 
Forty-eight days were consumed in making the voyage to New Orleans. It was a 
pleasant trip in the main, but was marred by a fearful storm in mid-ocean. The vessel 
was tossed about like a stick of driftwood.. The sails were close reefed, and all the pas- 
sengers over three hundred souls were ordered below and kept under hatches 
until the 'storm had subsided. For a time hope seemed vain and death inevitable. The 
strain was so great on some that it was feared they would lose their reason. There 
was one fatality; Mrs. Charles Barnes, who was in a delicate conditon. becoming terror- 
stricken and finally yielding up her life, a fact not discovered until the tempest had 
abated. She was a close friend of Mrs. Allen. Having reached New Orleans, the 
Aliens proceeded to St. Louis, where the head of the family secured six weeks' employ- 
ment. They then went on to Keokuk, Iowa, and thence in an ox team wagon to Winter 
Quarters. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 205 

They left the latter point, in a company bound for Salt Lake City, on the 14th of 
July. Three days later a death occurred, that of a child named Emma Bickington, for 
whom Mr. Allen made a coffin. He entered Salt Lake valley on the 12th of October, 
penniless, and the provisions of the company were all consumed. He was unable to 
take from the local post office two letters awaiting him here, held for ten cents postage. 
He and his fellow travelers found themselves dependent upon the inhabitants of the 
valley for food as well as shelter. 

The first home of the Aliens in Utah was a tent on Union Square; then a lumber 
shanty about ten feet by ten which they jointly occupied with a cooper. Owing to the 
primitive circumstances by which they were surrounded, they were obliged to turn their 
hands to many things unthought of before. Many articles used in house-keeping, such 
as soap, caudles, starch, molasses, etc., they had to make or go without. Still the 
satisfaction of reaching the City of the Saints, where saloons, and deps of vice were 
unknown, and where locks on the doors and the guarding of property from thieves were 
unnecessary, made up for all. For seven years Mr. Allen was a carpenter on the 
public works. Subsequently with his sons he carried on the business of contracting 
and building, at the same time doing considerable cabinet making and turning out first 
class work, some of which found its way into the far East, being taken there by these 
who saw and appreciated its excellence. In 1854, the year he filed declaration of 
intention to became a citizen of the United States, he built himself a home the first 
house in the area now occupied by the Twenty-first ward. There on the same spot of 
ground he resided for forty years. 

Early in 1857 he was elected aid-de-camp to Colonel Ross, Third Infantry, Nauvoo 
Legion, and in October accompanied a detachment of twelve hundred and fifty mentto 
Echo Canyon to aid in checking the advance of Johnston's army. The march was made 
under extreme difficulties owing to the deep snow. They crossed Big Mountain with the 
snow up to their waists, and on reaching East Canyon Creek, at ten, p. m., foot-sore, weary 
and wet to the skin, slept on the bare ground without cover during the remainder of the 
night. Mr. Allen contracted a severe cold, which developed into asthma and eventually 
brought him to his grave. In "the move" he and his family went to Parowan, returning 
to find their home almost in ruins. 

In April, 1866, he was elected captain of infantry (commissioned later by Governor 
Durkee) and in the summer, as adjutant to Major Andrew Burt, he accompanied a 
military expedition to Sanpete to protect the settlers there from hostile Indians. Here 
he had a narrow escape from death. His company was stationed between Fountain 
Green and Moroni; it was night, and all hands save himself and the guards had re- 
tired. On the surrounding hills the Indian signal fires could be seen. Knowing that 
the men were all fatigued by their recent journey from Salt Lake, anxious for the 
welfare of those who slumbered, and desiring to give the sentries special instructions, 
he left his quarters and visited the outposts to see if they were awake. One of the sentries, 
as he approached, demanded the pass- word, but Captain Allen, not hearing the call, 
gave no response, whereupon the sentry S. P. Neve fired. Fortunately the bullet 
missed its mark, and the Captain, unhurt, was recognized before a second shot 
was sent. 

Up to January, 1854, Mr. Allen held the office of an Elder. He was then ordained a 
Seventy and remained one until November, 1856, when he became a High Priest. In 
October of that year the Eighteenth ward, which then covered all that section of the city 
east of Main and north of South Temple Street, was divided, the Twentieth ward being 
organized out of the eastern portion, with John Sharp as Bishop and W. L. N. Allen as 
his second counselor. This position he held for twenty-one years. On July 5th, 1877, 
the Twenty-first ward was organized out of the eastern part of the Twentieth, the two 
being divided by "H" Street. Andrew Burt was made Bishop of the new ward, and 
W. L. N. Allen his second counselor. After the death of Bishop Burt, who was murdered 
August 25, 1883, Elder Allen succeeded him in office, remaining Bishop of the Twenty- 
first ward until the day of his death, October 16, 1893. 

As a Bishop he was a father to his people, and his ward in all its branches and 
departments was one of the most perfectly organized in the Church. He had a kind 
and generous nature, and was faithful and thorough in the performance of his duties. 
These qualities, with his well known honesty and integrity, made him many friends. 
He was justice of the peace for the Fourth Precinct for eight years, from August, 
1874. He was the husband of two wives, the one already named, and Mary Jane 
Snowball, whom he married in February, 1857. Each wife bore to him five sons and 
three daughters. 



MYRON TANNER. 

NATIVE of the Empire State, a member of the Mormon Battalion, a settler in 
Utah in 1847, Bishop, civic official and promoter of various enterprises, the 
name of 'Myron Tanner stands out prominently in the list of Utah county's leading 
citizens and business men. He was born June 7, 1826, at Bolton, on the banks 
of Lake George, where he remained until he was eight years of age, when he removed 
with his parents John and Elizabeth Besswick Tanner to Kirtland, Ohio, starting for 
that place on Christmas morning, 1834. The family were well off for those days. The 
father gave two thousand dollars to redeem a mortgage on the land where stood the 
Kirtland Temple. Myron was at the dedication of that sacred house. 

In 1838 the family removed to Missouri, arriving there about the last of summer. 
The following winter they were driven out with the rest of 'the Latter-day Saints, and 
spent the next eight years in Illinois and Iowa. Myron worked on the farm and 
attended school until the summer of 1846. when he enlisted in the Battalion and marched 
with his comrades westward to Santa Fe. 

At that point, when the disabled portion of the command was placed under Captain 
James Brown and ordered to Pueblo, Mr. Tanner was included, he being sick seven 
months out of the fifteen consumed on the journey. How this detachment started for 
California by way of Fort Laramie and were discharged in Salt Lake valley, has been 
many times related. Mr. Tanner entered the valley July 29, 1847. He first settled on 
Little Cottonwood. 

About the year 1849 he went to California, where he worked for two and a half years 
in the gold mines, and then went to San Bernardino, where he remained until 1855, in 
the spring of which year he came back to Salt Lake City. In the autumn he returned 
to San Bernardino, but in May, 1856, was again in Salt Lake, where he married on the 
26th of that month, Mary Jane Mount, after which he removed to Payson, residing 
there until the fall of 1860. Thence he removed to Provo, which was his residence at the 
time of his death. 

Mr. Tanner did not figure as a missionary in the outside world, but was a generous 
helper in the cause of immigration, sending teams to the Missouri river and contributing 
means to bring the poor to Utah as long as the Perpetual Emigrating Fund had an 
existence. At the time of the move, in 1858, while he was at Payson, he furnished and 
ran a six-mule team for two months, helping the people south. At Nauvoo he held the 
office of a Seventy. In November, 1864, he became Bishop of the Third ward of Provo, 
and continued in that office until 1891. 

He was elected to the Provo city council in 1861, and re-elected in 1866, 1868, 
1870, 1872, 1876, 1878, 1880, 1882 and 1896. He was chosen county selectman in 1869, 
and held that office for five terms, or fifteen years in all. He affiliated with the People's 
party until the division on national lines, when he became connected with the Republican 
party. He was a member of the Board of the Brigham Young Academy from its in- 
ception until 1898 ; and previously a member for three years of the Board of the Provo 
Branch of the University of Deseret. For a long period he was on the Board of Church 
schools for Utah stake. 

In a business way he was interested in. various enterprises. As early as 1858 he and 
his two brothers owned a large herd of stock at Beaver, and lost six thousand dollars 
worth, stolen by Indians. He owned one-twentieth of the stock of the Provo "East Co-op.," 
the first co-operative institution organized in Utah, and was Vice-president of the same 
from its organization until the year 1890. Of the Provo Woollen Mills he was one of the 
incorporators. He was superintendent of them one year, and owned at his death several 
thousand dollars of the stock. He was also interested in the Utah county herd and was 
president of the same for several years. 

Bishop Tanner, by his first wife, Mary Jane Mount, was the father of six boys and 
three girls; and by his second wife, Ann Crosby, the father of five boys and three girls. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 207 

The most distinguished member of his family is Dr. Joseph M. Tanner, a prominent 
educator, at this writing General Superintendent of the Latter-day Saints Schools. 
Bishop Tanner died while on a visit to his son, the Doctor, at Salt Lake City, January 11, 
1903. 



WASHINGTON FRANKLIN ANDERSON. 

. W. F. ANDERSON, the veteran physician and surgeon, is a true type of the 
genuine Southern gentleman; as indeed he ought to be, being a native of the 
"Old Dominion," where he was born of goodly parents and reared amid refined 
if not luxurious surroundings. His father, Leroy Anderson, was a teacher of 
Greek and Roman classics and of French and English literature, while his mother, whose 
maiden name was Hannah Wright Southgate, was an instructor in music. They were 
in moderate circumstances, but gave their son an excellent education, first' in the common 
schools of Williamsburg, his birthplace, and afterwards in the universities of Virginia 
and Maryland. In both these institutions he was a medical student; for it was to medicine, 
rather than music and literature that he was inclined; though always having a love 
for the artistic and beautiful. The study and practice of surgery were to him a special 
delight, and in .this, as well as in the physician's branch of the profession, he was 
destined to attain unusual prominence. 

He was born January 6, 1823. After a boyhood passed at Williamsburg, Richmond, 
Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia, and in Mobile and Sumpter counties, Alabama a 
period comparatively uneventful he entered upon the practice of his profession, and 
was thus engaged at the city of Mobile, when the Mexican war broke out, April, 1846. 
Dr. Anderson hastened to enlist in his country's cause, joining the Alabama regiment 
and serving in the ranks as orderly- sergeant of his company. At the expiration of his term 
of service he, with his comrades, was honorably mustered out by an officer of the United 
States army. He then removed to Yorktown, Virginia, where he practiced medicine until 
the spring of 1849, when he determined to emigrate to California. For a year, however, 
he was detained in Sumpter county, Alabama. During his stay there he took much interest 
in the study of Free Masonry, and became a Free and Accepted Mason. In the spring 
of 1850 he was made an Odd Fellow, at Gainesville, in the same State. 

In March of that year he started on his overland journey to California. He made 
his outfit at Independence, Missouri, and left there on the llth of May. A tedious journey 
of four months brought him to the city of Sacramento. He practiced his profession 
in a mining camp near Placerville, and in 1851 married his first wife, Mrs. Matilda Dunlap, 
a most excellent woman. 

The Doctor continued to be much interested in Free Masonry. In Yolo county, 
California, in 1854, he succeeded Worshipful Master Gray as Master of Yolo Lodge, F. 
and A.M., No. 81, then working under a dispensation from the Grand Lodge of California. 
In the following year he was elected Master of the Chartered Lodge, in which capacity he 
served until his removal to Utah. He was also elected a magistrate in his township, and 
acted for several years as justice of the peace. On the last day of 1856 he was baptized 
into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. His wife also joined the Church, 
and together they prepared for the journey to Utah. Prior to leaving California, he was 
ordained an Elder by Henry G. Boyle in Yolo county, January, 1857. 

Five months later he set out for Utah, equipped with traveling wagon, horses and 
provisions for the trip. The route followed was over the Sierra Nevada mountains, 
through Carson valley, up the Humboldt river, Raft river, and down the Malad. Mr. 
and Mrs. Anderson crossed the Sierra Nevadas with Hezekiah Thatcher's family, who 
were returning to Utah after an extended sojourn in the Golden State. They joined 
Perigrine Sessions' Carson valley company, with William Jennings, Robert Sharkey, 
Isaac Hunter and others, en route to Salt Lake valley. The journey consumed about 
six weeks. They arrived here about the middle of August. 

Dr. Anderson settled at Salt Lake City, where he has ever since resided. He 
arrived in a warlike time. Johnston's army was marching westward to put down an 
imaginary Mormon rebellion, and the Utah militia was being placed in a state of 
preparation to repel the invasion. The Doctor was appointed by Colonel Thomas Callister 
the surgeon of his regiment, and in November, 1857, he marched to Echo Canyon, where 



208 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

the militia were concentrating. He also served there in the spring of 1858. In the 
general move south he took his family to Payson, whence he returned to his regiment at 
Salt Lake City to guard the property which the people had left behind them. After peace 
was declared, his family came back to the city. 

The following year, 1859, Mrs. Anderson left Utah and returned to California, where 
she had children living, the issue of a former mariage. To her second husband, Dr. 
Anderson, she bore no children. In 1862 he married his second wife, Isabella Evans, 
the ceremony uniting them being performed by President Brigham Young. Her children 
number thirteen, namely, Belle, Hannah, Justina, Leroy, Frank, Mabel, Guy, Winifred, 
Leonore, Sibyl, Kathleen, Vivienne and Patrick. The second daughter, Hannah, a very 
estimable young lady, died some years since, much lamented. 

On the 6th of August, I860, Dr. Anderson was elected a member of the Utah legis- 
lature, representing the city of Salt Lake. This was during the administration of 
Governor Alfred Gumming. On February 26, 1868, he received the appointment of 
surgeon, First Division, Nauvoo Legion, and was a member of the staff of Major-General 
Robert T. Burton. This was under the Governorship of Hon. Charles Durkee. He 
held the oifice of quarantine physician of Salt Lake City for several years, and was 
chairman of the board of examination of physicians. He was president of the first medical 
soc-ie'ty organized in Utah, with Dr. J. F. Hamilton vice-president, Dr. Heber John 
Richards, secretary, and Drs. Benedict, Williamson, Douglass, Taggart, Allen Fowler and 
Seymor B. Young as fellow-members. He was associated with Dr. Heber John Richards 
as a business partner in 1872-3, and with Dr. Joseph S. Richards in 1876-8. Without 
solicitation on his part, he was appointed county physician of Salt Lake county, and with his 
daughter, Mrs. B. A. Gemmell, M. D., served in that capacity in 1897 and 1898. In 
the early part of his medical career in Utah Dr. Anderson had a very extensive practice 
in his favorite department, surgery, but owing to ill-health and the infirmities of ad- 
vancing age, he has been compelled to retire from active service in that direction. 



MARCUS LAFAYETTE SHEPHERD. 

ORN in the town of Chagrin, Cayahoga county, Ohio, October 1ft, 1824, and chris- 
tened after the famous hero Marquis de Lafayette whose title was anglicized to 
Marcus for the purpose the subject of this sketch has been successively a member of 
the Mormon Battalion, a settler of Utah in 1848, a major of militia, the mayor of 
a city and a ward Bishop. He is now one of the presidency of the Beaver Stake of Zion. 
His parents Samuel and Roxy Laney Shepherd joined the Latter-day Saints in time 
to settle in Jackson county, Missouri, in 1832, and were with the ill-fated colonists when 
they were driven thence in the autumn of the year following. Marcus accompanied his 
parents through the persecutions of that period, down to the final expulsion of the Saints 
from the State. 

The Shepherds settled near Carthage, Hancock county, Illinois where the Mormon 
leaders, Joseph and Hyrum Smith were afterwards murdered and afterwards moved to 
Nauvoo. The father was a wagon maker by trade and a prosperous one. He had 
considerable means when he went to Missouri, but was much reduced in circumstances 
by the persecutions and drivings in that state. At Nauvoo he again prospered. Marcus 
received but little education in his youth, but later in life acquired through home study 
quite a knowledge of mathematics. Naturally inclined to farming and stock-raising, he 
passed the greater part of his early life upon the farm. He led a sober life, was very 
industrious, always made money and never wasted it. He attended Sabbath meetings 
whenever possible and faithfully observed the requirements of his religion. His parents 
being Latter-day Saints, he was familiar with the doctrines of Mormonism from boyhood. 
In due time he was baptized into the Church. 

In the exodus of 1846, he accompanied his migrating people to the Missouri river. 
When the call came for the Battalion, Marcus L. Shepherd was one of those who enlisted 
and performed the unparalleled march undertaken by that devoted body of infantry. 
After the discharge at Los Angeles, in July, 1847, he found employment, first at whip- 
sawing and afterwards at gold mining, in California. 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 209 

As soon as practicable he rejoined his people, who were settling on the shores of 
the Great Salt Lake. Loading up his pack animals nine horses and five mules with 
a stock of groceries and clothing, he started in October, 1848, for Salt Lake valley. 
His company consisted of twelve persons, he being the leader. They came by way 
of Carson and the Humboldt to Ruby valley, thence across the desert and around the 
south side of the Lake. They had a very prosperous journey, only one incident of an 
unusual character occurring on the way, when, to use his language, "Indians to the 
number of two or three hundred formed across the road, ten or twelve deep, and extending 
for a long way on each side. I saw it was fight or do worse, so we made a charge as 
fast as the packs could go, with myself and another ahead. We drove them from the 
ground without a shot." 

Mr. Shepherd first settled at Cotton wood, south of Salt Lake City. On March 9, 
1851, he married Harriet Editha Parrish, and the same year accompanied Apostles Amasa 
M. Lyman and Charles C. Rich, with many others, to California, where they purchased 
and settled the ranch of San Bernardino. He returned to Utah in the winter of 1857-8, at 
the time of the general return of Mormon colonists and missionaries, consequent upon the 
"Buchanan War." He now settled at Beaver City, which has ever since been his home. 
Says he, "I had the first brick made in Beaver County and the first two-story house built 
there. I was the first in the Territory to keep sheep on the moveable plan. I made a 
great many trips in pursuit of Indians, when they raided our stock, and when we over- 
took them, which we did on one occasion, I talked to them in a friendly manner and 
did them no harm, although they were completely in our hands. It proved to be of 
benefit to the place afterwards." 

It was in the year 1863 that Mr. Shepherd became major of militia, an office held by 
him up to the time of the general disbandment in 1870. In 1893 he was elected mayor 
of Beaver. Always a friend to education and progress, he has encouraged public improve- 
ments, and is reputed to have done as much for school houses and meeting houses as 
any other man in Beaver county, if not more. In 1869 came his call to the Bishopric. 
As such he presided over the First ward of Beaver for several years and was then 
chosen counselor to the President of the Stake. Between October, 1881, and June, 1882, 
he fulfilled a mission to Kansas and Iowa. 

By hi first wife President Shepherd is the father of ten children, three of whom 
died in infancy. By his second wife, Cedaressa Cartwright, whom he married De- 
cember 13, 1869, he is the father of seven, four of these dying in childhood. For the 
sake of his wives and his children, whom he would not discard, nor repudiate his 
sacred relations with them, he underwent fine and imprisonment in 1886, during the 
prevalence of the anti-polygamy crusade. 



DIMICK BAKER HUNTINGTON. 

'HIS veteran will be remembered for four main facts in his history: (1) His 
associations with the Prophet Joseph Smith; (2) his membership in the Mormon 
Battalion; (3) his early and long continued service as an Indian interpreter; 
(4) his connection with" Dimick'sBand," one of the earliest musical organizations 
in Utah. He was an honest, true-hearted man, who faithfully performed his duty in every 
position assigned him. 

The son of William and Zina Baker Huntington, he was born May 26, 1808, at 
Watertown, Jefferson county, New York. There he passed his early boyhood. He 
had a martial spirit and delighted in "playing soldier" and training the lads of his 
neighborhood. His father was a well-to-do farmer and gave his son a good common school 
education. When eleven years of age he was disabled for farm work by lameness, 
resulting from a fever, in consequence of which he took to traveling as a peddler and 
tinker to earn his livelihood. He afterwards learned shoemaking and blacksmithing, the 
latter after living on the frontier. On April 28, 1830, he married, his wife's maiden 
name being Fanny Maria Allen. She became the mother of seven children. 

In 1835 Dimick B. Huntington joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 



210 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

Saints, and in May of the next year moved to Kirtland, Ohio. The following summer 
found him in Missouri, where he passed through all the troubles that arose between the 
Missounans and the Mormon settlers. He was constable at Far West, and a brave and 
efficient officer. On one occasion he stepped between the Prophet Joseph Smith and a 
club that was raised to strike him. He would have died for his leader at any time, and as 
long as Joseph lived he was one of his most faithful friends. At Nauvoo he held various 
offices in the city government, and was one of those arrested with the Prophet for the abate- 
ment of the paper known as the "Expositor." After the murder of Joseph and Hyrum 
and the return of the dead bodies from Carthage, he was one of those who bore the 
remains of the martyrs to their earthly resting place. 

He left Nauvoo in the exodus of February, 1846, pursued by military officers, and was 
obliged to separate himself from his family temporarily in order to escape. He proceeded 
to the Missouri river, where in July he enlisted as a member of the famous Battalion. He 
was in Company "D," commanded by Captain Nelson Higgins, and besides performing the 
ordinary duties of a soldier, served his comrades in the capacity of blacksmith. At Santa 
Fe he was detached with others from the main command, and sent to Pueblo, his family 
being with him. A child was born to him at that place, January 1st, 1847; an Indian squaw 
acting as midwife. He started with Captain Brown for California on May 24th of that 
year, but only got as far as Salt Lake valley, the Battalion's term of enlistment having 
expired. He entered the valley twenty-one days after the Pioneers. Says he: 

"Through all my travels in the Battalion, to Pueblo, back to Laramie and on to Salt 
Lake valley, I carried in my wagon a bushel of wheat, and during the winter of '47 
slept with it under my bed, keeping it for seed. For three months my family tasted no 
bread. We dug thistle roots and other native growths and had some poor beef, with a 
little milk, but no butter. Early in the spring of '48 I rode one hundred and fifteen 
miles to Fort Bridger and bought a quart of little potatoes about the size of pigeon 
eggs, at twenty-five cents each. From these I raised that year about a bushel of potatoes, 
but ate none of them. I planted them in 1849 and have had plenty of potatoes 
ever since." 

Mr. Huntington first lived in the "Old Fort," but in 1849 went to Provo and in 1850 
to Sanpete to help establish colonies in those places, being chosen for this task because of 
his qualifications as an Indian interpreter, and because recognized by the red men as their 
friend. He learned to talk in the Indian tongue soon after his arrival in the mountains, 
and this, he says, was in fulfillment of a promise made to him by the Prophet Joseph 
at Quincy, Illinois, in 1839. He was Utah's first Indian interpreter and his presence was 
necessary at all meetings between the settlers and the savages. 

He was in the first fight with the Indians at Battle Creek, March 5, 1849, and at the 
beginning of the action took command, in the absence of the colonel. He was also in the 
Indian fight at Provo, with his two sons, Allen and Lot. He accompanied Parley Pratt's 
exploring expedition to Iron county in 1850, and in 1853, at the close of the Walker war, 
was sent by Governor Young, superintendent of Indian affairs, to arrange a treaty of 
peace with that turbulent chieftain. Says Mr. Huntington: 

"While in conversation with the chief in his tent, he called me to the door and 
directed my attention to two braves who were driving an Indian prisoner before them. 
I asked, 'What are they going to do?' 'Watch,' he said, and in a moment or two they 
shot the prisoner, as a part of the traditional rites of the treaty. Walker remained 
peaceable until his death, and I was present at his burial, which was attended with all the 
traditional and superstitious observances. A consultation was held among the braves 
as to whether one of the chief's wives should be killed and sent to the happy hunting 
grounds along with him, but it was finally decided that a male Piute prisoner should 
accompany him. Accordingly the prisoner was buried with the chief buried alive, 
but only to his shoulders, and left to die at the will of 'Shinob' (God). I acted as 
master of ceremonies at a grand treaty between the Utes and Shoshones at Salt Lake 
City in 1854, and fed both tribes at my table. That treaty was never broken." 

When not among the Indians, trading and interpreting, Mr. Huntington pursued the 
vocation of blacksmith, doing work of that description for both whites and reds. He 
was a great lover of martial music and did much to promote its cultivation in the various 
settlements. He made drums, founded musical schools, and was drum-major of the old- 
time martial band, named in his honor, "Dimick's Band; " his own pride and glory, and 
the delight of every urchin in Salt Lake valley. 

Dimick B. Huntington was the husband of two wives and the father of nine children. 
He was own brother to the late Zina D. H. Young, of Salt Lake City, and to Oliver 
Huntington, Esq., who still lives at Springville. In the Church he held the offices of 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 211 

Elder and High Priest, to the first of which he was ordained at Kirtland, and to the 
latter at Salt Lake City. For many years and up to the time of his death February 1, 
1879 he was a Patriarch of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion. 



IRA NATHANIEL HINCKLEY. 

i*RA N. HINCKLEY, the builder of Cove Creek fort, and now president of the Mil- 
lard stake of Zion, has been a resident of Utah since 1850. He is a Canadian by 
*T birth, but has lived in the United States nearly the whole of his life a life of toil 
and hardship in its earlier phases an honorable and a useful one throughout. 
He first saw the light of this world in the district of Johnston, Upper Canada, Octo- 
ber 30, 1828. His father, Erastus N. Hinckley, died when he was two years old; his 
mother, Lois (or Louise) Judd Hinckley, died when he was fourteen. His father was a 
navigator, and when on land followed the pursuit of a master mechanic. He was not 
well-to-do financially, and in consequence Ira's educational opportunities were few, if in- 
deed he can be said to have had any. Three months in a common school comprised his 
entire tuition. 

When nine years of age he went to Springfield, Ohio, and remained there for four 
years. He drove a cart on the national turnpike when so small that his mother had to 
bridle and collar the horses for him. At the age of thirteen he removed to Springfield, 
Illinois. It was there that his mother died. He stayed at Springfield five years, farm- 
ing, hauling wood, and doing such other work as he could find. His inclination ran to 
farming and stock raising, but he also had considerable talent for mechanism, inherited 
from his father. He became distinguished in his locality as a very efficient horse-shoer 
and blacksmith. He was active and industrious, and took a lively interest in the public 
events of his time. 

Ira N. Hinckley became connected with Mormonism about the time of the exodus of 
the Latter-day Saints from Illinois. He walked to Nauvoo, a distance of one hundred 
and twenty miles, in four days, carrying a grip sack weighing forty pounds. From there 
he proceeded to Winter Quarters. where he helped to build a grist mill. The following win- 
ter found him in Missouri, splitting rails, blacksmithing, and assisting to make and trim 
wagons, living meanwhile with his uncle, Benjamin Boyee. Going to Iowa, his uncle 
died with cholera, and Ira was obliged to bury him without assistance. 

While in Missouri, Mr. Hinckley married his first wife, Eliza Jane Evans, daughter 
of David Evans, afterwards Bishop of Lehi. The date of the wedding was July 17, 1848. 
In April, 1850, they started from Platte county, Missouri, en route for Utah. They had 
an infant daughter, and were also accompanied by a half-brother of Mr. Hinckley's. 
Their outfit comprised one wagon, three yoke of oxen, and other live stock, with clothing 
and provisions to last them for eighteen months. Joining a company led by Captain E vans, 
they crossed the Missouri river at Council Bluffs, and traveled up the Platte to Sweet- 
water, where Captain Bair took command. On the way Mr. Hinckley suffered a very sad 
loss, his wife and brother dying from cholera in one day June 15, 1850 leaving him 
with his little daughter only nine months old. He arrived at Salt Lake City on the 30th 
of October. 

He settled in the First ward, and for the next fourteen years Salt Lake City was his 
home. He was on the police force five years, from 1851 to 1856, and in the latter year 
went out in the interests of the Brigham Young Express Company to superintend the 
building of a block fort. He was absent from home five and a half months. In 1862 
he served the United States for three and a half months in the capacity of veterinary sur- 
geon of Captain Lot Smith's command, protecting the overland mail against Indian depre- 
dations. He was orderly sergeant in Captain Hardy's first company, Nauvoo Legion, and 
for five years, from 1851 to 1856, aide-de-camp to Colonel Harmon. 

In 1864 he removed to Coalville, Summit county, where he resided for three years, 
and then removed to Cove Creek, Millard county, being called there by President Brig- 
ham Young to superintend the building of a fort as a protection against hostile Indians. 
There he dwelt for ten years. In 1877 he took up his abode at Fillmore, his present 
place of residence. The same year he became president of the Millard stake, having 
previously been one of the presidency of the Twenty-second quorum of Seventies. 



212 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

President Hinckley has never taken a foreign mission, but has always been active 
in religious, educational and benevolent movements at home. He was well acquainted 
with President Young and traveled with him considerably. He has also been in touch 
with other representative men of the Church. In 1878 he accompanied Apostle Erastus 
Snow on a mission through Southern Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. While at Salt Lake 
City he was in business with Edward Cuthbert, and at Coalville with William W. duff; 
in Millard county his business associates have been numerous, comprising such men as 
Lafayette Holbrook, Joseph V. Robison and others. He was mayor of Fillmore during 
1878, and under his direction some lasting and important improvements were made 
there. He has always encouraged and contributed generously to the cause of edu- 
cation. 

His family record shows him to be the father, by his first wife, of one child, a 
daughter, named after her mother, Eliza Jane. His second wife, Adelaide C. Noble, 
whom he married in 1853, is the mother of ten children Martha A. , Minerva A. , Luna 
A., Lucian N. .Frank, Edwin S., Nellie, Samuel E., Irene and Sarah; and his third wife, 
Angeline W. Noble, married in 1854, is the mother of eight, Emily A., La Verna, Ira N., 
Amelia C., Harvey N., Briant S., Alonzo A., and Elmer E. President Hinckley's second 
and third wives were the daughters of Lucian Noble. 



THOMAS BARTHELEMY CARDON. 

SOLDIER of the Union in the Civil War, and for many years a prominent citizen 
of Logan, T. B. Garden was by birth an Italian, the exact place and date of his 
nativity being Brae, Pra-Rustin, Piedmont, August 28, 1842. His parents were 
Phillippe and Martha Maria Toum Cardon. Their ancestors were of the Vadois or 
Waldenses, and among the remnant of that people who were driven from Switzerland 
by the Church of Rome about the beginning of the eighteenth century. They were in 
comfortable circumstances, owning the home they occupied and the small farm and vine- 
yard they cultivated. When not thus employed they were engaged in silk culture. The 
father was also a builder. As a boy Thomas assisted him in the vineyard and also as a 
mason and carpenter. A few short winter terms in a common school, where French and 
Italian were taught, comprised his earliest education. He was an artist by instinct, 
possessing a refined soul, and the world was to him an open book, in which he read deeper 
and loftier lessons then those taught in the schools. 

Up to the age of twelve he remained in his native land, where, in 1852, his father and 
mother, himself, four of his brothers and two sisters joined the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. Two years later the family emigrated to Utah, sailing from Italy in 
January and coming by way of New Orleans to Kansas City, whence they traveled over- 
land to Salt Lake City, arriving here late in October. Jabez Woodard had charge of their 
company on the sea, and R. L. Campbell on the plains. Many were afflicted with the 
cholera, among them Thomas and one of his sisters. They settled first at Mariottsville, 
near Ogden, whence they went south in the move of 1858 and afterwards returned to 
Weber county. 

Thomas, then a boy of sixteen, after assisting his father's family to return, visited 
Camp Floyd for the purpose of obtaining employment. Ambitious for an education, and 
being told by some of his countrymen at the post that if he enlisted he would have the 
privilege of attending the camp school free, he joined the army and became bugler in 
Company "G," United States Tenth Infantry. He learned the English language from a 
comrade, who, like himself, spoke French, and having an inherent love i for culture, 
pursued his studies alone, acquiring by diligence a fund of useful knowledge. 

Weary of camp life, he applied in 1860 for his discharge, but before it reached him 
the Civil War broke out. Here was activity, the thing he desired, and he now withdrew 
his application and started with his company for the East. The founder of Camp Floyd, 
General A. S. Johnston, and some of his troops, espoused the Confederate cause, but the 
company with which T. B. Cardon was connected proceeded to Washington, D. C., and 
joined the Union forces. On March 10, 1862, his regiment was called into active service, 
and he was at the headquarters of General McLellan, commander of the Army of the 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 213 

Potomac, from the opening of the campaign that year until after the battle of Malvern 
Hill. He was in the battles of Big Bethel, Yorktown, Williamsbury, Gaines Hill, Fair 
Oaks, and the famous Seven Days Fight before Richmond. 

On the second day of the last named engagement, June 27, 1862, he was seriously 
wounded in the left arm and side. While he was being borne from the field in the arms of 
two comrades, one of them had a leg torn away by the explosion of a bombshell and the other 
was killed by a rifle ball from one of the enemy's sharpshooters. It was not designed, 
however, that Thomas B. Cardon should perish on the field of battle. Though carried 
to the hospital and placed in the charnel house with those who had died of their 
wounds for he was apparently lifeless and was reported dead he revived next 
morning about day-break and succeeded in rejoining his brigade, after being hotly 
pursued by the enemy's pickets. His wounds healed in time, but he was rendered 
incapable of further service, and on February 2, 1863, was honorably discharged. For 
his services in defense of the Union he was afterwards granted a pension of ten dollars a 
month, which he drew as long as he lived. 

From the convalescent camp near Alexandria, he proceeded to Washington, where he 
remained a month, and then visited York, Pennsylvania, where he learned the art of 
photography. He next moved to Harrisburg, where he obtained a situation and worked 
at his profession, subsequently opening an art gallery. In 1865 he went to Nebraska, 
settling in Nebraska City, and in 1867 rejoined his relatives in Utah. They were then 
living at Logan. 

There he established an art gallery, carried on the photographer's business, and also 
opened a watch making and jewelry establishment, the first one in that city. He was 
successful in business for many years, when reverses came and his fortune was swept 
away. On November 13, 1871, he married Lucy Smith, daughter of Bishop Thomas X. 
Smith of Logan, and sister to Orson Smith, ex-president of the Cache Stake of Zion. She 
bore to him eleven children. Mr. Cardon had two other wives, one of whom has five 
children. 

He held various public positions in Logan. He served nine years as city recorder, 
and in 1882 and in 1884 was elected an alderman and sat in the city council. In 1886 
he was again nominated for that office, but declined the honor. At the time of his death 
he was city auditor. In all positions of trust, he exhibited not only skill and ability 
but steadfast honesty of purpose. 

To his religion he was true as steel. As a home missionary of Caohe stake, and an 
assistant superintendent of the Sabbath schools of Logan he labored with honor to himself 
and with helpfulness to those with whom he came in contact. Throughout his life his convic- 
tions and sentiments were pure and exalted. He held successively the offices of Elder and 
Seventy, being ordained to the former in 1870, and to the latter in 1884. He was president 
of the Second quorum of Elders, and one of the presidency of the Sixty-fourth quorum of 
Seventies. He died at his home in Logan, February 15, 1898. Beloved in life, in death 
he was widely and sincerely mourned. 



ZACHEUS CHENEY. 

^C VETERAN of the Mormon Battalion, Zacheus Cheney, a settler of Utah in 1857, 
Mr lived and died respected and esteemed by a wide circle of friends and acquaint- 
^f^ ances. His birthday was April 22, 1818; the place Sempronius, Cayuga county', 
New York. His parents were Elijah and Achsa Thompson Cheney. He lived in 
Cayuga county until six years of age, and then moved with his father's family to Scott, 
Courtland county, where he attended school. When old enough he helped his father in 
clearing the timber from his land. It was a good farm of fifty acres, and a very comfortable 
home. Elijah Cheney, a veteran of the war of 1812, had been baptized a Latter-day 
Saint and ordained an Elder in 1833, and it was he, with Zera Pulsipher, who introduced 
Mormonism to Wilford Woodruff, the future Apostle and President. Zacheus was bap- 
tized in May, 1834. 

In 1835 the family moved to Kirtland, Ohio, where the youth worked on the Temple 
and attended the Hebrew school taught in the attic rooms of that building by Professor 
Seixas of New York City. In 1839 they started for Far West, but were detained at Coles 



214 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

county, Illinois, by sickness, and before they could rejoin the main body of the Saints 
the latter had been driven out of Missouri. At Camp Creek, Hancock county, Illinois, 
the Cheneys settled in 1843. Zacheus served in the Nauvoo Legion, and was afterwards 
one of the petit jury that tried the murderers of the Prophet Joseph Smith. The identity 
of the assassins was known, but could not be proved in court, owing to the intense anti- 
Mormon prejudice that prevailed. Hence the jury, under instructions from the judge, re- 
turned a verdict of not guilty. 

At Nauvoo Zacheus Cheney followed the vocation of a farmer, to which he was naturally 
inclined. In the exodus he crossed the Mississippi at Fort Madison, May 3, 1846, and 
overtaking the vanguard of his people at Mount Pisgah, traveled with President Young's 
company to the Missouri river. There, on the 16th of July, he enlisted in the Mormon 
Battalion. What followed in his experience he thus relates: 

"It was a day of sadness, of mourning and of parting. The tears fell like rain. We 
commenced our march for Fort Leavenworth, and on arriving there received our arms 
and equipments and started for Santa Fe, a distance of over seven hundred miles. 
There Colonel Cooke took command, and we marched two hundred and fifty miles down 
the Rio Grande. When we left the river we were put on half rations one half-pound of 
flour and one pound of beef. Our pilots wanted us to go down to the city of Sonora and 
winter there, as they knew of no other route, and this was afterwards chosen by the 
officers in council, though the men were opposed to it. We traveled over a couutry un- 
explored for about five hundred miles, and came to a Spanish town called Tuejon. It con- 
tained about five hundred inhabitants, two hundred regular soldiers and a large amount of 
government stores. The soldiers fled at our approach, and we raised the American flag. 
We then marched over an eighty-mile desert, and arrived at the Pima Indian village on 
the Gila river. Traveling down to the mouth of that river, we crossed the Colorado. We 
then had a ninety-five mile desert to cross, where we were required to dig wells to 
obtain water. We were put on one-fourth rations of flour and very poor beef; but we 
soon arrived at Warner's ranch, where we got plenty of beef, and at San Diego we rested 
for a short time. We then marched to the San Luis Rey Mission, and remained there 
about a month. Company "B," to which I belonged, under the command of Captain 
Hunter, was sent back to San Diego to take charge of that place. The other companies 
were sent to Los Angeles. We had to live on beef and mustard greens until a vessel, 
sent to the Sandwich Islands, returned with provisions, which was more than three 
months. Our battalion was a very poor lot of boys when we arrived at San Diego. We 
had passed through the extremes of hunger, thirst and fatigue, and were nearly without 
clothes. I have seen some so nearly exhausted and famished that they wanted to be left 
by the roadside to die, but the rear guard would bring them along. Company "B" was 
afterwards ordered to Los Angeles, where all the companies were discharged, July 16, 
1847." 

After receiving his discharge, Mr. Cheney went to San Francisco, where, in the 
spring of 1848, he and James Balie made and burned fifty thousand brick, claimed to 
be the first brick made in San Francisco. He then went to the gold mines at Mormon 
Island, south fork of American river, (where in the summer of 1848 he married Mary Ann 
Fisher, daughter of Adam Fisher, of Chester county, Pennsylvania. Returning to San 
Francisco, he lived there till the spring of 1850, when he moved to Alameda county, upon 
a farm he had purchased, and worked at farming and building. His wife gave birth to 
a daughter on Christmas day, 1850, and on New Year's day, 1851, the mother died. 

On January 10, 1853, Mr. Cheney married Amanda M. Evans. The same year he 
was ordained an Elder and presided over the San Francisco branch of the Church. In 
1856 Elder George Q. Cannon, who was presiding over the California mission, set him 
apart as president of the Alameda branch, members of which in 1857 formed a company 
to come to Utah. He was appointed captain. Leaving Alameda on the 28th of August 
his personal outfit consisting of two wagons and a carriage drawn by mules he and 
his company, traveling over the Carson Valley route, arrived at Salt Lake City on the 
third day of November. 

Mr. Cheney settled at Centerville, and thenceforward that place was his home, bar- 
ring a two months' residence at Lehi during "the move,'' and an absence of several 
months at the opening of the Muddy mission, where he helped to establish a settlement. 
On March 10, 1858, he was appointed justice of the peace for Centerville precinct, to fill 
the unexpired term of Judson Stoddard, and in August of that year was elected to the 
same office, and re-elected in 1860. For several years he sent wagons, teams and pro- 
visions to the Missouri river, to bring poor emigrants to Utah. He donated liberally for 
the building of the Salt Lake Temple, and always did his share in the furtherance of 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 215 

public enterprises. Here, as in California and in the East, he devoted himself to 
farming. The veteran died at his home in Centerville, March 7, 1898. He was the 
father of eight children. 



LUTHER TERRY TUTTLE. 

MEMBER of the Mormon Battalion, a citizen of Utah since 1863, a prominent 
business man of Manti of which town he has been mayor twice in succession 
and a member for several terms of the Legislature, the Honorable Luther T. 
Tuttle has had a career to which the following brief sketch, based upon meagre 
details furnished mostly by himself, will hardly do justice. He is a native of New York 
City, where he was born November 19, 1825. His father, Terry Tuttle, was a ship- 
builder, in good financial circumstances, having a number of men in his employ: but 
he died when Luther was an infant of fourteen months; consequently it was his mother, 
Ellen Tuttle, who reared him and superintended his education. The latter, however, 
was very limited. 

Up to the age of thirteen his boyhood was passed in his native city, but in the fall 
of 1838 he left with his mother for Missouri, where they experienced the vicissitudes 
caused by the persecution of the Latter-day Saints by the Missourians. About that 
time Luther went to live with his uncle, a hotel keeper in St. Louis. The Tuttle family 
consisting of the mother, three sons and one daughter were also in Illinois, where the 
subject of this sketch the youngest in the family engaged in farming. He was with 
his people in the exodus from that State, and the same year enlisted in the famous 
Battalion, being then in his twenty-first year. 

Three days before this event, on July 13, 1846, he had married Abigail Haws, at 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. He served eighteen months in the Battalion and held the rank 
of orderly sergeant. After receiving his discharge in California, he returned to Council 
Bluffs, where he engaged in mercantile and other pursuits. He was in the fur trade as 
agent for Peter A. Sarpey of the American Fur Company. Next he engaged in the 
lumber business at Macedonia, twenty-five miles east of Council Bluffs, where he built 
a saw mill and afterwards a flouring mill. He was in the milling business at Macedonia 
until he came to Utah. 

Well fitted out for the journey, he began it on the 10th of June, 1863. With his 
family and teams he left Iowa without any company, but fell in with some travelers on 
the road, namely, Thomas Clark, Robert Colwell and others, residents of Prove; Utah, 
whose teams were loaded with stoves and other goods for the home market. On the 
4th of July, determined to celebrate the nation's birthday, but having no flag, they put 
a handkerchief on a whip-stock and allowed it to flutter in the breeze. Overtaking a 
freight train encamped on the road, they were mistaken, owing to the color of their 
improvised flag, for Secessionists, and were not permitted to pass through the camp: 
consequently had to go round it. 

Mr. Tuttle and his family arrived at their journey's end on the 25th of August. 
He settled at Manti, where he has ever since resided. He formed a partnership with 
E. W. Fox, and opened a general store under the firm name of Tuttle & Fox. The business 
was successful, but five years later, the great Co-operative movement having begun, it 
was sold to Z. C. M. I., with which Mr. Tuttle was connected for several years. In 
1875 he embarked with Harrison Edwards in a general merchandise and lumber business, 
which grew rapidly. A few years later Mr. Tuttle's sons, Albert and Frank, were ad- 
mitted to the firm which in time came to be known as L. T. Tuttle and Sons. In 1894 
the firm erected one of the finest business blocks in Southern Utah. In 1890, Mr. Tuttle 
organized the Manti Savings Bank, with a capital of $ 25,000, which has since doubled, 
and was chosen president of the institution. He is a stockholder in the Co-operative 
Roller Mills and also extensively engaged in sheep-raising. 

Mr. Tuttle took an active part in the Indian war of the "sixties," of which Sanpete 
county and vicinity was the chief battle ground. He held a colonel's commission under 
General Warren S. Snow. He has been more or less connected with all social and 
political movements in that part ever since his arrival in Utah. He was Mayor of Manti 



216 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

for two terms, and represented his county in the Legislature during four terms three 
in the Council and one in the House. Three of these terms consecutive were in the 
years 1884, 1886 and 1888. His latest term as a legislator was in 1892. Ecclesiastically 
he is a member of the High Priests quorum and has been a High Councillor of Sanpete 
stake for eighteen or twenty years. 

Mr. Tuttle has been twice married. The name of his first wife, with date and place 
of marriage, has been given. His second wife was Lola Ann Haws, his flrst wife's sister, 
whom he married January 27, 1850. His children are twelve in number, namely, 
Louise, Luther, Charlotte, Albert, Terry, Frank P., John Henry, Louis E., Lola Ann, 
Lillie Belle, Ethella C. and Alphius H. Three of Mr. Turtle's sons have been in business 
with him, namely, Albert, Frank and L'ouis. His son Albert was accidentally killed, 
New Years day, 1895, by a fall on the sidewalk, causing concussion of the brain. He 
was a prominent and influential business man and politician, was cashier of the Manti 
Savings bank, treasurer of the Central Utah Wool Company, one of the firm of L. T. 
Tuttle & Co. , a member of the City Council, and an active charter member of the A. 0. U. W. 
Frank and Louis Tuttle are both substantial business men and have prospered as 
merchants, farmers and wool-growers. 



ROBERT PIXTON. 



aS soldier and early colonizer the name of Robert Pixton finds its place in the history 
of the founders of this commonwealth. He was a native of England, born in the 
city of Manchester, February 27, 1819. His parents were George and Mary Pixton, 
but of his youthful life, schooling, occupation, or the occupation and condition of his par- 
ents, we are not informed. He was but nineteen years old when he married, and but 
twenty-one when he determined to try his fortunes in the New World. 

Leaving his family in England, he took passage on the ship "Tapscot," which carried 
across the Atlantic a company of Latter-day Saints. Becoming acquainted with some 
of them, he resolved to go to Nauvoo, where in the year 1842 he was baptized by Elder 
Thomas Bateman, and cast in his lot with the Mormon people. His family followed him 
to America, reaching Nauvoo in 1843, and there they continued to reside until the 
exodus. Mr. Pixton hired out to President Brigham Young, to drive an ox team 
to Sugar Creek, and from that point returned to Nauvoo, and started with his family 
for the West. 

While they were traveling between Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah the call came 
from the government for five hundred able-bodied men to aid in the war against Mexico. 
Robert Pixton volunteered, and thus became one of the famous Mormon Battalion, 
sharing the long forced marches and other severe experiences of those heroic men, and 
receiving an honorable discharge, with his comrades, in California. There he remained 
during the winter of 1847-8. He testifies to the first discovery of gold in that land, though 
not by the renowned Mr. Marshall, but by a Mr. Willis, one of the Battalion boys, while 
digging a mill-race for Captain Sutter. 

Mr. Pixton arrived in Salt Lake valley October 4, 1848, and here found his family, who 
had arrived a week before. His wife Elizabeth, like others of those early heroines, had driven 
an ox team across the plains from the Missouri river. They settled at Salt Lake City and 
lived here until 1862, when the head of the house was called on a mission to Europe. 
After an absence of three and a half years, he returned, and soon was called to go and 
settle in "Dixie" and help build up Southern Utah. Later he came back to Salt Lake 
county, settling at Taylorsville, where he departed this life November 26, 1881. 
He was a man much respected for faithfulness to duty and for his well known honesty 
and integrity. 



HENRY PHINEHAS RICHARDS. 

HENRY P. RICHARDS, son of Phinehas and Wealthy Dewey Richards, 
was born at Richmond, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, November 30, 1831. He 
was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints when eight 
years of age, and in 1843 emigrated with his father's family to Nauvoo, Illinois. 
He left that place in the general exodus of the Church, May 19, 1846, and spent the win- 
ter of 1847-8 at Winter Quarters on the Missouri river. On the 3rd of July following he 
resumed his journey westward, arriving in Salt Lake valley on the 19th of October. Dur- 
ing this journey he drove an ox-team for a Mrs. Moss, whose husband was on a mission 
to England. He had charge of two teams all the way across the plains. He stood guard 
every third night for half the night, and not being of a robust constitution, many times 
he felt that he would have to succumb to the hardships and fatigues of the journey. 

For a number of years after his arrival in the valley he labored for the support of 
his parents. While yet in his "teens," he was officially connected in a modest way with 
the Provisional Government of Deseret, being messenger of the House of Representa- 
tives during the first two sessions. 

In the winter of 1850 he took an active part in organizing a dramatic company, "the 
first one west of the Missouri river,'' and played in the opening piece presented by it, 
namely, "The Triumph of Innocence,' 1 produced at the "Old Bowery" on Temple Block. 
A brief account of this pioneer dramatic organization and Mr. Richards' connection with 
it, is given in the second volume of this history, where the gentleman's portrait also 
appears. 

On December 30, 1852, Henry P. Richards was united in marriage with Margaret 
Minerva Empey, daughter of William A. Empey, one of the Utah Pioneers, and sister to 
Nelson A. Empey, the present Bishop of the Thirteenth Ward, Salt Lake City. Presi- 
dent Willard Richards, the bridegroom's uncle, performed the marriage ceremony. 

Henry was now an Elder of the Church, but on the 17th of April, 1854, he was or- 
dained a Seventy, under the hands of President Joseph Young, Sr., and became identified 
with the Eighth Quorum. On the 5th of May following he started with eighteen other 
Elders on a mission to the Hawaiian Islands, traveling the southern route by team to 
California, and in due time reaching his destination. He readily acquired a knowledge 
of the native tongue, and labored successfully on the Islands of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, 
Lanai, Oahu and Kanai. During his absence from home his eldest child, a daughter, was 
born, June 11, 1854; consequently she was nearly three-and-a-half years old before her 
father had the privilege of seeing her. She was named for him, Henrietta, and is now 
Mrs. Oliver Ostler. 

Some months after his return from his mission, and upon the approach of Johnston's 
army, Mr. Richards moved south to Provo, where his family remained until the fugitive 
people generally returned to their homes. He had not arrived from the Islands in time 
to take part in the military operations in and around Echo Canyon, but he afterwards 
became quite prominently connected with the "Nauvoo Legion,'' as the Utah militia was 
then styled. On August 21, 1865, he was commissioned by Acting-Governor Amos Reed 
quartermaster and commissary of the Second Brigade, First Division, and on July 13, 
1866, was commissioned by Governor Charles Durkee first aid-de-camp on the staff of the 
commander of that brigade, with the rank of colonel of infantry; having previously held 
the rank of lieutenant colonel. 

He also arose ecclesiastically. On the llth of September, 1869, he was made one of 
the Presidents of the Eighth Quorum of Seventy, which position he held until May 9, 
1873, when he was ordained a High Priest and set apart as an alternate High Councilor 
of the Salt Lake Stake of Zion. This ordination was under the hands of President 
Joseph F. Smith and the Stake Presidency. On September 8, 1890, he was enrolled as a 
regular member of the High Council, which position he still holds. 

At the semi-annual conference of the Church in October, 1876, he was called to take 
a second mission to the Sandwich Islands, and on the 27th of the ensuing December left 
his home to fulfill the duty assigned him. At San Francisco he took passage on the 
steamship "City of New York 1 ' and arrived at Honolulu January 12, 1877. Again he 
labored on all the principal islands, and met with many old friends and acquaintances 
whom he had known nearly a quarter of a century before. He also had several inter- 

15 



218 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

views with the king concerning the unjust treatment of Mormon Elders in that land by 
some of the officials of the government. His Majesty, without reserve, expressed his 
desire that the Elders should enjoy all the rights and privileges enjoyed by ministers of 
other denominations. Elder Richards presented the Queen, Kapiolani, with a hand- 
somely bound volume of the Book of Mormon, published in her own language. He also 
traveled a short time with Her Majesty on the island of Hawaii, partaking of her hospi- 
tality, and assisting her on different occasions in organizing her "Hoola Hooulu Lahui," 
an organization similar to the Relief Society of the Latter-day Saints. 

While staying a short time at Laie, on Oahu, the native assessor and collector of 
the district assessed a personal tax against Elder Richards, as he had usually done 
against other Mormon missionaries, notwithstanding a law exempting Christian ministers 
of all denominations regularly engaged in their vocation. He refused to pay the tax 
(five dollars) on these grounds, and was arrested and arraigned before the native judge, 
who decided that he would have to pay it, as he did not consider him a Christian minister. 
An appeal was taken and the case heard by Judge McCully, of the supreme court of the 
kingdom, the attorney- general of the crown prosecuting. The decision of the lowe.r 
court was reversed, and the case decided in favor of Elder Richards, thereby placing him 
and his brethren on an equal footing before the law with ministers of other denomina- 
tions. He also had several interviews with his Excellency, J. Mott Smith, minister of 
the interior, and was successful in allaying much prejudice in relation to the marriage 
question. He procured a license to solemnize marriages throughout the kingdom, which 
privilege had not been granted to the Mormon Elders for many years, and the withholding 
of which had worked great inconvenience and hardship; on several occasions, when 
members of the Church had applied to ministers of other denominations to unite them in 
marriage, they had refused to do so unless they would renounce their religion. This mis- 
sion was of about two-and-a-half years duration, and when he returned to Utah Elder 
Richards brought four natives of the Islands with him. 

In the Sunday School cause he was for many years a diligent and devoted worker 
connected with it almost from the time that Sabbath Schools were first organized at Salt 
Lake City. In the Fourteenth Ward, where he then resided, he filled successively the 
positions of teacher, secretary, assistant superintendent and finally superintendent of the 
Sunday School; holding the last-named position for nearly eight years from June, 1881. 
During much of this period he served as a trustee of the school district, first elected July 
10, 1882, re-elected in July, 1885, and serving in all six years. 

Mr. Richards is naturally inclined to mercantile pursuits, and while at home, during 
a period of thirty-five years, has been actively engaged in that direction. He was for 
many years a leading salesman of Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution, and for 
some time at the head of the wholesale dry goods department. He has held similar posi- 
tions of trust and responsibility in other leading houses of Salt Lake City. He is a re- 
fined and courteous gentleman, genial in manner and disposition and readily makes 
friends and retains them. In April, 1898, he was appointed oil and food inspector and 
assistant sanitary inspector of Salt Lake City, and held that office for a number of years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Richards are the parents of eight children, named as follows: Henrietta, 
Mary Ann, Joseph Henry, Minerva, William Phinehas, Nelson Alonzo, Henry Willard 
and Emma Wealthy. Of these, Joseph, Nelson, Henry and Emma are dead. Henrietta, 
as stated, is now Mrs. Oliver Ostler; Mary Ann is Mrs. Alonzo Young; and Minerva, 
Mrs. Richard W. Young. For some years Colonel Richards has resided on Second Street, 
in the Eighteenth Ward, where he built a new home after selling to advantage his prop- 
erty in the Fourteenth Ward. 



DANIEL HENRIE. 

ANIEL HENRIE was a member of the Mormon Battalion, and is a veteran of three 
Indian wars. He was born in Miami Township, Hamilton county, Ohio, 
November 15, 1825. His parents were William and Myra Mayall Henrie. The 
Henries were from Virginia, and were reputedly of Revolutionary stock. His 
father's family, having become Latter-day Saints, moved to Nauvoo in 1842. There they 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 219 

secured eighty acres of land, and had settled down to make a comfortable living when 
came the exodus of 1846. 

At Council Bluffs, in July of that year, Daniel Henrie, then in his twenty-first 
year, enlisted in the Mormon Battalion, and was one of those who performed the un- 
paralleled infantry march so highly eulogized by their commander, Colonel Cooke, of 
the United States regular army. He, it seems, was not the only officer who appreciated the 
achievements of the Battalion. Says Henrie: ''General Kearney told us that Napoleon 
Bonaparte crossed the Alps, but that we had done more, for we had crossed a continent." 
He remained in California until July 16, 1849 the anniversary of his enlistment three 
years before and then started for Utah in a company led by Captain Thomas Rhoades. 

Here he decided to enter the state of wedlock, and on the 29th of October, the same 
year, he married Amanda Braby. The young couple took up their residence at Bountiful, 
but soon after their marriage started for Manti, Sanpete county, on a visit to Mrs. 
Henrie's parents, who had settled in that part the year previous. They were detained a 
week at Provo by the Indian troubles then prevailing there, and during the rest of the 
journey southward encountered severe snowstorms, which greatly impeded travel and 
barely permitted them to reach their destination by means of snowshoes and hand-sleds 
utilized for the purpose. The snow was from two-and-a-half to fifteen feet deep, the 
latter in the banks and drifts. That winter the people of Manti lost about half their cattle, 
some of them, every hoof, on account of the deep snows and terrible storms. In April Mr. 
Henrie returned to his home in Davis county, his progress northward through melting snows 
and rivers of mud being quite as toilsome as his journey south had been. Soon after- 
wards he returned to Manti, where he and his family have ever since resided. 

During the Sanpete Indian wars he did yeoman service, fighting back the hostile 
redskins and building forts as a protection against their ravages. He moved four times 
in Manti and helped to build as many forts. He was captain of Company "A," Second 
Infantry, Nauvoo Legion. For thirty-five years he was senior president of the 48th quorum 
of Seventies, and held the office of a Seventy some years prior to his presiding appoint- 
ment, but at the present time he is one of the presidency of the High Priests' quorum of 
Sanpete stake. He is the father of eighteen children, most of whom, including eight 
sons, are living. 



MEN OF AFFAIRS. 



LORENZO SNOW. 

/^ORENZO SNOW, the fifth President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 

1 Saints, and one of the greatest financiers that Mormonism has produced, was a 
native of the State of Ohio, born at Mantua, Portage county, April 3, 1814, His 
father, Oliver Snow, was from Massachusetts, and his mother, Rosetta L. Pettibone 
Snow, from Connecticut. Lorenzo was their eldest son. He was reared with the rest 
of his father s family upon a farm, and from childhood exhibited energy and decision of 
character. While yet a boy, his sire being much away on public business, he was frequently 
left in charge of affairs, and became accustomed to responsibilities, which he discharged 
with scrupulous punctuality. Fond of books, he was ever a student, whether at home or 
abroad. Springing from a Puritanic and patriotic ancestry, he inherited reverence for 
the Supreme Being and love of liberty and country as a birthright. His earliest ambition 
was to be a soldier, not because he loved strife, but was charmed with the romance and 
chivalry of a military career. He held a commission from the Governor of Ohio, first 
as an ensign and afterwards as a lieutenant in the State militia. 

Religiously trained by pious Baptist parents, up to the age of twenty-two he professed 
no particular faith. Upon attaining his majority, desirous of a classic education, he 
entered Oberlin College, at that time exclusively a Presbyterian institution, to which he was 
admitted as a special favor through the influence of an intimate friend connected 
therewith. He remained impervious to the teachings of orthodox Christianity, but in. 
June, 1836, having visited Kirtland, the headquarters of the Latter-day Saints, to see 
his sister Eliza, a recent convert to Mormonism, and complete his classical course in the 
Hebrew school founded by the Prophet Joseph Smith, he was himself converted to the 
faith. Baptism was administered to him by John F. Boynton, one of the Twelve 
Apostles. 

As an Elder of the Church Lorenzo Snow, early in 1837, preached among his 
relatives and friends in Ohio. In the spring of 1838 he moved with his parents, who had 
also become Latter-day Saints, to Missouri, whither the Mormon people were then 
migrating. He was on a mission to Kentucky when they were driven into Illinois, and 
it was at their new city, Nauvoo, in Hancock county, that he rejoined them about the 
first of May, 1840. The same month he started upon his first mission to Europe. 

While in England he became successively President of the London Conference and 
one of the presidency of the European Mission, the latter by appointment of Parley P. 
Pratt, who was just retiring from the presidency. In the former capacity it fell to his 
lot to present to her Majesty, Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort two handsomely 
bound copies of the Book of Mormon, specially prepared for that purpose under the 
direction of President Brigham Young prior to his return to America in 1841. The 
presentation was made through the politeness of Sir Henry Wheatley. At the head of 
a large company of emigrating Saints Elder Snow arrived itt Nauvoo in April, 1843. 

Soon after his return he was taught by the Prophet, who had married his sister, 
Eliza R. Snow, as a plural wife, the principle of celestial marriage. In obedience to 
this principle, Lorenzo wedded two wives simultaneously, Mary Adaline Goddard and 
Charlotte Squires, and while still at Nanvoo added two others to his household Sarah Ann 
Priehard and Harriet Amelia Squires. There he taught school, was a captain in the Legion, 
and one of an expedition appointed to explore California and Oregon, withaview to finding 
a home for the Saints, beyond the Rocky mountains. This expedition never left Nauvoo, 
being detained by the troubles preceding the Prophet's martyrdom. In the Presidential 
campaign of 1844 he electioneered in Ohio for the Prophet, who was a candiate for the 
nation's chief magistracy. 

In the exodus of 1846 he was captain of ten wagons, and in the general emigration 
of 1848 captain of a hundred in the great company led by President Brigham Young 
from the Missouri river to Salt Lake valley. His fifth wife, Eleanor Houtz, was married 
to him by President Young the day they left the Elk Horn. Three children were born to 



224 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

him, and one of them died, during the exodus. In their mountain home the Snow family 
passed through the usual pioneer experiences, living in log huts, subsisting on roots, 
and rawhides, mingled with short rations of flour, in the early days of privation and 
poverty. 

Lorenzo Snow was called to the Apostleship, February 12, 1849. Hs was ordained 
under the hands of the First Presidency Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and Willard 
Richards assisted by Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor, two of the quorum of the Twelve. 
At the same time Charles C. Rich, Erastus Snow and Franklin D. Richards were made 
Apostles. In October of the same year he was appointed to establish a mission in Italy 
and adjacent countries, aud thus was one of the first missionaries sent out from the 
Rocky mountains. Traversing again the Indian-infested plains, he made his way to Liver- 
pool, and thence to his continental destination. 

On the 25th of November, 1850, Apostle Snow, with three other Elders Joseph 
Toronto, T. B. H. Stenhouse and Jabez Woodard organized the Italian Mission on the 
summit of a snow-crowned peak overlooking the valley of Piedmont. His first converts 
were among the Waldenses. From there the work spread to Switzerland and other 
parts. He caused the Book of Mormon and several pamphlets he had written to be 
translated and published in Italian, and wrote home a series of letters descriptive of Italy 
and the Italian Mission. Having established Mormonism in the land of the Caesars and 
the land of William Tell, he turned his attention to the East, sending Elders to Calcutta 
and Bombay, and making arrangements for a missionary to labor on the island of Malta. 
He then started for India, but was detained at Malta by an accident to his ship, and 
being under instructions from Utah to return in time to take part in the ceremony of 
laying the corner stones of the Salt Lake Temple, was compelled to forego his design 
of visiting the far East and returning home over the waters of the Pacific. By way of 
Gibraltar, Portsmouth, London, Liverpool, New York and St. Louis, he reached Salt 
Lake City in July, 1852. 

His next achievement was the founding of Brigham City, on the site of which a small 
settlement had been formed, but was greatly in need of reinforcement, and of govern- 
ment by a master spirit, such as now came to it in the person of this zealous and ener- 
getic Apostle. Taking with him a company of fifty families, he settled there in the fall 
of 1853. He was the first president of Box Elder stake, an office held by him until 
August, 1877, when he was honorably released and his eldest son, Oliver Goddard Snow, 
chosen in his stead. When the county was organized he represented it in the Legislature, 
to which he had been first elected in 1852, while yet a resident of Salt Lake City. The 
northern district represented by him comprised the counties of Box Elder and Weber. 
For thirty years he was continuously a member of the Legislature, and during about twelve 
years presided over the Council branch of the Assembly. 

Apostle Snow was within three days of his fiftieth anniversary when he met with an 
almost fatal accident. He was drowned in the Pacific Ocean, at the island of Maui, one 
of the Hawaiian group, March 31, 1864. The mishap occurred as follows: In company 
with Apostle Ezra T. Benson, Elders Joseph F. Smith, William W. Cluff and Alma L. 
Smith, he was sent to the Islands to set in order the affairs of the Hawaiian Mission, 
which had become sadly demoralized through the nefarious operations of an apostate 
named Walter M. Gibson. This man, an American Elder, had gone to the Islands 
and imposed himself upon the unsuspecting native Saints (left without guidance from 
Utah since the Echo Canyon war period) as a spiritual and temporal ruler, to whom they 
must pay abject homage. He had organized the Church according to his own schemes 
for personal aggrandisement, had ordained Apostles, High Priests and Elders, charging 
them heavy fees for their ordinations, and with the means thus obtained had purchased 
one half the island of Lanai, where he had gathered the Saints into a sort of theocratic 
kingdom, of which he was the ruling power, falsely claiming to be authorized by and 
yet superior to President Brigham Young. It was to correct this condition of affairs 
(reported by certain native Elders in a letter to the general authorities) that Apostle 
Snow and his brethren went forth. Leaving Utah by stage about March 1st, and sailing 
from San Francisco, they arrived at Honolulu about the 27th of that month. Sailing 
thence two days later, their bark, the schooner "Nettie Merrill," came to anchor on the 
morning of the 31st about a mile from the mouth of the little harbor of Lahaina. The 
sea was rather rough, especially at the mouth of the harbor a narrow passage between 
coral reefs and in attempting to land, the ship's small boat, containing Messrs. Snow, 
Benson, Cluff, Alma L. Smith, the captain and several native passengers and sailors, 
was capsized into the foaming surf. Apostle Snow and the captain were drowned, but 
were taken from the waves, and after protracted and persistent labor resuscitated. A 



HISTORY OF UTAH. 225 

peculiar and ingenious process was employed in the Apostle's restoration. Rolled upon 
a barrel until all the water he had swallowed was ejected, he showed no signs of life, 
until those in attendance upon him, his fellow missionaries, had placed their mouths to his 
and inflated his lungs, inhaling and exhaling in imitation of natural respiration. (See 
biography of William Wallace Cluff ) . By this means he was gradually brought back to 
consciousness. He and his brethren successfully accomplished their mission. They cut 
Gibson off the Church, after vainly endeavoring to win him to repentance, and regulated 
the affairs of the mission so seriously disturbed by him. Leaving Elder Joseph F. Smith 
to preside in that land, with Elders William W. Cluff and Alma L. Smith as his assis- 
tants, the two Apostles returned to Utah. 

Soon after his return Lorenzo Snow entered upon his great work of organizing 
the Brigham City Mercantile and Manufacturing Association, otherwise known as the 
United Order of Brigham City. It began with a small mercantile business, in which 
were four stockholders, including himself, with a capital of about three thousand dollars, 
upon which dividends were paid in merchandise, amounting usually to about twenty- 
five per cent per annum. As the enterprise prospered, they continued receiving capital 
stock and adding new names as stockholders, until they had a surplus capital and 
had succeeded in uniting the interests of the people and securing their patronage. Then 
followed the establishment of home industries, a score or more of which sprang into 
existence, each paying dividends in the articles produced. Hundreds of people were 
furnished with employment, new, substantial and commodious buildings were erected 
for the various departments, and everything was moving prosperously with the great and 
growing concern, when a series of disasters fire, vexatious law suits, illegal and oppres- 
sive taxation, etc. put a stop to the progress of the Order and in the end worked its 
downfall. How the scrip of the association, with that of Z. C. M. I., was heavily 
taxed by the U. S. Revenue Collector, Colonel 0. J. Hollister whose action was after- 
wards reversed by the Supreme Court of the nation has been told in another place. 
The success of the magnificent enterprise during the twenty years of its existence, will 
ever stand as a monument to the practical genius, industrial thrift and business sagacity 
of its founder. It is not too much to say that the fictitious achievements of M. Madeleine, 
Mayor of M. Sur M , as portrayed by Victor Hugo in "Les Miserables" found a 
historical parallel in the actual achievements of President Lorenzo Snow, head of the 
United Order of Brigham City. 

In October, 1872, he started upon a special mission to Palestine, accompanying President 
George A. Smith and party, for the purpose of dedicating that land for the return of the 
Jews. The party included President Snow's sister, Eliza R. Snow Smith, and other 
prominent citizens of Salt Lake City. They passed through Great Britain to the 
continent, called upon M. Thiers, president of the French Republic, and then proceeded 
on to Egypt and the Orient. Having accomplished their mission, they returned by way 
of Constantinople, Athens and Vienna to England, and thence home. The correspond- 
ence of these tourists, much of which was furnished by the Apostle Lorenzo, is a classic 
contribution to Mormon literature. While at the Vienna World's Fair, early in 1873, he 
received word of his appointment as assistant counselor to President Brigham Young. 
He was busy during the next decade with the multifarious home duties devolving 
upon him. 

The seventieth anniversary of the Apostle's birth, April 3, 1884, was made 
memorable by a grand family reunion at Brighan City. The members of the Snow 
family present, including wives, children, grandchildren and married connections, 
numbered about one hundred and twenty-five. In addition to his wives who have been 
named he had married since coming to Utah four others, namely, Caroline Horton, Mary 
Elizabeth Houtz, Phebe Amelia Woodruff and Minnie Jensen. His wives Charlotte and 
Caroline were dead, and most of the others, like himself, were now far advanced in years. 
He acknowledged and supported them all, but was living with only one wife out of 
deference to the requirements of the Edmunds law when the anti-polygamy crusade 
under that statute began. He had been laboring as a missionary among the Indians of 
Idaho, Wyoming and other parts, and had recently returned from one of these trips and 
was resting quietly at his home in Brigham City, when suddenly he was pounced upon 
by seven deputy marshals and made a prisoner. The deputies, who had driven from 
Ogden during the night, surrounded the Apostle's home just before day-break, No- 
vember 20, 1885. Ransacking the house from cellar to garret, they finally discovered 
the object of their quest in an ingeniously planned retreat, and took him into custody. 
The details of his arrest, his subsequent trials and convictions three times for one 
alleged offense his eleven months imprisonment, his refusal of Governor West's offer 



226 HISTORY OF UTAH. 

of amnesty, made on condition that he would obey a law aimed at a principle of his re- 
ligion, and his eventual release from the penitentiary by a decision of the court of last 
resort, shattering the illegal doctrine of "segregation," under which his triple sentence 
had been imposed, are all familiar facts of history and are related elsewhere. The date 
of his sentence by Judge Powers in the First District Court at Ogden was January 16, 
1886; the date of his deliverance from prison, February 8, 1887. 

The accession of Wilford Woodruff to the Presidency of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, April 6, 1889, made Lorenzo Snow the senior in the council 
of the Twelve Apostles, and on the same day he was sustained as president of that 
body. This position he held until September 13, 1898, eleven days after the death of 
President Woodruff, when he succeeded him at the head of the Church. He chose as 
his counselors George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith, who had been the counselors 
of his two predecessors. Since the dedication of the Salt Lake Temple, in April, 1893, 
in which he took an active and prominent part, he had been its president, and had 
previously served as one of the Logan Temple committee, until the completion of that 
edifice in May, 1884. 

President Snow's first moves were largely of a financial character, designed to 
relieve the Church of the heavy burden of debt that had rested upon it since the con- 
fiscation of its property under the Edmunds-Tucker act, in the latter part of the 
"eighties." As Trustee-in-Trust he authorized two bond issues, aggregating a million 
dollars, and with the means thus obtained almost entirely from home capitalists 
paid tlie Church's most pressing obligations and materially reduced the rate of interest 
it was paying upon borrowed money. 

This done, he threw his soul into a movement, one of the most notable in the 
history of the Church, and which may be designated as a revival and reform in the 
observance of the law of tithing by its members. It began in May, 1899. Proceed- 
ing with a large party to St. George, at the extreme southern end of the State, he there 
proclaimed as the word of the Lord to the Latter-day Saints that if they would continue 
to reap the fruition of His promises of peace and prosperity, they must obey the divine 
law in relation to tithes and offerings. Past remissness would be forgiven, if the future 
witnessed a faithful observance of the statute, and heaven would shower its blessings 
more abundantly than ever upon them; out if the law were not honored, calamities would 
come and the people would be scourged for their disobedience. He gave them to under- 
stand that they were to pay their tithing, not because it would get the Church out of 
debt which was merely an incident but because it was the law of the Lord and must be 
obeyed. Other speakers took up the theme, and it was echoed and re-echoed throughout 
the region. From St. George the great reformatory wave rolled northward, thronged 
meetings, characterized by great enthusiasm, being held at all principal points south and 
north of Salt Lake City, and subsequently wherever the Saints had settlements. One of 
the gatherings was a great fast-meeting of the Priesthood, held in the Salt Lake Temple 
in the summer of that year. The effect of the movement was instantaneous. Tithes and 
offerings came pouring in with a promptness and plenitude unknown for years, and in 
many ways the Church's condition improved and its prospects brightened. President 
Snow had previously possessed the love and confidence of his people, and now these good 
feelings were increased and intensified. 

A pleasant little episode, preceding this reform movement, was the visit of President 
Snow and his counselors to the Trans- Mississippi Exposition at Omaha, where they were 
received with kindest courtesy by the officials in charge, and on the 20th of October 
"Utah day'' were invited to address the multitude assembled upon the Fair grounds. 
Among other courtesies of which President Snow was subsequently the recipient was an 
invitation to contribute an article on the past, present and future of Mormonism to the 
'Land of Sunshine," a California magazine of merit and influence, since published under 
its new name of "Out West.'' The article, entitled "Mormonism What it has done 
What it is doing What it aims to do," was duly furnished and published, and was copied 
by many other periodicals throughout the United States. Just before the article ap- 
peared in print, the venerable leader was stricken with his fatal illness. 

At the opening of the year 1899 President Snow put his name as Trustee-in-Trust at 
the head of the Deseret